Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research

VOLUME 61

       NUMBER 11

NOVEMBER 2002

CONTENTS

Review Papers

899

Solid propellant binders





S R Jain

The review describes the various polymeric fuel/binder systems used or considered for use in solid propellants. It includes a brief background, advantages, and shortcomings of the various systems, an account of the currently used binders and a critical survey of the advanced polymers envisaged for future usage. Special emphasis is laid on recently synthesized polymers having N-N bonds in their structures, and on the feasibility of developing smokeless propellants based on ammonium nitrate.

912

Eco-benign management options for cleaner chrome tanning















J Raghava Rao, B Chandrasekaran,
B U Nair & T Ramasami

An attempt is made to focus issues relating to chrome tanning in India and discuss the technological means to achieve better management of chrome tanning in India.


927

Three upcoming interdisciplinary
technological disciplines; mechatronics, photonics and computronics

















N P Mahalik  & S K Lee


The paper concentrates on describing the scope of three upcoming interdisciplinary technological disciplines such as mechatronics, photonics and computronics. The paper starts with introduction followed by some descriptions on the trends in technological education. The scope of mechatronics, photonics, and computronics has been enlightened. The names of some of the Institutes and Universities, providing education on these disciplines have  been mentioned. Finally the paper briefly reviews the aspects of basic research activities within interdisciplinary domain.

Papers

940

Performance evaluation of public
research institutes using principal
component analysis






D Krishna, S Rama Mohan,
B S N Murthy & A Ramakrishna Rao

In this study, public research institutes are considered as systems and some models  based on statistical concepts are utilized to compare performance of different research institutes by measuring productivity index of those institutes. Performance ranking is done, based on productivity index values. Ranks obtained with the study are also compared with those of the experts judgement for studying the accuracy of the methodologies.

948

Impact of municipal and industrial
liquid wastes on water quality and its
importance as potential water resources

























Parthapratim Chaudhuri, Sanjib Kar &
S K Gupta

The results obtained amply establish the fact that systematic management of wetland fed by municipal wastewater and industrial runoff not only solve the problem of environment pollution but also balances the ecosystem. The major adverse impacts of sewage on water quality are deoxygeneration, high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) load, rapid eutrophication, and accumulation of heavy metals in the environment. A study of water quality in a purified fish cultivated pond of Mudially wetlands near Kolkata city was undertaken in respect of physico-chemical properties of heavy metal content in sediments, water, fish, and water-hyacinth in different years. The quality of effluent, as well as sediments, fish and water–hyacinth in respect of pollutant was much better in the year 1998 in respect to 1994. This is due to effective purification of polluted effluent in  different stages of pond and tank by both natural and in chemical ways. The effluent contains high amount of protein rich compound which is a good food for fishes. The yield of fish is high and it is expected that such a system will be able to  satisfy the improvement of wastewater quality, fish production, and ecological balances in environment.

952

Portable mini essential oil distillation
apparatus









Kiran G D Babu, Vijay K Kaul &
P S Ahuja

Production of essential oils and hydrolysis by established methods of hydrodistillation prompted and facilitated the development of a low cost, portable, mini essential oil distillation apparatus made of stainless steel (SS) with easy and rapid installation of modular components. Efficiency of this apparatus vis-à-vis existing laboratory essential oil determination (Clevenger type) apparatus was compared by distilling geranium and tagetes oils and it was found that the performance  of this SS unit was better for both qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the essential oils. This newly developed design  is useful to small cottage industries, housewives, aroma-therapists, rural population for additional income generation and can be taken as one of the major activities for rural development programmes. This combination of cost-effectiveness and flexibility offers multiple options of high utility in new agriculture production systems where diversification is the need and the present equipment is a catalyst of change.

Papers

961

A novel method of estimating Motor
Octane Number (MON) — a structure property-relationship approach



Shalini Singh, Shobha Joshi,
Anjali Shrivastava &
Padmakar Khadikar

A novel method is proposed for estimating Motor Octane Number (MON) using PI index. The regression analysis gave the following model in estimating MON:

MON = AiPI + Bi, where, Ai and Bi, i = 1,2,3,4 stands for regression coefficient for a particular family to which alkane(s) belong.

966

New technique of microencapsultion of EVA copolymer











K P R Chowdary & N Koteswara Rao

An industrially feasible new technique of microencapsulation by ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) and the resulting microcapsules was investigated. EVA microcapsules of glipizide were prepared by an emulsion solvent  evaporation method employing various proportions of coat and core materials and chloroform as solvent for the polymer EVA. The microcapsules are spherical, discrete, free flowing and monolithic, multinucleate type. Microencapsulation efficiency was between 89-97 per cent. Glipizide release from the microcapsules was slow and extended over more than 12 h and depends on coat:core ratio, wall thickness and size of the microcapsules. Drug release followed zero order kinetics after a lag period of 1 h. Good linear relationships were observed between wall thickness and release rate and T50 (time for 50 per cent release) values. The microcapsules were found suitable for both oral and parenteral controlled release. Release from some of the microcapsules was very close to that from a commercial SR tablet formulation of glipizide.

971

Evaluation of a carbonaceous sorbent prepared from pearl millet husk for its removal of basic dyes


























B Stephen Inbaraj, K Selvarani &
N Sulochana

The capacity of a carbonaceous sorbent prepared from Pearl Millet Husk (PMHC), an agricultural byproduct to remove basic dyes is evaluated by choosing Methylene blue as the test dye. Batch-mode adsorption studies are carried out systematically, involving  process parameters, such as agitation time, initial dye concentration, carbon dose, and pH. The adsorption follows a simple first order kinetic equation given by Lagergren and the rate is controlled by both film and intra-particle diffusion processes. Isotherm analyses of the equilibrium data involving Freundlich, Langmuir and Redlich-Peterson models have shown that Freundlich model fits well with the experimental data more precisely, although reasonably better fit is obtained for Langmuir and Redlich-Peterson isotherm models. The adsorption parameters are obtained by non-linear optimization method and the adsorption capacity derived from Langmuir isothermal model is 82.37 mg/g. The influence of pH on dye removal is insignificant and a portion of the dye is recovered from the spent carbon in organic medium.

Book Review

979

Ascending the value spiral — from insight to innovation
            Reviewer: S Mohan

Sci-Tech Update

982

·         Scientists map mouse genome

 

·         Study shows that brains want to cooperate

 

·         What Buddhists know about science

 

·         Studies suggest unknown form of matter exists

 

·         SMART technology — Moon missions to test solar engine with no limits

 

·         World environment  and development summit attracts 106 leaders but not the US

 

·         A black box for car

 

·         Apache server supports .Net tech

 

·         Microwave step up to the plate

 

·         Pluto — too hip to be out there

 

·         Going retail with market research

 

·         Explaining the capabilities of terahertz imaging

 

·         T-rays outshine x-rays and ultrasound

 

·         T-rays — king of lasers?

 

·         New x-ray technique probing everything from cells to stars

 

·         Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

 

·         Lasers-tune in to terahertz

 

·         Infected gums may lead to heart disease

 

·         Scientists find nose plug in brain

 

·         Western-diet may cause type 2 diabetes

 

·         Doctors admit drug companies influence their practices

 

·         Babies can hear and learn in the womb (sleep)

 

·         Inconstant speed of light may debunk Einstein

 

·         Stagnant wage — added risk to weak economy

 

·         International policy network (IPN) activities in India

 

·         Does Microsoft explorer attract hackers owing to a flaw?

 

·         Linux is gaining a place at Sun, in both strategy and new server

 

·         The origins of violence

 

·         Earthships — be it ever so humble — trash home

 

·         New method solves key math problem

 

·         The gene therapy in action

 

·         Racing to the ‘God particle’

 

·         An IM that imbroglio in India

 

·         Announcement

1016

Additions and Corrections