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Natural Product Radiance

A Bimonthly Digest on Natural Products

 

 

VOLUME 3

NUMBER 2

March – April 2004

 

 

CONTENTS

 

Article

 

Processed Products of Pomegranate,

Dheeraj Singh and Ranjay K Singh 

  66

Unexploited plants of potential medicinal value from the Indian Thar desert,

Sher Mohammed, Pawan K Kasera and Jitendra K Shukla

69

Caesalpinia sappan – A medicinal and dye yielding plant, Shrishailappa Badami, Sudheer Moorkoth and B Suresh     

  75

 

 

Green Page

 

Cultivation of endemic Red Sanders for International trade,

S Vedavathy

  83

Commercial cultivation of Aloe,

Nilanjana Das and  R N Chattopadhay                                                                

  85

Indian Barberry in Himalayan wastelands,

Bhagwati Uniyal

  87

 

 

Explorer

 

Some medicinal plant leaves used by Boro (tribal) people of Goalpara district, Assam,

S K Basumatary, M Ahmed and S P Deka    

88

Plant and clay dyes used by weavers and potters in West Bengal, Ashish Ghosh                        

  91

 

Ayurvedic Tips

 

Intestinal worms,

Dr Shailendra Mani Tripathi                  

  92

 
Internet News

 

Cocoa froths – health drink with cancer preventing compounds     112
Pea protein ¾ an insect repellent      112
Cinnamon spice – good for diabetics  112
Haldi and tulsi can fight cataract  112
Haldi in cardio-vascular diseases   113

Lemon balm may help memory                                                        

113

Daffodils for dementia  114

Ginseng berry treats diabetes                                                          

114

Medicinal Cannabis 114
Vegetables ward off Alzheimer's 114
Green Tea–a potent Cancer fighter   115
Turmeric– an effective therapy for Crohn's disease  115

Anti-tumor compounds from Magnolia cones                                    

115

Guggul resin may raise cholesterol     116

Fats ' help body fight TB                                                          

116

Resveratrol in plants and red wine – Clue to elixir of life                  

117

Rice –A Natural Herbicide       

117

Sage improves memory           

117

Hot pepper receptor in heart may explain chest pain                      

118

Eating peanuts helps keep heart healthy without weight gain     

118

Growing genetically engineered rice in seawater                          

119

Coral at threat                          

119

Waders under threat     

120

 

 

Projects/Schemes

 

CSIR join hands with Daimler Chrysler for fuel project: to develop bio-diesel from Jatropha plants                                        

107

On-line mango and lemon fruit sorter and grader                       

107

Cotton-Ramie blended yarn      

107

Value addition of Safflower petals for natural dyes and herbal health care products                            

108

Prevention of aflatoxin production during storage of cottonseeds   

108

Peptone from cottonseed Meal 

108

 

 

Exhibition/Conference

 

National Worshop on Institute-Industry Interaction on Research in Unani Medicine to identify areas of collaboration                            

122

 

 

Classified Digests

 

Beverage                                     

94

Dye                                             

  95

Fibre                                            

  96

Fishery                                       

  97

Food                                     

98

Fruit                                      

  99

Fuel                                     

100

Gum                                    

100

Insecticide/Fungicide                

101

Oil/Fats                                      

103

Paper & Pulp                            

103

Therapeutics                             

104

 

 

In Brief                                    

109

Readers write                           

64

Book Review                            

121

Guidelines to Authors             

126

Index

129

 

 

Article

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.3, March – April 2004, pp. 66-68

 

Processed Products of Pomegranate

Dheeraj Singh* and Ranjay K. Singh

 

In India, pomegranate is considered as a crop of the arid and semi-arid regions because it withstands different soil and climatic stresses. It thrives best under hot dry summer and cold winter provided irrigation facilities are available. The tree requires hot and dry climate during fruit development and ripening (Patil & Karale, 1990). It cannot produce sweet fruits unless the temperature is high for a sufficiently long period. Humid climate lowers the quality of fruits and increases incidence of fungal diseases (Llacer et al, 1994). The pomegranate tree is deciduous in areas of low winter temperature and an evergreen or partially deciduous in tropical and subtropical conditions. The pomegranate tree can withstand low temperatures in the winter and is drought and salt-tolerant. As pomegranate is hardy in nature having wide adaptability, low maintenance cost with huge returns. The fruit is consumed fresh or can be processed into juice, syrup, jams, jelly or even wine.

 

Keywords: Pomegranate, Punica granatum, processed products, fruit juice, concentrate and beverage, wine, syrup and jelly, anar rub (pomegranate jam), anardana.

IPC Code; Int. Cl7.A23L1/06, A23L2/02, A23B9/02

 

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.3, March – April 2004, pp. 69-74

 

Unexploited plants of potential medicinal value from the Indian Thar desert

Sher Mohammed1 , Pawan K Kasera * and Jitendra K Shukla

 

The present article gives a general idea of important unexploited medicinal plants of the Indian Thar desert, which are used in the cure of different human diseases like urinary problems, kidney stones, rheumatic pain, bronchitis, jaundice, diabetes, stomach pain, hernia, etc.

 

Keywords: Unexploited plants, medicinal value, Indian Thar Desert.

IPC Code; Int. cl.― A01H 5/00, A61K35/78.

 

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.3, March – April 2004, pp. 75 - 82

 

Caesalpinia sappan – A medicinal and dye yielding plant

Shrishailappa Badami*, Sudheer Moorkoth and Suresh B

 

Natural products have provided a variety of lead structures, which serve as templates for the development of new drugs. The water kept in Caesalpinia sappan Linn. (Sappan lignum) heartwood is being used in Kerala as herbal drinking water for its antithirst, blood purifying, antidiabetic, improvement of complexion and several other properties. The plant is also being used worldwide for a large number of traditional medicinal purposes. Modern day research confirms its cytotoxic, antitumor, antimicrobial, antiviral, immunostimulant and several other activities. Several triterpenoids, flavonoids, oxygen heterocycles, etc. were isolated. Brazilin is found to be the main constituent of the plant responsible for several of its biological activities. The use of heartwood as a colouring agent for wine, meat, fabric, etc. is well established. It has the potential to hit the market as a safe natural colouring agent with good medicinal value for food products, beverages and pharmaceuticals. There is also a scope for further research to establish its medicinal properties and to identify lead compounds for drug development.

 

Keywords: Caesalpinia sappan, Sappan wood, heartwood, colouring agent, brazilin, traditional medicines, Ayurvedic formulations, chemical constituents, plant drugs.

IPC Code; Int. cl.― A61K35/78, D06P1/34, CO9B61/00, G01N33/46

 

 

 

Green Page

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.3, March – April 2004, pp. 83 - 84

 

Cultivation of endemic Red Sanders
for International trade

S. Vedavathy

 

Red Sandal Wood or Red Sander, Pterocarpus santalinus Linn. f. (Hindi ¾ Lalchandan, raktachandan) of family Fabaceae is an endemic and endangered, deciduous medium sized tree, up to 11m in height The tree grows as a wild plant in Chittoor and Kadapa districts of Andhra Pradesh and found in some pockets of adjoining state of Tamil Nadu also.

 

As estimated by HFRC, 500 trees can be planted in a hectare and after 25 years minimum 500kg of heartwood/tree can be obtained. Thus one can expect 2,50,000 kg of wood from one hectare plantation. At an average market rate of Rs.75/kg an income of Rs.177.5 lakhs/ha ($ 375000/ ha) is expected. The seedlings are available with HFRC at the rate of Rs 8 / each. However, selection of elite germplasm for the production of wavy grain timber and improved means of vegetative propagation is required.

 

Keywords: Cultivation, endemic, Red Sanders, Red Sandal Wood, Pterocarpus santalinus, export, economics.

IPC Code; Int. cl.― A01G23/02, A61K35/78, C09B61/00, C22B59/00.

 

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.3, March – April 2004, pp. 85 - 87

 

Commercial cultivation of Aloe

Nilanjana Das and R N Chattopadhay

 

The plant Aloe is as old as human civilization and its versatile properties for various purposes have been well documented. The genus is found in tropical and South Africa, Malagasy and Arabia and introduced in other places for ornamental and medicinal purposes. Several species of the genus have been in use under the common name of Aloe, viz. Aloe vera Linn., A. barbadensis Miller, A. ferox Miller, A. chinensis Baker, A. indica Royle, A. perryi Baker, etc., belonging to family Liliaceae.

 

The current global turnover of raw Aloe leaves amount up to US $ 70 – 80 million dollars, which is expected to grow at a rate of 35 % in the next five years. For processed derivatives and value added products, current global trade is estimated at around US $ 1 billion and US $ 25 billions, respectively.

 

USA supplies the major bulk of Aloe in world market having a share of 60 – 65 %, whereas Latin American countries 20 –25 % and Australia, China and India has a market share of only 10 per cent. It is estimated that about 40-50 thousands rupees could be earned annually by a plant grower from Aloe cultivation.

 

Keywords: Cultivation, medicinal uses, Aloe vera, harvesting, yield, economics.

IPC Code; Int. cl.― A01G7/00, A61K35/78.

 

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.3, March – April 2004, pp. 87

 

Indian Barberry in Himalayan wastelands

Bhagwati Uniyal

 

Indian Barberry, Berberis aristata DC. (Hindi ¾ Rasaut or Daruharidara; Garhwal ¾ Kirmod)), an evergreen shrubs, much branched, up to 4 m in height, is found on rocky slopes, in cultivated areas and wasteland near villages.

 

Due to enormous medicinal properties cultivation of Indian Barberry in wasteland areas near villages in Himalayan region can become a source of livelihood for the local community. Its cultivation process is simple and cost effective. It is germinated through seeds, which can be collected from the plant during May to July. Purple ripe fruits can be collected for germination into poly bags and nursery. It can grow easily without much investment, protection and care. The roots are harvested during November - December and approximate market rate is Rs 20/kg.

 

 

Explorer

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.3, March – April 2004, pp. 88 - 90

 

Some medicinal plant leaves used by
Boro (tribal) people of Goalpara district, Assam

*S. K. Basumatary M. Ahmed and S P Deka

 

North Eastern region of India has abounds in floristic wealth which will depend on proper utilization of plant reserve. The present study is concerned with 31 numbers of plant species leaves, which have been used as medicine for several common diseases like diarrhoea, dysentery, boils, pain, etc. Among the Boro (tribal) people of Goalpara district of Assam.

 

Keywords: Ethnobotany, medicinal plants, leaves, Boro people, Assam.

IPC Code; Int. cl.― A61 K35/78

 

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.3, March – April 2004, pp. 91

 

Plant and clay dyes used by weavers and
potters in West Bengal

 Ashis Ghosh

 

Potential value of easily available natural plant dyes used by the weavers of South Bengal and process of making Banak clay dyes, used in colouring tiles, dolls, earthen pitcher, cooking pots, walls, etc. in Purba Medinipur have been discussed in this paper for further exploration of these indigenous practices.

 

Keywords: Natural plant dyes, Banak clay dyes, West Bengal, Indigenous knowledge.

IPC Code; Int. cl7. ― C09 B61/00

 

 

 

Ayurvedic Tips

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.3, March – April 2004, pp. 92 - 93

 

Intestinal worms

Dr Shailendra Mani Tripathi

 

Worms are intestinal parasites, which infest our body. Some are microscopic in size while others can be seen quite easily. They are more common in tropical and subtropical areas and are widely prevalent during the rainy season. We should be concerned about the presence of intestinal worms in our body because the presence of worms in our body is so effective that some times the symptoms become disease.

 

Eating contaminated food and drinking impure water generally contracted worms. They can live in their hosts for many years. Worms are responsible for many health problems because they secrete toxins and steal the vital nutrients from our body. If left untreated, cause anemia and several other problems. Children are particularly susceptible and typically have the largest number of worms, which cause a number of health problems; making them unwell, affecting their physical and mental development. Three of the most common kinds of worms that infect children are ― roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides), whipworm (Trichuris trichiura), hookworm (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus).

 

Amebiasis is the most common infection and caused by the species Entamoeba histolytica. Giardia is the most prevalent intestinal parasite in humans and found in drinking water they resides in the smaller intestine and at times in the gall bladder. Millions of these organisms coat the intestinal walls, prevent the absorption of nutrients and later causing illness. Symptoms are mild to moderate abdominal cramps, intestinal gas, light coloured stools, bad absorption, weakness, chills, stomach bloating and diarrhoea.

 

Some pet parasites can also infect people. If children play in the same area where dogs or other animals defecate, children can pick-up parasite eggs from the soil and develop roundworm and hookworm infections that can cause multiple serious problems.

 

Symptoms of worms infection

 

Different kinds of worms cause different symptoms like, loss of appetite, distended abdomen, painful abdomen, coughing, fever, vomiting, diarrhoea, listlessness, extreme skin rashes, anemia, constipation, fatigue, tiredness, flue-like symptoms, apathy, depression, lack of concentration, gas and stomach bloating. Some parasites live in the upper intestine, which can cause both gas and stomach bloating.

 

Other symptoms of worm infection in children are: blisters on the inside of the lower lip, wiping of the nose, restlessness and grinding of the teeth at night, dark circles under the eyes, hyperactive, bed wetting, headaches, sensitive to light, twitching eyelid, nose bleeding or constant desire for food and restlessness at night with bad dreams. In Ayurveda Charak, Sushrut, Vagbhatt and others have considered worms the cause of coryza, tuberculosis, conjunctivitis and veneral diseases.

 

Precautions

·        Periodic stool tests to detect the presence of intestinal worms in your pet’s stool and family members.

·        Sugar should also be avoided because parasites thrive on it

·        The diet should exclude fatty foods such as butter, cream, and oil.

·        Drink clean and lukewarm water. Drink more water to avoid constipation.

·        Keep watch on children, they should not eat clay or chalk.

·        Practice good personal hygiene.

·        Keep your fingernails short and clean because parasites can live for two months under the fingernails.

·        Do not walk barefoot on warm, moist soil or while working in the garden.

·        Avoid swallowing or drinking the water while swimming anywhere. Avoid swimming if cuts or open sores are present.

·        If pets are infested with parasites, de-worm and keep them outside.

·        Avoid overuse of antibiotics which reduce the numbers of friendly bacteria in the colon and allows the proliferation of parasites.

 

Principle of Ayurvedic treatment

  1. Making worms inactive by medicines and then expelling them out of intestine by using purgatives.

  2. Stopping proliferation of worms through addition of bitter juice and warm water in diet.

  3. Taking precautions for causes.

 

Home remedies

There are many natural foods, herbal cleansing products, and essential oils that one can take to rid themselves of worms. When taking herbal combinations, it is best taking them on an empty stomach.

 

Nature cure methods, aim at strengthening the intestine so as to purge the parasites. The treatment for intestinal worms should begin with diet. The patient should be kept on exclusive diet of fresh fruits for two days or so. Fasting on raw pineapples for three days helps with tapeworm infestation.

 

1.      Garlic added to patients’ food help controlling some parasites. Spices like onion, clove, ginger, turmeric, cinnamon have anti-bacterial properties and protect from worm infection. Amla, harad, bahera, bach or neem bark decoction are also good.

2.      Powder (2g) of palash or tesu [Butea monosperma (Lam.)Kuntze] seeds( after removing seed cover) may be given with warm water to children above 5 years of age for three days thrice a day. After three days purgative may also be given.

3.      Vidang, Embelia ribes Burm. f. powder ( 5-10g) twice a day with fresh water is good for both children and adults.

4.      Kamala or kampila, Mallotus philippensis Muell.-Arg. fruit ( inside part) powder (1g) twice a day for three days is effective both for worms and as purgative.

5.      Crystal extract (30-120ml) of Carum or Ajowain, Trachyspermum ammi (Linn.) Sprague can be given with jaggery.

6.      Raw Papaya, Carica papaya Linn. milky juice mixed with 10g sugar and 20 ml warm water is very useful for killing worms hence any purgative after two hours is essential.

7.      In case of amebiasis 3g powder of Kutaja [Holarrhena antidysenterica (Linn.)Wall. ] with fresh water can be given twice a day for seven days.

 

Prescribed dose should only be taken to avoid irritation in intestine. Before giving these medicines sugar or jaggery consumption is advisable to attract worms.

 

 

 

 

Classified Digests

Beverage

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

 Vol.3, March – April 2004, pp. 94

 

Delicious soft drinks from whey

 

Whey is a by-product obtained during coagulation of milk by using acids and/or rennet or physico-chemical processes for the preparation of cheese, paneer, channa, chakka and casein. Whey contains about half of the milk solids from which it is produced in the form of nutritional components such as lactose, proteins and minerals. In the light of nutritive profile of whey, importance of whey solids in human food systems and popularity of beverages among Indian population, several attempts have been made to utilize whey in the production of refreshing beverages. Scientists working at the National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal and NDRI, Bangalore reviewed the use of whey for the production of whey based flavoured dairy drink. They observed that significant developments in the field of whey utilization have taken place during the last few decades. Different types of whey-based beverages that have been formulated in the last few decades are fruit flavoured beverages, milk-like beverages, alcoholic and non-alcoholic, high protein whey drinks, fermented and non-fermented whey beverages, etc. Attempts made in this direction for production of long shelf-life whey beverages have also shown a great potential. There is tremendous scope for a systematic approach to develop whey beverage utilizing cheese whey. Formulation of such products holds great promise to enable economic utilization of whey and value addition to guarantee high income [Kumar et al, Beverage Food World, 2003 (August), 39-43].

 

 

 

Fishery

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.3, March – April 2004, pp. 98

 

Amaranthus grains as supplementary feed for some carps

 

The use of certain non-conventional feed ingredients in supplementary feed in fish diet have been found to reduce operational expenditure of aquaculture. Some non-conventional resources used include green gram, brewery waste, corn gluten, native beans, banana flower, groundnut leaf, leaucaena leaf, sesame, linseed and copra oil cake, sal seed and winged bean meal.

 

The scientists at Department of Fisheries, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana evaluated the potential of Amaranthus hypochondriacus Linn. grains as supplementary feed and its impact on growth in some carps.

           

During experiment Amaranthus grains were used at different levels (20, 35 and 50%) in fish diets under a semi-intensive fish culture system and their impact on the growth of common carps, Cyprinus carpio and rohu, Labeo rohita was studied. It was observed that growth in terms of body weight was highest in fish fed on diets containing 20% Amaranthus grains that replaced groundnut oil cake in supplementary feed. Fish fed on diets containing these grains at different levels showed better growth than the control fed on traditional diet. Rohu showed better growth performance than common carps (Virk & Saxena in Proceedings of the National Symposium on Fish Health Management and Sustainable Aquaculture, 2001, 119-124).

 

 

 

 

Food

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.3, March – April 2004, pp. 98

 

Utilization of soymilk and groundnut milk in the preparation of paneer

 

Soybean and groundnut are two major raw materials used for preparation of imitation milks. Imitation milks may serve as a boon for the countries where the supply of milk is inadequate. In developed countries, imitation milk can save the masses from heart ailments, which are considered to be caused by consumption of saturated fats including milk fat. Keeping in view the reduction in cost and improvement in nutritional quality of paneer (cheese) scientists working at the Department of Food Science and Technology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana carried out studies to use soymilk and groundnut milk in the preparation of Buffalo milk paneer. Chemical composition of soymilk and groundnut milk was similar to buffalo milk. Incorporation of imitation milks in the preparation of buffalo milk paneer at lower levels did not affect the sensory quality and chemical composition. Soymilk and groundnut milk can be incorporated at 20.0 and 10.0 per cent level in the buffalo milk, respectively without affecting the quality of paneer. However, these two types of milk could be incorporated at higher levels with little sacrifice in sensory quality [Shukla et al, Beverage Food World, 2003 (August), 57-58].

 

 

 

Insecticide/Pesticide

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.3, March – April 2004, pp. 101

 

Pesticidal effect of Akee Apple against stored-product insect pests

 

Akee, Blighia sapida Koenig. is a medium-sized tree occasionally cultivated in some parts of Maharashtra, West Bengal and Tamil Nadu. Fruits greenish white, sweet fragrant; seeds are enclosed by white to cream-coloured fleshy aril. The fruits are edible but without proper preparation consumption should be avoided as they are poisonous and cause vomiting.

 

Experiments were conducted at the University of the West Indies, Trinidad to investigate the bioactivity of the dried seed powder and aril extract on three stored-product insect pests, viz. Tribolium castaneum (Herbst.), Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.) and Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. The seeds were collected from freshly fallen fruits, air-dried for 14 days and ground to a fine powder. The powder was passed through a 0.5 mm sieve, and then mixed with dried pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (Linn. ) Millsp.] and maize (Zea mays Linn.) in the concentration of 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1g/g dry weight for 24 hours and the number of insects on the treated seeds were counted. In another experiment extracts of the aril were prepared using ethanol, acetone, hexane, methanol, chloroform and water.

 

The results showed that powder-treated seeds affected the three insect pest species, but at varying repellency. There was at least a 50% reduction in the number of eggs oviposited for all three insects pests. The aril-water extracts induced significant (P< 0.05) mortality and antifeedant effects in all three insects pests, but affected the fecundity of only C. maculatus. The LC50 indicated that water extract could be safely used by farmers for storing food grains [Khan et al, Trop Agric (Trinidad), 2002, 79(4), 217-223].

 

 

 

Therapeutics

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.3, March – April 2004, pp. 104

 

Aerva lanata in the management of solid tumours

 

Cancer is a worldwide problem and is emerging as a major killer of modern era. Natural products of plant origin and numerous non-nutritive dietary constituents have been shown to play a significant role in cancer chemoprevention. Chemo-preventive efficacy of extract of plant, Aerva lanata (Linn.) Juss. ex Schult. (Hindi ¾ Kapurjadi) against transplantable tumours were evaluated by researchers at Department of Biochemistry, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Thiruvananthapuram. The partially TLC-purified fraction (PEF) of petroleum ether extract was proved to be cytotoxic to Daltan’s lymphoma ascites (DLA), Ehrlich ascites (EA) and B16F 10 cell lines in vitro. Since PEF was found to be more cytotoxic to DLA cell lines, it was used to study the pharmacological effect and its potential to reduce solid tumour induced by DLA cell lines in mice. The result indicated that PEF significantly reduced the development of solid tumour in mice [Nevin & Vijayammal, Fitoteropia, 2003, 74(6), 578-582].

 

 

 

In Brief

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.3, March – April 2004, pp. 109

 

Effect of plantation of Poplar on wheat crop boundary

 

A study undertaken to assess the water use, moisture extraction and water use efficiency (WUE) of irrigated wheat, when grown in association with boundary plantation of popular (Populus deltoides Marsh.). Results revealed that wheat is benefited by boundary plantation of poplar trees between 3 and 9 m distance from the base of the tree line which resulted in increased WUE of the wheat crop up to 9 [Sharma et al, Agric Water Management, 2001, 51(3), 173-85; DEN Abstract, 2002, 6(1-2), 30.