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Natural Product Radiance

A Bimonthly Digest on Natural Products

 

 

VOLUME 3

NUMBER 4

JULY –AUGUST 2004

 

With A Supplement on

Veterinary Sciences

 

 

CONTENTS

 

Article
 

A review of medicinal uses and pharmacological effects of Mentha piperita, Punit P Shah and P M D’Mello 

 214

 

Recent studies on well-known spice, Piper longum Linn.,

P Manoj, EV Soniya, NS Banerjee and P Ravichandran   

 222

 

Natural dye yielding plants in India,

S B Gokhale, A U Tatiya, S R Bakliwal and R A Fursule

228

 

 
Green Page
 

Brown Gold cultivation in Western Ghats,

S Vedavathy                    

235

 

 

Cultivation potential of culinary bamboos in Southern India,

P Shanmughavel          

237

 

 
Explorer
 

Some folk medicines used by the Sonowal Kacharis tribe of the Brahmaputra valley, Assam,

Dilip Kalita and Bikash Deb

240

A traditional beverage of Tons Valley               

246

A traditional dairy product of Kashmir              

246

 

Ayurvedic Tips
 

Gastrointestinal diseases in summer,

Dr Sanjeev Rastogi           

247

 

 

Saunf - A home remedy for gastrointestinal problems,

Dr Atul Kumar

248
Internet News
 

Spinach  The Prince of Vegetables,

Dr A L Bhatia               

 266
Tea in daily life                                                                 
  268

Possible contra-indications for some essential oil                      

269

Innovative approach to improve Amla yield                           

269

Bio-crop - An enriched organic manure

269

Mussels - Secrets of natural adhesives 

270

Soya milk - An alternative to cow's milk  

271

Bottled bananas

271

Eat two medium sized beetroots daily                                

271
  248
Conference/ Exhibition
 

IUPAC International Conference on

 

Biodiversity and Natural Products: Chemistry and Medical

 

Applications, 26-31 January 2004, New Delhi (India)                     

273

Forthcoming Conferences, Seminars, Exhibitions and Trainings

278

 

 
Classified Digests
 

Beverage                        

  249

Dye                                                

 250

Fibre                                                                          

     251

Food                                       

252

Fruit                            

  253

Fuel                                     

 254

Insecticide/Fungicide        

255

Pulp/ Paper                       

 257

Poultry                               

  259

Therapeutics                    

    260

Tissue Culture                                                     

  263

Vegetable                            

263

 
 
 
Supplement on Veterinary Sciences

CONTENTS

Articles

 

Value added meat products and development of processed meat sector,

N Kondaiah

281

 

 

Plants used for tissue healing of animals,

S Jaiswal, SV Singh, Bhoopendra Singh and HN Singh 

284

                                                             

 

Plants used in skin diseases of animals,

M C Sharma and  Chinmay Joshi

     293

 

 

Natural preservatives in poultry meat products,

A S Yadav and R P Singh    

        300

 

 

Recent advances in Bracken Fern toxin research,

R Somvanshi and R. Ravisankar

    304

 

 

Low-Salt Meat Products as Health Food,

J Sahoo, K S S Sajala and Manish Kumar

309

 

 

Digests

 

Wound healing activity of Mesquite leaf juice in calves      

      292

Toxic fern Polystichum squarrosum D. Don                           

                 292

Herbal treatment of bovine dermatophilosis                    

                 318

Treatment of blood in milk                  

   318

Kakla  A potential weed for animal feed                    

318

 
In Brief                           

     264

Guidelines to Authors  

     319

Index      

     320

 

Article

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.3,  July-August 2004, pp. 214- 221

 

A review of medicinal uses and
pharmacological effects of Mentha piperita

 Punit P Shah and P M D’Mello *

 

Mentha piperita Linn. emend. Huds. is widely used in food, cosmetics and medicines. It has been proven helpful in symptomatic relief of the common cold. It may also decrease symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome and decrease digestive symptoms such as dyspepsia and nausea, although more research is needed. It is used topically as an analgesic and to treat headaches. Though M. piperita is on the FDA’s GRAS (Generally recognized as safe) list but herb has few side effects. The peppermint oil can cause heartburn or perianal irritation, and is contraindicated in patients with bile duct obstruction, gallbladder inflammation and severe liver damage, and caution should be taken in patients with GI reflux. Menthol products should not be used directly under the nose of small children and infants due to the risk of apnoea.

 

Keywords: Mentha piperita, Peppermint, Peppermint oil, Menthol, Medicine, Toxicity.

IPC code; Int. cl.7 ¾ A61K 35/78, A61P1/00, A61P17/00.

 

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

 Vol 3, July -August, pp.222-227

 

Recent studies on
well-known spice, Piper longum Linn.

P. Manoj1*, E.V. Soniya1, N.S. Banerjee2 and  P. Ravichandran3

 

The fruits of Piper longum Linn. are very well-known medicine for diseases of the respiratory tract, viz. cough, bronchitis, asthma, etc.; as counter-irritant, analgesic when applied locally for muscular pains and inflammation and as general tonic and hematinic. They are carminative and known to enhance the bioavailability of food and drugs. In this paper recently developed micropropagation method by tissue culture and molecular basis of genotypic differentiation between the male and female plants, using Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique and development of sex associated DNA markers have been discussed along with some medicinal and pharmacological properties of the spice.

 

Keywords: Piper longum, Long pepper, Pippali, Tissue culture, RAPD, DNA markers, Medicinal uses.

IPC code; Int. cl.7 ¾ A01H4/00, A23L1/22, A61K35/78.

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.3,  July-August 2004, pp. 228 - 234

 

Natural dye yielding plants

S. B. Gokhale, A. U. Tatiya, S. R. Bakliwal and R. A. Fursule*

 

Every herb can be used to make dye. Herbal dyes being natural tend to be softer and their range of tones is very pleasant. At present total market of herbal dyes is to the tune of US $ 1 billion and is growing tremendously at the rate of 12%per annum. Per capita consumption of dyes is 400g to 15 kg in developed and underdeveloped countries for their utility in paints, inks, textiles, polymers, etc. India is a major exporter of herbal dyes mostly due to ban on production of some of the synthetic dyes and intermediates in the developed countries due to pollution problem. Nature has gifted us more than 500 colour yielding plants. The present paper is an aid to a collective enquiry into the Indian dye yielding plants, their parts and chemical constituents.

 

Keywords: Dye yielding plants, India, Mordants, Chemical constituents.

IPC code; Int. cl. 7 C09B61/00.

 

 

Green Page

 

Natural Product Radiance

 Vol.3,  July-August 2004, pp. 235 - 236

 

Brown Gold cultivation in Western Ghats

        S. Vedavathy

 

Holostemma ada-kodein K. Schum. (Family- Asclepiadaceae) known, as Palagadda/Jeevanthi/Charivel/Palaikkirai/Atapathien is an endemic plant of our country, especially found in the Kerala region of Western Ghats. It was reported first from Kothur reserve forest and Palode area of Thiruvanthapuram district.The plant is also found in Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh. It remained as an ethnic plant in this region and the people are not aware of its identity and usage. Scientists from Herbal Folklore Research Centre (HFRC) during their ethno-botanical survey noticed the tribe digging the roots and surviving by selling them to traders who come from the near by state of Tamil Nadu.

 

The leaves, flowers and fruits are eaten as vegetable. HFRC is using the roots along with Sathavari (Asparagus racemosus Willd.) and Aswagandha (Withania somnifera Dunal) as immune booster and distributing to the people in their free herbal clinic for the past three years. The powder gives strength and prevents from frequent cold and cough and improves metabolism.

 

The root goes into many Ayurvedic formulations such as Jeevanthyadi ghritham, Aswagandhadi ghritham, Jeevanthyadiyamakam, Balarishtam, Anuthailam, Punarnavabaladi kashayam, Chnadanadi thailam, etc.

Propagation can be done by seeds and root buds. The seeds are very small, flat and dark brown in colour. A healthy fruit contains 300-350 seeds. The plant attains full growth and produces long thick roots after one year. According to HFRC estimates each plant gives 100-200 grams of dried roots. 20,000 plants can be planted in a hectare of land and the average yield /ha/year is about 2000-4000 kg of dried roots. The local price of dried roots varies from 80-120/ kg.

 

 Keywords: Brown gold, Holostemma ada-kodein, Endemic, Propagation, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Medicinal.

IPC Code; Int. cl. 7─ A01G7/00, A01H5/06, A61K35/78

 

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

 Vol.3,  July-August 2004, pp. 237 - 239

 

Cultivation potential of culinary bamboos in
Southern India

P. Shanmughavel

 

India is one of the leading countries of the world, second only to China, in bamboo production with a figure of 32.3 million tonnes/year. Bamboo species cover an area of around 10.03 million hectares, which contribute 12.8% of the total forest cover of the country. In bamboo diversity India ranks third i.e. next to China (300 species) and Japan (237 species). More than 70 genera and 1,200 species of bamboo have been described, but only a few are grown commercially for their shoots.

 

The edible young shoot contains: water, 89-93; fat, 03-0.4; fibre, 0.5-0.77; protein, 1.3-2.3; carbohydrates, 4.2-6.1; ash, 0.7-1.2; and glucose, 1.8-4.1g/100g; calcium, 81-96; iron, 0.5-1.7; phosphorus, 42-59; vitamin C, 3.2-5.7; and vitamin B1, 0.07-0.14mg/100g. The energy value per 100 g of young shoot is 118-197J.

 

 

Keywords: Edible bamboo, Chemical compostion, Silviculture, Economics.

IPC Code; Int cl.7 ¾ A01G23/02, A01H5/00, A23L1/01

 

 

 

Explorer

 

Natural Product Radiance

 Vol.3,  July-August 2004, pp. 240 – 245

 

Some folk medicines used by the Sonowal Kacharis tribe of the Brahmaputra valley, Assam

 Dilip Kalita* and Bikash Deb1

 

The Sonowal Kacharis tribe is confined to remote areas of the Brahmaputra Valley, Asssm. Like other tribals of India and abroad the Sonowal Kacharis also use some medicinal plants for controlling and curing their diseases. An attempt has been made to study plant based folk medicines used by this tribe for treatment of 19 different diseases, viz. asthma, ascariasis, diabetes, diarrhoea, diuretic, dyspepsia, dysentery, dysmenorrhoea, glossitis, mumps, oedema in pregnancy, oliguria, paralysis, paronychia, piles, pinworm infection, scabies, scanty lactation, tonsillitis, which are prevalent among them. First hand information on uses of 16 wild and 11 cultivated plant species have been reported in this paper for further research and revalidation of traditional uses of these plants.

 

Key words: Herbarium, Sonowal Kacharis, Folk medicine.

 IPC Code; Int. cl. 7─ A61K35/78

 

 

Ayurvedic Tips

 

Natural Product Radiance

 Vol.3,  July-August 2004, pp. 247 – 248

  

Gastrointestinal diseases in summer

Dr. Sanjeev Rastogi, MD

 

According to the Ayurvedic principles, summer is the season for accumulation of Vata because of increased temperature out side. In this season water content of the body gets decreased. To supplement this water loss consumption of sweet, cool and soft substances is beneficial. Jatharagni i.e. the digestive fire is in its moderate capacity in summer so heavy meals are difficult to digest and heavy meal can cause following dyspeptic conditions or gastrointestinal (GI) diseases.

 

 

Ajirna

 

Commonly known as indigestion, ajirna is the commonest of GI diseases in summer. The symptoms are heaviness in abdomen, burning, reduced appetite and occasional nausea. Basically this is because of over taxation of the digestive system, which is already slow in summer.

 

Best recommendation in ajirna from Ayurveda is fasting. A small fast of one day can provide GI the required time to rest and to deal with any surplus amount of food already taken in. A hot water intake during this time helps in rapid recovery of lost vigour of digestive tract. After having fast, it is important to start food only gradually keeping the Agni in consideration.

 

Atisara

 

This is diarrhoea, which is also a common problem in summer. Summer diarrhoea is mostly because of food toxicity. It should never be tried to stop abruptly as this will cause accumulation of ama visha (toxic products of indigestion) leading only to more chronic disorders. Khichari is considered as an appetite stimulant in Ayurveda. If this is added with curd, this is further potentiated and is a good treatment of atisara. Curd helps in normalization of colonic flora and speeds up the recovery.

 

Udar shula

 

Pain in abdomen is also a common complain during summer season. There could be a wide variety of its causes and presentation. Upper abdominal pain is usually because of over distention of stomach or inflammation in its wall. More spicy substances irritate the stomach wall and causes a delayed gastric emptying. Vatanuloman is the mode of treatment in this condition. This could be done with intake of warm saline water and some home preparations like Hingu, Ajmoda and Saunf. These are prokinetic substances, improve the GI motility and relieve the spasm. Care should be taken while taking any digestive powder or tablet of Ayurveda in this condition as most of these preparation contain substances which increase gastric secretion (Agni vardhak) which is ultimately harmful to already inflamed gastric wall. Legumes are usually contraindicated in this condition as they cause fermentation and over production of gases.

 

Life style

 

 

Home Remedies

 

i.    Drink shikanjivi (lemon juice, salt or sugar to taste added in water).

ii.   Fresh coconut water and buttermilk (with roasted cumin seeds) are also good to           

     maintain water quantity in the body.

iii.   Jaljira can be prepared at home. To make it add pudina leaves paste to water then

    add lemon juice, salt and powder of roasted cumin seeds. 

iv.   For heart burning and pain in the stomach a mixture of half teaspoon each of baking

    soda, lemon juice, salt to taste and lukewarm water is recommended for immediate

    relief.

v. Chewing carum seed (ajwoin) with little rock salt (sandha namak) is good to alleviate

    ajirna.

 

Natural Product Radiance

  Vol.3,  July-August 2004, pp.  248

 

Saunf - A home remedy for gastrointestinal problems

 Dr. Atul Kumar

 

Sweet Fennel, Foeniculum vulgare Mill., commonly known as saunf is a good home remedy for many stomach and gastrointestinal problems. In Ayurveda saunf is considered as light, non-unctuous, dry (ruksa) and cold. It is appetizer, carminative/purgative, alleviates vata, pitta and ama dosa, promotes strength (Balya).

 

In indigestion (Ajirna) take 3-5 g of saunf powder with 1g powder of roasted jeera (Caraway, Carum carvi Linn.) and rock salt (as required) with warm water 3 times daily. In diarrhoea (Atisara) and abdominal pain (Udara sula) take 3-5 g saunf powder with butter milk 3-4 times daily. In case of loss of appetite (Agnimandya) 3-5 g powder of roasted saunf with butter milk, little pepper powder and rock salt may be taken 2 times daily. Decoction of saunf prepared after boiling one part (5g) saunf in four parts (20 ml) water (till it reduces to about half the quantity) may be given to children at one hour interval. For colic pain in infants boil (for 2-3 minutes) a teaspoon of fennel seeds in a cup of water and keep it to cool for 15-20 minutes. Strain and add 1-2 teaspoon to every feed of milk of the baby.

 

 
 

Classified Digests

 

Beverage

 

Natural Product Radiance

 Vol.3,  July-August 2004, p. 249

 

Heart-healthy milk from cows

 

Milk, butter and meats contain high levels of saturated fats, which contribute to a higher risk of cardiovascular disease and high cholesterol in humans. Research over the years has focused on how to protect the unsaturated fats in vegetable-based feeds consumed by cows from being broken down by microorganisms in the cow's rumen and converted into saturated fats. UC Davis researchers, Moshe Rosenberg and Ed DePeters at University of California have succeeded in getting the solution for this problem. They developed a new cattle-feed supplement that dramatically boosts the content of heart-healthy unsaturated fats in cows' milk. Unlike earlier methods, which involved unsavory chemical additives like formaldehyde and soap, the new supplement relies on proteins that occur naturally in milk and other foods. During feeding trials, the researchers mixed it with the cows' normal feed. Within less than 3 days, they recorded as much as an 800% increase in the proportion of specific unsaturated fatty acids, such as linolenic acid, in the cows' milk. The study involved more than 750 cow-days, with more than 1,500 milk samples analyzed [Calif Agric, 2004, 58(1), 5].

 

 

 

Fibre

 

Natural Product Radiance

 Vol.3,  July-August 2004, p. 252

 

Cotton- Clay blended fabric

 

Applying clay onto body for cooling during summer and living in mud houses are the methods mentioned in ancient Indian literature to combat heat. But application of clay in making fabric is really an innovative attempt of scientists of this era.

 

For the first time, Leslie A. White and Christopher D. Delhom, scientists at the ARS Southern Regional Research Center (SRRC) in New Orleans, are creating a new, heat-tolerant fabric by mixing cotton fibers with clay.

 

Never before this anybody tried mixing clay with cotton. Clay is naturally occurring, cost-effective and readily available in pure form and enhance the flame-retardant properties of a textile and give it durability.

 

Researchers are experimenting with this because cotton's melt temperature and burn temperature are the same, unlike those of a plastic. First cotton fibers are dissolved with a solvent and then mixed in the clay on a molecular level.

 

Once the mixture is dried and the solvent removed, the tiny clay particles have become dispersed and embedded throughout the cotton matrix. The resultant material—made of 1 to 10 per cent clay, with the balance as cotton—is the basis for producing fibers with flame-retardant properties. In this way, the melding of dissimilar components creates a new material with novel properties.

 

The combination cotton-and-clay product has a heat tolerance of 20° to 30°C above that of unbleached cotton. The strength of the product, toughness, and wear resistance are also being evaluated. This unique material could someday be used as fabric for speciality textile products, including protective apparel, and for insulation to provide fire protection in home [Erin K. Peabody, Agric Res, 2004, 52(4), 9].

 

 

 

 

Food

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.3,  July-August 2004, p. 252

 

Whole grain diet reduce blood pressure

 

Whole grains have been reported to lower blood pressure, but results have been mixed. During a study carried over at Diet & Health Promotion Laboratory, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, USA report comparison on the effects of soluble and insoluble fibers on blood pressure in a whole grain diet. Twenty-one non-hypertensive men (28-62 yr) with elevated plasma cholesterol levels were selected for the study approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health. Men consumed a Step 1 diet for 2 wk. and then consumed diets with brown rice/whole wheat, barley, or a combination for 5 wk in a Latin square. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures did not change during the Step 1 diet, but were reduced by whole grains whether the fiber was predominantly soluble (barley) or insoluble (brown rice and whole wheat). Urinary excretion of phosphorus, and urea nitrogen were lower after consumption of the barley diet. It is concluded that increasing whole grain foods in a healthy diet can reduce cardiovascular risk [Hallfrisch et al, Nutr Res, 2003, 23(12), 1631-1642].

 

 

 

Fuel

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.3,  July-August 2004, p. 254

 

Methane production from solid potato waste alone and in combination with sugar beet leaves

 

The demand for conventional energy supplies such as electricity, coal, gas and petroleum products is increasing with the development of industrial sector and population explosion. To meet the requirement biomass and agricultural waste represent a large potential renewable energy source, which could benefit society with a clean fuel in the form of methane. Materials like potato, with a high content of soluble carbohydrate, are usually regarded as more suitable feedstocks for the production of ethanol rather than conversion to biogas. The yield of ethanol that can be obtained from potato is approximately 0.4 l/kg TS with a total energy content of 9.8 MJ/kg TS. The gross energy of potato is 16.4 MJ/kg total solids (TS) and the energy in methane produced from potato is 15.5 MJ/kg TS of potato, giving an energy conversion efficiency of 95% with the assumption that biogas yields 410 l/kg TS potato and has a methane content of 50%.

 

The scientists at Center for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lund University, Sweden and Department of Biochemistry, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe evaluated anaerobic batch biodegradation of potato waste alone and when co-digested with sugar beet leaves. During experiment the potato waste and beet leaves were homogenised using a kitchen blender (Moulinex Masterchef 350, France). Anaerobically digested sewage sludge from a wastewater treatment plant in Eslöv, Sweden was used as inoculum in the batches. Effects of increasing concentration of potato waste expressed as percentage of total solids (TS) and the initial inoculum-to-substrate ratio (ISR) on methane yield and productivity were investigated. The ISRs studied were in the range 9.0 – 0.25 and increasing proportions of potato waste from 10% to 80% of TS. A maximum methane yield of 0.32 l CH4/g VSdegraded was obtained at 40% of TS and an ISR of 1.5. Methane content of up to 84% was obtained at this proportion of potato waste and ISR. Higher ISRs led to faster onset of biogas production and higher methane productivity. Furthermore, co-digestion of potato waste and sugar beet leaves in varying proportions was investigated at constant TS. Co-digestion improved the accumulated methane production and improved the methane yield by 31–62% compared with digestion of potato waste alone. Thus the solid potato waste like peeling wastes and potato chunks culled from food processing lines can be utilized for this purpose and the beet leaves to provide additional nitrogen to the system [Parawira et al, Renewable Energy, 2004, 29(11), 1811-1823].

 

 

 

Insecticide/Fungicide

 

Natural Product Radiance

 Vol.3,  July-August 2004, p. 256

 

CO2 atmosphere for long-term storage of Basmati rice

 

The scientists at Food Protectants & Infestation Control Department and Grain Science Technology Department of CFTRI, India evaluated the possibilities of storage of Basmati rice under CO2 rich atmosphere and its impact on characteristic aroma of this variety of rice.

 

During experiment Basmati rice, brown and milled, 30 and 34 tonnes each, were stored under high carbon dioxide (CO2) atmosphere for 4 hours in an exporter’s mill premises. The treatment resulted in 100% mortality of all stages of Tribolium castaneum (the rust-red flour beetle) kept as test insect in the stacks. The results revealed that storage of both brown and milled rice under CO2-rich atmosphere retained the characteristic aroma and grain elongation upon cooking. There was a reduction in moisture content (by 2 to 2.5% points) and increase in grain hardness (by 1.1 to 2 kg points) as well as milling breakage (by 2 to 2.5% points). It was concluded that CO2 application would be economical for long-term storage of 6 months and above and particularly in places where CO2 is available at reasonable cost [Rajendran et al, J Food Sci Technol, 2002, 39(6), 639-643].

 

 

Therapeutics

 

Natural Product Radiance

 Vol.3,  July-August 2004, p. 262

 

Antiulcerogenic seaweed

 

Sargassum polycystum C. Ag., a marine brown alga found in Gulf of Mannar, Rameswaram, was collected by researchers at Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Madras, Chennai to evaluate efficacy of its hot water extract against HCl-ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury in rats.

 

Effect of pre-treatment with hot water extract of marine brown alga S. polycystum (100 mg/kg body wt, orally for period of 15 days) on HCl-ethanol (150 mM of HCl-ethanol mixture containing 0.15 N HCl in 70% v/v ethanol given orally) induced gastric mucosal injury in rats was examined with respect to lipid peroxides, antioxidant enzyme status, acid/pepsin and glycoproteins in the gastric mucosa. The levels of lipid peroxides of gastric mucosa and volume, acidity of the gastric juice were increased with decreased levels of antioxidant enzymes and glycoproteins were observed in HCl-ethanol induced rats. The rats pre-treated with seaweed extract prior to HCl-ethanol induction reversed the depleted levels of antioxidant enzymes and reduced the elevated levels of lipid peroxides when compared with HCl-ethanol induced rats. The levels of glycoproteins and alterations in the gastric juice were also maintained at near normal levels in rats pre-treated with seaweed extract. The rats given seaweed extract alone did not show any toxicity, which was confirmed by histopathological studies. These results suggest that the seaweed extract contains some anti-ulcer agents, which may maintain the volume/acidity of gastric juice and improve the gastric mucosa antioxidant defense system against HCl-ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury in rats [Raghavendran et al, Arch Pharm Res, 2004, 27(4), 449-453].

 

 

 

SUPPLEMENT ON VETERINARY SCIENCES

q       Value added products

q       Indigenous veterinary medicines

q       Feed and fodder

Guest Editor

 

Dr Rishendra Verma

Head of Division

Division of Biological Standardization

Indian Veterinary Research Institute

Izatnagar-243 122

(U.P.)

Fax :0581-2303284, Phone (o) 2301757, 2301654 ext. 2471, 2387

E-mail: rishendra_verma@yahoo.com

 

 
Article

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.3,  July-August 2004, pp. 281 – 283

 

Value added meat products and development of processed meat sector

N. Kondaiah

 

A number of processed product units are involved in manufacturing value added products from buffaloes, sheep, goat and aged animals meat. The purpose of meat processing, scope of value added products, relevant approaches, some value added products and economics of these products have been discussed in this paper.

 

Keywords: Meat, Value added products, Sausages, Patties, Nuggets, Kababs, Meat balls, Meat pakoda, Vegetables.

IPC code; Int. cl.7 A23J3/00,  A23L1/31, A23L1/318.

 

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.3,  July-August 2004, pp. 284 – 292

 

Plants used for tissue healing of animals

 S Jaiswal*, SV Singh, Bhoopendra Singh and HN Singh

 

Tissue healing is an important process, which is the basis of various surgical manipulations. It can be enhanced by using several herbal drugs having antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and biostimulator property. There are certain plants, which are proved helpful in wound healing, fracture healing and healing of nervous tissue in animals.

 

Key words: Herbs, Tissue healing, Soft and Hard tissue repair, Nervous tissue healing, Wound healing.

IPC Code; Int. cl.7 ¾ A61K 35/78, A61L 15/00

 

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

 Vol.3,  July-August 2004, pp. 293 – 299

 

Plants used in skin diseases of animals

M C Sharma* and Chinmay Joshi

 

Skin diseases in animals comprise scabies bacterial and fungal infections, ulcers, bruises and sprains, inflammation, burns, sore feet, ringworm, eczema, skin eruptions, urticaria and infestation of tick, mite, lice and maggots. Though a lot of allopathic medicines are available for the treatment of these problems, herbal formulations are preferred for the safety of both animal and owner of the animal. The paper presents a compilation of information on plants used for the skin diseases of animals.

 

Keywords: Plants, skin diseases, animals

IPC code; Int. cl.7¾ A61K35/78, A61L15/00

 

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

 Vol.3,  July-August 2004, pp. 300 – 303

 

Natural preservatives in poultry meat products

 A S Yadav* and R P Singh

 

In view of certain disadvantages associated with the use of chemical preservatives, emphasis is being given on the use of natural preservatives for meat products. In present paper utilization of extracts of commonly used spices, desirable microbes and or their metabolites and certain antimicrobial constituents of other foods for preservation of poultry meat products has been discussed.

 

Key words: Poultry meat, Natural preservatives, Microbes’ metabolites, Antimicrobial constituents, Spices, Garlic, Cinnamon, Clove.

 

IPC code; Int. cl.7¾ A22C21/00, A23B4/023

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

 Vol.3,  July-August 2004, pp. 304 – 308

 

Recent Advances in Bracken Fern Toxin Research

 R. Somvanshi* and R. Ravisankar1

 

Bracken fern, Pteridium aquilinum Kuhn, commonly found in hilly regions, contains toxic substances. It is reported to cause alimentary carcinoma and haematuria in both animals and human beings. Present paper deals with the recent advances in bracken fern toxins research in animals.

 

Keyword: Bracken fern, Pteridium aquilinum Kuhn, Toxin, Carcinogens, Animal, Human, Haematuria, Recent advances.

 IPC code; Int. cl.7¾ A01N25/00

 

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

 Vol.3,  July-August 2004, pp. 309 – 317

 

Low-Salt Meat Products as Health Food

 J Sahoo*, K S S Sajala and Manish Kumar

 

Vegetarian food is recommended for those who have problem of hypertension. However, if meat is consumed then reduction of sodium chloride i. e. low-salt content is suggested in producing processed meat products. In this paper attempts are made to have detailed review on the aspects of physiological role of sodium chloride in processed meats, salt replacers and their effect on the quality of meat products.

 

Keywords: Low-salt meat products, Health food, Sodium chloride, Salt replacers.

 IPC code; Int. cl.7¾ A23J3/00, A23L1/31, A23L1/318, A23B4/02, A23B4/023

 

 

Digests

 

Natural Product Radiance

 Vol.3,  July-August 2004, p. 292

 

Wound healing activity of Mesquite leaf juice in calves

 

The leaves of Mesquite Prosopis juliflora DC. (Hindi ― Vilayati kikkar) possess many medicinal properties. A recent study revealed the wound healing activity of a 10% ointment made of the plant's leaf juice in calves. Wounds of 2 cm Χ 3 cm size were created surgically on either side of the back and were treated with 10% leaf juice ointment. The healing process was compared with that induced by simple ointment. The ointments were applied daily for 10 days and thereafter every second day until complete healing. The evaluation of wound healing was based on clinical, histological, and biomechanical studies. Wound tissues were collected at day 7, 14, and 28 after the start of the application of formulated ointment. In both groups, various clinical indices such as inflammatory reaction, granulation, and the contraction and epithelisation of tissues at different time intervals were almost similar. There were no marked differences in localisation of collagen fibres, elastin fibres, mucopolysaccharide concentration, acid and alkaline phosphatase activities, and the tensile strength and extensibility of healing tissue in both groups at different stages of healing. The results indicate no significant difference in the wound healing effects of 10% ointment of leaf juice of this plant and simple ointment (http://www.vetwork.org.uk/pune20.htm#12).

 

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

 Vol.3,  July-August 2004, p. 292

 

Toxic fern Polystichum squarrosum D. Don

 

In Kumaon hills and elsewhere the fern Polystichum squarrosum D. Don is commonly found and consumed by animals. Clinico-pathological studies on its subacute toxic effects in guinea pigs conducted by researchers at IVRI, Izatnagar have revealed that like Bracken fern it is also toxic to animals and there is possibility of other toxins in this fern than ptaquiloside (Singh et al, Indian Vet Med J, 2003, 27, 323-328).

 

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

 Vol.3,  July-August 2004, p. 318

 

Herbal treatment of bovine dermatophilosis

 

In tropical and subtropical countries enzootic bacterial skin disease called dermatophilosis in cattle is commonly found. Some times it is so acute that it may lead to death of the animal, and cause economic losses to farmers. Ali-Emmanuel M and others in Republic of Benin prepared and studied the therapeutic effect of a herbal ointment using extracts of medicinal plants. In the preparation of this ointment ethanolic extracts of leaves of Cassia alata Linn. syn. Senna alata (Linn.) Roxb., Lantana camara Linn. and Mitracarpus scaber Zucc. were used and applied topically on chronic crusty or acute lesions of dermatophilosis. The ointment induced healing of the disease in the infected animals treated without recurrence. This is opposed to what is observed by using oxytetracycline, terramycin long-acting (TLA), or procaine-penicillin, antibiotics commonly used parenterally for the treatment of dermatophilosis which could not prevent the recurrence of the disease.

 

These ointments, when applied once a day for 8–15 days, provoked the falling off of the crusts after 3–4 days of treatment. Hair grows on the treated areas, which heal without scarring, within 3–4 weeks after the end of the treatment. The healed animals became free of dermatophilosis without recurrence for more than 3 years and were in good health. Furthermore, these ointments are cheaper, easier to produce and give better results than antibiotics used parenterally, but further experiments have to be performed on a larger scale to capture the full range of severity of the disease and analyse possible resistance to that treatment [Ali-Emmanuel et al, J Ethnopharmacol, 2003, 86(2-3), 167-171].

 

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

 Vol.3,  July-August 2004, p. 318

 

Treatment of blood in milk

 

Raval and his colleagues studied the efficacy of camphor, Cinnamomum camphora (Linn.) Nees & Eberm. for the  treatment of mastitis in buffaloes. Mastitis and milk abnormalities curb profit and result in economic losses to farmers. Camphor contains volatile acid, which has a styptic action. During study in villages nearby Anand, 21 buffaloes with clinical cases of blood-tinged or bloody milk were given camphor in banana orally at a dose of two tablets twice a day. Before and after the camphor therapy, milk samples of these animals were tested for the presence of blood, clinically as well as for occult blood with a strip cup and benzidine tests in the laboratory. Affected animals recovered within three to five days. Treatment costs per animal were calculated and the cost: benefit ratio for camphor was compared with that of other drugs. The findings suggest that in cases of blood in milk, camphor is cheap and easily available (http://www.vetwork.org.uk/pune20.htm#12).

 

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

 Vol.3,  July-August 2004, p. 318

 

Kakla  A potential weed for animal feed

 

The scarcity of feed and fodder resources led the scientists of Central Agricultural University, Imphal to study the proximate principle and amino acid composition of Kakla, Monochoria vaginalis Presl found as a aquatic weed in marshy and water logged areas in Manipur state. The amino acid assay showed that about 32 per cent of total nitrogen in the weed was of non-protein nitrogen origin hence this can be better assimilated by rumen microbes as a source of nitrogen. The study inferred that Kakla weed could be included up to 25 per cent with out any harmful effect in ruminant feed (Singh et al, Indian Vet Med J, 2003, 27, 340).