Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research

VOLUME 61

NUMBER 5

MAY 2002

CONTENTS

Review Paper

339

Alternatives to salt curing techniques a review



J Kanagaraj & N K Chandra Babu

Lot of research is being done worldwide in search of a salt-free, alternative curing systems. An attempt has been made to review various alternative curing techniques and their merits and demerits have been described.

Papers

349

Studies on bleaching of alkoxygen
delignified pulp of Cajanus cajan









Dharm Dutt, J S Upadhyaya,
C H Tyagi, R S Malik & Anurag Yadav

The suitability of Cajanus cajan using alkoxygen delignification process is assessed. The effect of cooking variables like oxygen pressure (0, 0.5, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.2 MPa), alkali charges (16, 18 and 20 per cent as NaOH), cooking time (60, 90, 120 and 150 min) and cooking temperature (155, 160, 165 and 170C) and pulp yield, kappa number and screen rejects is studied. The results reveal that optimum process condition for alkoxygen delignification process of Cajanus cajan includes the following : Alkali charge = 18 per cent (as NaOH), Temperature = 165C, Time = 120 min and Oxygen pressure = 1.0 Mpa. The unbleached pulp of kappa number 30 and brightness 29.8 per cent, (Elrepho) shows good response towards bleaching. To attain stable and high brightness, the pulp is bleached with chlorine dioxide and oxygen. The properties of CEDED, and C (EO) DED bleached pulps are compared with CEHH bleached pulp.

356

Utilization of agro-food by-products for gluconic acid production by Aspergillus niger ORS-4 under surface culture
cultivation




















Om Vir Singh & R P Singh

Among the seven isolated microbial strains from dumping sites of the sugarcane industry waste, a potent fungal strain Aspergillus niger ORS-4 is selected, that gives 48g/L of gluconic acid with 74 per cent yield when glucose is used as the carbon source. Starch hydrolysate, molasses and the banana must are as the cheaper carbohydrate sources for gluconic acid production by A. niger ORS-4 in surface culture fermentation process. The banana must is found to be a better source with significant gluconic acid production (39.6 g/L, 40 per cent yield) after 12 d incubation.

361

Enzymatic preparation of L-glucose, L-galactose and L-xylose using
galactose oxidase immobilised on
crab-shell particles

























K K Yadav, S K Vernwal, Z Afaq &
K D S Yadav

Galactose oxidase is immobilised on a solid support developed by modification and activation of surfaces of crab-shell particles The conversioin of D-sorbitol to L-glucose galactitol to L-galactose and xylitol to L-xylose using the immobilised galactose oxidase is demonstrated. The performance of the immobilised galactose oxidase for the conversion of D-sorbitol to L-glucose in a mini batch reactor is studied. The advantages of this method for preparing L-sugars are discussed.

366

Development and evaluation of matrix and two layered sustained release suppositories of nimesulide



















M Ravi, B Sa & A K Bandyopadhyay

Nimesulide loaded conventional suppositories, sustained release matrix suppositories and sustained release two layered suppositories are prepared using polyethyleneglycol (PEC) 4000 and ethylcellulose. In vitro characteristics of these suppositories are evaluated. In comparison to conventional suppositories the release of drug from sustained release matrix suppositories is gradual and extended over a period of time. On the other hand, two layered suppositories produced an initial quick release followed by extended release of drug.

370

New insights into CaO-swelling
cements



























Dulu Appah

Influence of CaO in improving slurry swelling is studied, using high pressure-high temperature (HP-HT) expansion cells, and compared with previous results. For varying temperatures and pressures the beginning and end of expansion and the duration of expansion are observed. The expansion values are determined. The extent to which cement shrinks is found to be a balance between the chemical reaction of water and clinker mineral, and the physical reaction of gel dipole water attached to the electrically charged cement surfaces. An optimum water cement factor (WCF) of 0.45 ensures pumpability during oilwell cementing, without causing increased hardened-paste porosity and permeability.

376

Biopulping and biobleaching by white rot fungi




















Samia M Helmy & Magda El-Meligi

Three useful types of paper are prepared from biopuling banana fruit stalk. The two types of them are bleached by hydrogen peroxide (writing and printing 40 SR and greasy paper 80-82 SR). While the board is prepared from unbleached biopulping at 25 SR. The strength properties of biopulping increase from 15-20 per cent for the hand-made sheet. Also the brightness is higher, i.e.> 20 per cent than under control. Results show that biopulping controls yield and avoids losses in viscosity and strength properties.

Reports

382

Indian chemical engineering congress 2001 a report


Sanjay Sengupta

 

386

Scientific, technologies and industrial development through UNDP
programme in India a report


V T Chitnis & S C Rastogi

 

Book Reviews

392

          Markets for technology the economics of innovation and corporate strategy
Reviewer: N Mrinalini

 

          Innovation, evolution of industry and economic growth, Volume I, II and III
Reviewer: Pradosh Nath

Sci-Tech Update

395

          Vector graphics on the web

 

          Key access to cleaner water

 

          Thin film batteries developed

 

          Epoxy paste replaces fibre glass tooling

 

          A photocatalyst that uses optical radiation developed

 

          New technology for acid and alkaline spill management

 

          Capsule makes a good image for gastrointestinal diagnoses

 

          Stem cells: new hope for treating brain diseases

 

          Better imaging of brain disorders through improved magnetic resonance techniques

 

          Anthrax used highly sensitive techniques that reveal differences between DNA and anthrax samples developed