Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research

VOLUME 61

NUMBER 1

JANUARY 2002

        CONTENTS

Editorial

7

Plant oils—Fuel of the future

Biodiesel is an efficient, clean, 100 per cent natural energy alternative to petroleum fuels. Among the many advantages of biodiesel fuel include the following: safe for use in all conventional diesel engines, offers the same performance and engine durability as petroleum diesel fuel, non-inflammable and non-toxic, reduces tailpipe emissions, visible smoke and noxious fumes and odors, produced in Hawaii from 100 per cent recycled vegetable oils. Pacific Biodiesel, Inc. is a pioneer in the successful commercial production of biodiesel. With numerous benefits to the environment, the community and the private consumer, biodiesel as an alternative to petroleum diesel is gaining momentum in the United States and throughout the world. The fuel, made on Maui from 100 per cent-recycled vegetable oil, meets both the US and German specifications for quality biodiesel.

         Review Paper

17

Non-conventional phenolic resins—An overview on recent advances


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


C P Reghunadhan Nair

This paper consolidates the very recent developments in the field of non-conventional phenlolic resins. Innovative research for overcoming the inherent shortcoming of phenolic systems concerning processability, brittleness, oxidative resistance, etc. has gained momentum. The concept of addition-cure phenolics addresses partly to these problems. The strategies adopted for structural modifications through introduction of thermally stable, addition curable groups such as, phenyl maleimide, phenyl meleimide-allyphenol, propargyl ether, acetylene and phenyl ethynyl are described. The strategy of reactive and non-reactive blending and control of the cure and morphology of the network is also briefed. Adhesive evaluation of selected modified phenolic resins and their blends are described.

Papers

34

Some studies on modelling and
designing intelligent sensory devices for industrial applications


N P Mahalik & S K Lee

The paper presents work on modelling and designing intelligent devices such as sensors, used in industrial automation and control applications. Model-based spectrum analysis schemes are used for diagnosis of sensor anomalies. IBM compatible PC, LON-based fieldbus system, Matlab and Visual Basic tools are used as the realizing platform for evaluation.

Papers

48

Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry analysis of elements in tobacco cigarette and ashed-tobacco samples

A O Oyewale, I I Funtua &
P Ekwumemgbo

EDXRF spectroscopy, using a 109Cd excitation source is used for the multi-element analysis of two tobacco leaves and ten brands of cigarettes widely consumed in Nigeria. The dried tobacco leaves, cigarettes and ashes of the samples are analysed for 14 elements (K, Ca, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Ti, Zr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se and Pb). Statistical correlations is found to exist between As and Pb (+0.99), Zr and Br (-0.94), Rb and Br (-0.92), and K and Br (-0.96).

53

Chemical industry wastewater treatment using adsorption



 

 

 

 

 

 

 


A K A Rathi & S A Puranik

The study aims at demonstrating that adsorption as the first stage of treatment increases efficiency of the subsequent biological treatment. Experiments are carried out on different wastewater samples from chemical plants on adsorbents viz. activated carbon, bentonite, and lignite. The effectiveness of adsorbents in the removal of refractory organics by way of reducing chemical oxygen demand and colour is evaluated. The results of COD reduction are fitted into different models available in literature including the new model Rathi Puranik equation, which requires least experimentation for predicting COD values.

61

Studies on zirconium (IV)
selenomolybdate gel based Mg (II) selecltive heterogeneous membrane sensor—Determination of water hardness

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



A P Gupta, Saiqa Ikram &
Himanshu Agarwal

A Mg(II) ion sensor selective araldite zirconium(IV) selenomolybdate membrane sensor is prepared. It exhibits slope 23 mV/decade, which is a sub-Nernstain slope. The sensor shows working concentration range as 1.0 ´ 10-5 M to 1.0 ´ 10-1 M and working pH range as 2.5 to 6.0. The selectivity coefficients for 17 metal ions are studied. It can be used in the presence of some solvents up to 10 per cent v/v concentration as well as in the presence of 10-4 to 10-6 M Na-lauryl suphate surfactant. The membrane electrode is put in the determination of Mg(II) ion content in synthetic samples as well as in hard water samples. The error is found to be 2 to 6 per cent.

67

Effect of exposure to acid vapours on the dielectric behaviour of hot pressed aluminium nitride ceramic with and without oxide additives


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



Arti Khanna, A Kumar &
K K Srivastava

Dielectric behaviour of hot pressed aluminium nitride (AIN) ceramic with and without additives is studied before and after exposing the samples to some inorganic and organic acid vapours. It is observed that the dielectric dispersion increases after exposing the samples to acid vapours over and above the atmospheric humidity. In all the cases the presence of oxide additives (BeO, MgO, and Y2O3) is found to increase the exposure effects.

70

Biodegradation of catechol by
fluorescent Pseudomonas for
sustainable environment


 




Lakshmi Tewari & Piyush Malviya

A bioremedial study is undertaken to elucidate the role of a soil bacterial isolate fluorescent Pseudomonas sp. in biodegradation and removal of organic pollutant, catechol, from the environment. Free and immobilized cells of fluorescent Pseudomonas, a plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, isolated from wheat rhizosphere and entrapped in  calcium alginate beads are screened for their in vitro catechol (1,2 dihydroxy benzene) degrading efficiency. The bacterium degrades catechol under all the four physiological states tested. Agitation enhanced its rapid degradation. Shake cultures of both immobilized and free cells degrade 83.2 per cent and 82.2 per cent, respectively in 72 h indicating high efficiency of immobilized and free cells degrade 83.2 per cent and 82.2 per cent catechol, respectively in 72 h indicating high efficiency of immobilized and free cells  for bioremedial purposes. Thus, versatility of fluorescent Pseudomonas to degrade phenolic pollutants as well as to enhance plant growth can be exploited for biotechnological applications.

Book Reviews

75

·          Global E-commerce strategies for small businesses
               Reviewer: Chandra Prakash Gupta

 

·          Entrepreneurial competiton and industrial location—Investigating the structural patterns and intangible sources of competitive performance
               Reviewer: P Banerjee

Sci-Tech Update

79

·          Beowulf class supercomputers

 

·          Niger-year of new information and communication technologies designed

 

·          Advanced biotechnology: view of agricultural scientist

 

·          Biological treatment of pollutants

 

·          Ripped genes

 

·          Monolayer photoreactivity—a new study

 

·          Hydrogen fuel cell electrolyte

 

·          Vaccine for livestock gas emissions developed

 

·          Synthetic gene-delivery polymers identified

 

·          Announcement