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VOLUME 68

NUMBER 11

NOVEMBER 2009

CONTENTS

Review

915

Analysis of discrete wavelet based image compression technique: A review


N B Chopade1* & A A Ghatol2


1
Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, SSGM College of Engineering, Shegaon 444 203, India

In this paper, wavelet based coding algorithm, Set Partitioning in Hierarchical Trees (SPIHT), is considered for encoding and decoding image data. SPIHT uses recursive set partitioning procedure to sort subsets of wavelet coefficient by maximum magnitude with respect to threshold. SPIHT is simple, less complex and has very fast encoding and decoding, making it very efficient in multimedia communication. Numerical results obtained using MATLAB shows that output image has high value of peak signal to noise ratio with good compression ratio for low bit rate.

Management & Information Technology

920

Prediction of etching rate of alumino-silicate glass by RSM and ANN



H T Ting1*, K A Abou-El-Hossein2 &
H B Chua1

1
Mechanical Engineering Deparment, Curtin University of Technology (Sarawak Campus), 68006 Miri, Sarawak

2Department of Mechatronics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031, South Africa

In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) were applied to predict material removal rate in chemical etching process of alumino-silicate glass (SiO2 57/Al2O3 36/CaO/MgO/BaO). New models were able to predict etching rate of alumino-silicate glass, with a great confidence. Input parameters analyzed were temperature, etching period and type of setup with and without condensation.

925

Error modeling and analysis of light ray path for optical element with hyperbolic boundary surface




Te-Tan Liao* & Kuo-Hwa Tseng



Department of Mechanical Engineering, Far East University, No. 49, Chung Hua Road, Hsin-Shih Tainan 744, Taiwan

Present paper proposed error analysis methodology to quantify deviations of incident light position and errors of hyperbolic boundary surface frame. Skew ray tracing using Snell’s law and homogeneous coordinate transformation matrix determines direction of a reflected or refracted ray. Variation of refractive light tends to zero when light source approaches optical axis. Results confirmed importance of performing proposed error analysis before applying calibration effect while designing optical systems having hyperbolic boundary surfaces.

934

Centralized monitoring and control of air conditioning units


Nirmala Sanikommu* & A S Joshi


International Advanced Research Center for Powder Metallurgy & New Materials, ARCI, PO Balapur, Hyderabad 500 005, India

A virtual instrument has been developed using LabVIEW graphical programming language to monitor current drawn by air conditioning units (ACUs) at a central location. Minimal hardware changes are required for implementation of new design system in existing ACU installations. Substantial reduction in cabling cost is achieved by designing additional hardware to reduce number of cables, connecting data acquisition card to AC systems.

S & T and Industrial Research

940

Facile spectrophotometric determination of cerium using malachite green –iodide system in geological and environmental samples



Etesh K Janghel1* & Y Pervez2


1Department of Applied Chemistry, Ashoka Institute of Technology & Management, Rajnandgaon 499 441, India



2Department of Applied Chemistry, Chhatrapati Shivaji Institute of Technology, Durg 491 001, India

A simple and highly sensitive method is proposed for determination of trace amount of cerium. New method involves bleaching of greenish colour dye-malachite green, by the action of iodine, which is released by reaction between potassium iodide and cerium (IV) in acidic medium. Beer’s law is obeyed over concentration range of 0.6 to 4.6 µg cerium (IV) in final volume of 25 ml (0.024-0.184 ppm). Molar absorptivity and Sandell’s sensitivity were found to be 1.36 x 105 l mol-1 cm-1 and 0.002 µg cm-2, respectively. New method has been successf ully applied for determination of cerium in silicate rocks, high purity rare earth oxides, soil, plant tissue and natural water samples.

945

Voltammetric behaviour of an antibiotic drug and its enhancement determination in presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide




Rajeev Jain*, Ritesh Mishra & Ashish Dwivedi



School of Studies in Chemistry, Jiwaji University, Gwalior 474 011, India

Electrochemical behaviour of cefpodoxime proxetil (CP) at a dropping mercury electrode (DME) in presence of surfactants [cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), sodium lauryl sulphate (SDS), Tween-20, Triton X-100] was studied by using different voltammetric techniques. Compared with DME without CTAB, reduction peak potential of CP shifts negatively and peak current is increased significantly, due to enhanced accumulation of CP with CTAB at hydrophobic electrode surface. In electrochemical determination of CP using differential pulse polarography, presence of CTAB in absence of surfactant enhanced detection limit from 0.71 x 10-5 mol l-1 to 1.6 x 10-7 mol l-1. Analysis of CP in pharmaceutical formulations exhibited mean recoveries of 99% and 98% for both reduction peaks.

951

Hydrodynamic studies of gas-solid fluidization in hexagonal bed for non-spherical particles


Saroj K Padhi* & R K Singh


Chemical Engineering Department, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769 008, India

This paper presents hydrodynamic properties (minimum fluidization velocity, pressure drop at minimum fluidization, minimum bubbling velocity, minimum slugging velocity, particulate fluidization, bubbling fluidization, expansion ratio, fluctuation ratio etc.) of gas solid fluidization in hexagonal bed. Experimental values of these properties in hexagonal bed have been compared with corresponding values in cylindrical bed.

955

Optimization of growth parameters of phytase producing fungus using RSM



Sonia Dahiya, Namita Singh* & J S Rana


*Department of Bio & Nano Technology, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar 125 001, India

This study presents optimum parameters for phytase enzyme secretion by fungus (NSF-7 & NSF-9) using RSM based on Box-Behnken model. Fisher’s statistical testing was performed for analysis of variance (ANOVA) for quadratic regression equations of both fungus. Optimum conditions for phytase secretion by NSF-7 and NSF-9, respectively, were: pH, 4.4-4.7, 4.0-4.5; temperature, 28-32°, 32-35°C; and substrate concentration, 0.29-0.32, 0.27-0.30 g/100 ml.

Energy and Environment

960

Performance of single cylinder diesel engine with karabi seed biodiesel



Dilip Kumar Bora*


Mechanical Engineering Department, Jorhat Engineering College, Jorhat 785 007, India

This paper presents performance of single cylinder diesel engine using blends of karabi seed biodiesel. Potassium hydroxide was used as catalyst to facilitate estarification process. It has been observed that karabi seed biodiesel can effectively be used as diesel fuel substitute in existing diesel engine without any engine modification.

964

Assessment of ground water quality of Bhavnagar region (Gujarat)


Deepti Mishra1*, Manish Mudgal1,
Mohd Akram Khan1, Prabha Padmakaran1 & B Chakradhar2



1
Advanced Materials and Processes Research Institute (CSIR), Hoshangabad Road, Bhopal 462 026, India



2Ramky Enviro Engineers Ltd, Ramky House, Gulmohar Avenue, Rahbhavan Road, Somajiguda, Hyderabad 500 082, India

This paper assessed ground water quality of Bhavnagar region for determining its suitability for drinking purposes. Ground water samples, collected from 12 different locations of Bhavnagar region for winter, summer and post monsoon seasons, revealed that pH of all samples was neutral to slight alkaline. Turbidity of all samples was within permissible limit. Total dissolved solids, total hardness, fluoride, chloride and chromium were beyond permissible limit in some samples. In most samples, iron was beyond permissible limit. Zinc, copper and manganese were within permissible limit.

Waste Treatment and Utilization

967

Optimization of acid hydrolysis conditions of delimed tannery fleshings by response surface method



Amit Kumar Rai, C Nived, P Z Sakhare,
P V Suresh, N Bhaskar* and N S Mahendrakar


Department of Meat, Fish and Poultry Technology, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore 570 020, India

An ecofriendly method, involving mild organic acids to hydrolyse delimed tannery fleshings (TF), has been developed. Combination of formic acid and propionic acid (1:1) was employed to obtain hydrolysates with higher degree of hydrolysis (DH). Better antioxidant properties were obtained by response surface method (RSM) using a factorial design. Effect of pretreatment involving steam cooking (80°C for 15 min) indicated that cooked delimed TF on acid treatment had significantly (P<0.5) higher protein extractability than uncooked delimed TF. Optimized levels of factors for obtaining highest DH (>51%) at room temperature for cooked delimed TF were acid mixture (20%) and incubation time (9 days). Liquid hydrolysate from TFs exhibited antioxidant activity (125.56 mg ascorbic acid equivalents /ml extract) and diphenyl picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavanging activity (46.42%). Chemical score of hydrolysate revealed an excess amount of essential amino acids (arginine, leucine and lysine) as compared to reference protein. This indicates its potential for use in livestock/aquaculture feeds.

975

Performance evaluation of waste plastic/polymer modified bituminous concrete mixes



Sabina1, Tabrez A Khan1*, Sangita2,
D K Sharma3 &  B M Sharma2



1Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110 025, India



2Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi 110 020, India



3Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, New Delhi 110 016, India

This paper describes comparative performance of properties of bituminous concrete mixes containing plastic/polymer (PP) (8% and 15% by wt of bitumen) with conventional bituminous concrete mix (prepared with 60/70 penetration grade bitumen). Significant improvement in properties like marshall stability, retained stability, indirect tensile strength and rutting was observed in PP modified bituminous concrete mixes.

Research Report

980

Mystery of Bermuda Triangle: R P Sharma

Author-Reader Platform

982

Instructions to contributors

 

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