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Natural Product Radiance

A Bimonthly Digest on Natural Products

 

 

 

VOLUME 3

NUMBER 6

 NOVEMBER – DECEMBER 2004

 

 

 

CONTENTS

 

 

Feature

Symbiotic Fungi for Eco-friendly Environment: A perspective

Rina Kumari, Pham Huong Giang, Minu Sachdev, Amar P Garg and Ajit Varma    

 396

Article

 

Enicostemma littorale Blume A potential hypolipidemic plant

R Gopal, A Gnanamani, R Udayakumar and S Sadulla

401

Wound healing properties of Henna leaves

DM Sakarkar, UM Sakarkar, VN Shrikhande, JV Vyas, S Mandavgade, SB Jaiswal and RN Purohit 

406

Applications of Henna in Unani Systems of Medicine

Mohd. Danish Mahfooz  

412

Effect of Katha leaves dye on UAS sheep breed wool

Rashmi A, Geeta Mahale, R K Sunanda and M Javed                                                

413

Plants as Bioreactor

D Philomina, S Chakkaravarthi and P Bharathi    

430

Green Page

 

Economic evaluation of Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) cultivation in Sanapat Lake, Manipur Valley

Alka Jain, R S Singh and H Birkumar Singh    

421

Explorer

Traditional medicinal practices of Palliyar tribe of Srivilliputhur in Antenatal and Post-natal care of mother and child

S Muthukumarasamy, V R Mohan, S.Kumaresan and V Chelladurai                        

422

Home made baby food

Ashis Ghosh and Jhuma Karan                       

426

Antidiabetic plants used by tribals in Madhya Pradesh

Humaira Yousuf Shawl, Laxmi Tripathi and S Bhattacharya      

427

Unani Tips

Chronic Bronchitis - Prevention and Cure

Dr Jamal Akhtar, Dr Nighat Anjum, Dr Bilal Ahmad                       

428

Internet News

Hazelnuts (Corylus avellana Linn.) ― A potent anticancer agent 

452

Organic farming may help curb water pollution                  

452

Correct use of chemical pesticides          

452

Water cabbage — An aquatic weed in paddy fields           

453

Dirt as Medicine           

453

Birds use herbs to protect their nests    

454

Aloe plant prolongs life after hemorrhagic shock             

454

New uses of whey can increase dairy industry income          

454

Cinnamon oil – A potential killer for dengue fever mosquitoes          

455

Projects/Schemes

Fly Ash Utilization

456

Project on innovative case studies                                                                         

456

CDRI licensed medicinal products manufacturing                                                      

456

Projects contracted to NEERI                                                                                    

456

Exhibition/Conference

National conference – 2004                                                                                       

457

Forthcoming Conferences, Seminars, Exhibitions and Trainings                                 

458

Classified Digests

Beverage                             

433

Condiment                          

435

Dye                                     

436

Food                                    

439

Fruit                                      

440

Insecticide/Fungicide         

440

Oil/Fats                               

441

Spices                                  

442

Therapeutics                       

442

Vegetable                           

448

In Brief                              

450

Readers write                    

394

Guidelines to Authors      

459

NISCAIR Policy on Plagiarism                          

460

Subscription form             

461

List of Referees                

 462

Annual Author Index       

463

Annual Keyword Index    

464

Annual Index                    

466

Key Use Index                   

480

  

Feature

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.3, November- December, 2004, pp. 396- 400

 

Symbiotic Fungi for Eco-friendly Environment: A Perspective

 Rina Kumari1 Pham Huong Giang2, Minu Sachdev1, Amar P Garg2 and Ajit Varma1

Increasing interest in commercial cultivation of medicinal and economically important plants on large scale has necessitated development of various tissue culture techniques for their early growth and improvement in yield. But sometimes micropropagated plants do not acclimatize due to lack of eco-friendly microorganisms in the rhizosphere zones. The relevance of mycorrhiza for the acclimatization, success of micropropagated plantlets has gained importance in the recent past, because most of the forest trees are obligatory dependent upon the mycorrhizal symbiosis. The influence of early mycorrhizal symbiosis under controlled conditions and their resistance to environmental stresses had been reported earlier. Since Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi do not grow like any other fungi apart from their living hosts, an axenically cultivable mycorrhiza-like-fungus named, Piriformospora indica was discovered. The utilization of this fungus in acclimatization of selected economically and medicinally important plants has been discussed in this paper for further exploration. 

Keywords: Symbiotic fungi, Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Piriformospora indica, Plant growth, Green environment.

IPC code; Int. cl.7 ¾ A01H 17/00

 

Article

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.3, November- December, 2004, pp. 401- 405

 

Enicostemma  littorale Blume A potential hypolipidemic plant 

R Gopal1, A Gnanamani1*, R Udayakumar2 and S Sadulla1

Restoration of liver function by the application of Enicostemma littorale Blume (aerial part) powder in p-DAB (p-dimethylaminoazobenzene) induced animals was evaluated by analyzing the serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, serum g-glutamyl transpeptidase and liver malondialdehyde levels. Administration of the chosen plant reduces the hyperlipidemia at significant level and also reduces the lipid peroxidation and significantly increased HDL-cholesterol level in serum. When comparing the results with the standard antilipidemia agent namely, vitamin E, the results obtained using the plant is highly comparable. 

 Keywords: Enicostemma littorale, Chhotachirayta, p-Dimethylaminoazobenzene (p-DAB), Hepatotoxicity, Lipid profile, Lipid peroxidation, g-Glutamyl transpeptidase.

 IPC code; Int. cl. 7 A61K 35/78, A61P 1/16, A61P 3/06

  

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.3, November- December, 2004, pp. 406-412

 
Wound healing properties of Henna leaves

 DM Sakarkar1*, UM Sakarkar2, VN Shrikhande 1, JV Vyas1, S Mandavgade1,SB Jaiswal3 and RN Purohit4

 

Wound healing potential of different extracts of henna leaves i.e. Lawsonia inermis Linn. was evaluated on the rat excision and incision wound models. Lawsone isolated from the leaves was also screened for same pharmacological activity. It was observed that the oral administration as well as topical application of ethanol extract of henna leaves and lawsone exhibited significant healing response in both the wound models. Further, it was found that the topical application of ethanol extract as well as isolated lawsone was more effective than the same given by the oral route. Thus, topical application of ethanol extract can be successfully formulated for the wound healing activity.

 Keywords: Lawsonia inermis, Mehendi, Henna leaves, Lawsone, Ethanol extract, Wound healing.

IPC Code; Int.cl.7 ¾ A61P 17/02, C09B 61/00

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.3, November- December, 2004, pp. 413-417

 
Effect of Katha leaves dye on UAS sheep breed wool

 A Rashmi 1, Geeta Mahale* 1, R K Sunanda 1 and M Javed 2

 The present trend towards revival of natural dyes has encouraged researchers to develop variety of natural dyes from various plants for different fabrics. Among such natural dyes is the Acacia catechu Linn. which is a good source of tannin, gum, timber, fuel and fodder also. The leaves of the tree are also rich in tannin but are left unused.  Hence, an attempt was made to dye the UAS sheep breed wool (off white colour) with a dye extracted from leaves and dyed samples were assessed for their physical parameters.

 Keywords: Acacia catechu, Katha, Cutch Tree, Dye, UAS sheep wool.  

IPC code; Int. cl. 7 C09B 61/00, D06P 1/34, D06P 3/14

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.3, November- December, 2004, pp. 430-432

 Plants as Bioreactor

 D Philomina*, S Chakkaravarthi and P Bharathi

Production of pharmaceutically useful plant secondary metabolites in vitro has various advantages compared to extraction of these compounds from plants grown in the field or collected in nature. Exact control of various environmental parameters ensures a reproducible quality of the material totally independent from climate, weather and pests that affect severely the quality of plant material grown in nature. Thus, much research has been done to establish plant cell and suspension cultures for metabolite production. However, undifferentiated cell cultures often do not produce the desired metabolites in considerable amounts or lose their production capacity over a period of time. In contrast, in vitro cultures of fully differentiated plant organs exhibit a high and reliable production capacity of plant secondary metabolites. Thus, special bioreactors working according to the temporary immersion principle have been designed for automated in vitro culture of fully differentiated plant organs. It has been demonstrated that shoots, roots as well as tubers can be grown successfully with high multiplication rates in these bioreactors. Moreover, it has been found that metabolite concentrations in these tissues are much higher compared to undifferentiated cell cultures. Control of in vitro environmental parameters such as medium supplements, light conditions, immersion frequencies and gas composition have been used successfully to modify the metabolite content of the produced plant biomass. This is a very promising strategy for production of pharmaceutically active plant biomass in vitro.

Keywords: Plant metabolites, Bioreactors, Recombinant pharmaceuticals, Edible vaccines, Plantibodies.

 IPC code; Int. cl. 7 A61K 39/00, C12N 5/00, C12N 15/00

  

Green Page

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.3, November- December, 2004, pp. 421

 

 Economic evaluation of Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) cultivation
in Sanapat Lake, Manipur Valley

Alka Jain1, R S Singh2 and H Birkumar Singh1* 

 

Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.), a rooted hydrophyte has multiple uses in the valley of Manipur; it is edible apart from its religious and medicinal values. A sum of Rs 57,000 was generated during 2002 by selling various parts of lotus from the Sanapat Lake (55 hectares lotus growing area) of Manipur valley. The systematic cultivation of lotus is not only good to improve local economy of the people but also helps in conservation of various wetlands.

Keywords: Lotus, Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn, Cultivation, Economic uses, Manipur valley , Wetlands

IPC Code; Int. cl.7 ¾ A01G 1/00, A23L 1/052, A61K 35/78

  

Explorer

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.3, November- December, 2004, pp. 422- 426

 

 Traditional medicinal practices of Palliyar tribe of Srivilliputhur in Antenatal and Post-natal care of mother and child

S Muthukumarasamy1, V R Mohan2*, S.Kumaresan3 and V Chelladurai4

The present study has been carried out in Grizzled Giant Squirrel Wildlife Sanctuary, Western Ghats, Srivilliputhur, Tamil Nadu. Palliyar, the predominant tribal community has their settlements in different areas of this Sanctuary. Twenty eight medicinal plants belonging to 22 families are identified which have been employed by this section of tribal community in mother and child care. The plants have been enumerated in alphabetical order of botanical names followed by the family name, local (Palliyar) name, parts of plant used, mode of administration and dosage.

 Key words: Palliyar tribes, Traditional medicine, Antenatal and Post-natal and Mother and child care.

 IPC Code; Int. cl.7 ¾ A61K 35/78, A61P 15/00

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.3, November- December, 2004, pp. 426

 

 Home made baby food

 A nutritious baby food called Sneha is prepared by village women of Paschim Medinipur, West Bengal for domestic and marketing purposes. It is healthful and contains essential components for the good growth of 1-6 year old children.

For preparing Sneha, good quality wheat  (Triticum aestivum Linn.) and green gram (Vigna radiata (Linn.) Wilczek) (Hindi- Mung) are taken in 4:1 ratio. They are washed and dried in sunlight then roasted separately and mixed. The mixed grains are then grinded and stored in packets. It is cheaper and supplied by self- supporting women group in the village (contributed by: Ashis Ghosh and Jhuma Karan, Eco-Club, Saraswati Vidyamandir, P. O. & Dist. Paschim Medinipur- 721101, West Bengal).

  

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.3, November- December, 2004, pp. 427

 

Antidiabetic plants used by tribals in Madhya Pradesh

Humaira Yousuf Shawl, Laxmi Tripathi* and S Bhattacharya

 The history of diabetes dates back to centuries but no substantial success has yet been achieved in the development of permanent cure. Allopathic medicinal system is expensive, provides only symptomatic relief, fails to revert the body to normal state and the repercussions of long term therapy include severe side effects. To overcome these pitfalls, Alternative systems have come into limelight. In this article twenty two medicinal plants used by tribal people of Madhya Pradesh are enlisted for further exploration.

Keywords: Medicinal plants, Madhya Pradesh,Tribals, Antidiabetic.

 IPC Code; Int. cl.7 ¾ A61K 35/78, A61P 3/10

 

Unani Tips

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.3, November- December, 2004, pp. 428- 429

 

Chronic Bronchitis - Prevention and Cure

Jamal Akhtar, Nighat Anjum and  Bilal Ahmad

 

 The bronchi are air passages connecting the windpipe (trachea) with the sacs of lungs (alveoli), where oxygen is taken up by blood. Bronchitis is an inflammation of bronchi causing excessive mucus production and swelling of the bronchial walls.

Chronic bronchitis is the term applied when coughing and sputum continues for 2-3 months and returns each year for at least two years generally lasting slightly longer each time. According to the Unani system of medicine ‘Sual’ or cough is an act by which body tries to remove the irritating substances from organs (lungs). The act of cough is performed by contraction and relaxation of chest muscles and diaphragm. Sometimes chronic bronchitis is associated with airflow obstruction and may be associated with breathlessness.

Causes

According to Unani system of medicine, chronic bronchitis is caused due to accumulation of excessive phlegm in the respiratory system that causes irritation to the sacs of the lung thereby resulting in cough. The incidence of chronic bronchitis is more in winter and spring season. It is more prevalent in males. Cigarette smoking is the most prevalent causative factor of chronic bronchitis. It rarely occurs in non-smokers. Environmental pollution plays a major role in the development of the disease especially excessive quantity of SO2, organic and inorganic dust.

Symptoms

Initially it begins with cough associated with expectoration of small amounts of sputum each morning. In this period the quality of life of the individual is absolutely normal. Gradually, cough becomes more frequent during daytime and even at night. The sputum, which initially was white in colour, may now become yellowish. At a later stage breathlessness and wheezing (a whistling sound produced while breathing) may be present. With the progression in the disease, the quality of life of the individual deteriorates. If the quality of life of the patient is such that he is unable to carry out the daily activities of living independently then he should immediately consult a physician. 

DO’s

  1. Bed Rest.
  2. Stay indoors in warm atmosphere.
  3. Annual vaccination against influenza.
  4. Vaccination once against bacterial pneumococcal pneumonia.
  5. Regular exercise which includes walking or bicycling 3 times per week.
  6. Oral dietary supplements to improve muscle strength.
  7. Easily digestible meals without overeating.

DON’T’s

  1.  Avoid smoking as it increases the decrease.
  2. Use of hair spray, deodorant spray and paint.
  3. Cough suppressants.
  4. Sedatives.
  5. Diet having wet and cold temperament aid in the production of sputum; hence fat, curd, cold water and citrus fruits should be avoided.

 Home Remedies 

The following preparations are useful in the treatment of chronic bronchitis. 

Preparation No. 1 

Leaves of Gaozaban (Onosma bracteatum Wall.) 4g, seeds of Khatmi (Althaea officinalisLinn.) 6g, fruits of Sapestan (Cordia obliqua Willd.) 10 no., root of Mulethi (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.) 4g and fruits of Unnab (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) 5 no. All the ingredients after boiling in 250 ml water, strained and sweetened with sugar may be taken twice daily.

Preparation No. 2

 Juice of Adrak (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) 12 ml with 12 g of honey two or three times a day.

 Preparation No. 3

Powder of Kakda singhii (Pistacia integerrima Stewart ex Brandis) 1 part and powder of Balela (Terminalia bellerica Roxb.) 1 part mixed with juice of Adrak and made into pills of the size of Bengal gram can be taken two to three times daily.

 Preparation No. 4

 One laung, Syzygium aromaticum (Linn.) Merrill & Perry with Paan leaf (Betel) twice daily. 

Preparation No. 5

 A piece of Mulethi, kept in hot ash till it becomes soft can be chewed and the juice is swallowed, two to three times a day.

Preparation No. 6

One part powder of Kakda singhii is mixed with equal part of powder of Sonth (Dried root of Zingiber officinale). 5 g of this powder may be taken twice or thrice daily.

 Preparation No. 7

 Gaozaban (5g), Mulethi (5 g) and 24 g of Misri are boiled in water, strained and 20 ml of this is taken twice daily.

 

 Pharmacopoeial Medicines 

  1. Sharbat-e-aijaz (syrup) – 20-50 ml twice daily.
  2. Dayaqooza – 5-10 g with water twice daily.
  3. Hab-e-sual (Pills) – Taken as lozenges according to need.
  4. Iksir-e-sual – 1 tablet with honey twice daily.
  5. Sualin - 2 tablets grounded and mixed with lukewarm water twice daily.
  6. Saduri (syrup) – 2 teaspoonful with lukewarm water twice daily.

  

Classified Digests

 
Beverages

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.3, November- December, 2004, pp. 433

 

 Utilization of dried apple pomace as a press aid to improve the quality of fruit juices

The scientists at Cornell University, Department of Food Science and Technology, NY State Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva and Biology Department, William Smith College, Geneva, United States analyzed the effects of press aids on strawberry, raspberry and blueberry juice quality and evaluated the effectiveness of dried apple pomace as an alternative press aid.

 Juice yields with apple pomace were similar to the yields from using rice hulls and paper. Triangle difference tests showed that there were differences between the berry juices pressed with conventional press aid to the berry juices pressed with apple pomace press aid. The paired comparison preference tests showed that the berry juices pressed with apple pomace were preferred. Flavour analysis using gas chromatography-olfactometry indicated possible off-flavours being extracted from rice hulls, such as indole and 4-vinylguaical, and from paper, such as (Z)-2-octenal and 2-nonenal, into the berry juices [Roberts et al, J Food Sci, 2004, 69(4), SNQ181-SNQ190].

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.3, November- December, 2004, pp. 435

 

 Effect of HIPEF and heat treatments on milk

 

Pulsed electric fields (PEF) treatment involves applying very short electric pulses (ms) at high electric field intensities (typically pulse duration within the interval of 10–1000 ms; electric field strength within 20–80 kV/cm). During the PEF procedure, energy loss due to heating of foods is minimized, thereby reducing nutritional depletion and changes in the physical properties of foods.Researchers at Spain evaluated the effect of high intensity pulsed electric fields and heat treatments on vitamins of milk.

 

During experiment the effects of high intensity pulsed electric field (HIPEF) treatments at room or moderate temperature on water-soluble (thiamine, riboflavin, ascorbic acid) and fat-soluble vitamins (cholecalciferol and tocopherol) were evaluated and compared with conventional thermal treatments. Vitamin retention was determined in two different substrates, milk and simulated skim milk ultrafiltrate (SMUF). Samples were subjected to HIPEF treatments of up to 400 Μs at field strengths from 18.3 to 27.1 kV/cm and to heat treatments of up to 60 minute at temperatures from 50 to 90°C. No changes in vitamin content were observed after HIPEF or thermal treatments except for ascorbic acid. Milk retained more ascorbic acid after a 400 Μs-treatment at 22.6 kV/cm (93.4%) than after low (63°C-30 minute; 49.7% retained) or high (75°C-15 s; 86.7% retained) heat pasteurisation treatments. Retention of ascorbic acid fitted a first-order kinetic model for both HIPEF and thermal processes. First-order constant values varied from 1.8 × 10-4 to 1.27 × 10-3 Μs-1 for the HIPEF treatments (18.3-27.1 kV/cm) and, for thermal processing ranged from 5 × 10-3 to 8 × 10-2/ minute (50-90°C).

 

No significant differences were found between the results obtained after applying HIPEF treatments at room or moderate temperature. However, results depended on the treatment media. A beneficial effect of natural skim milk components, mainly proteins, was observed on the preservation of ascorbic acid, since skim milk retained more ascorbic acid than SMUF after HIPEF treatments [Bendicho et al, J Dairy Res, 2002, 69(1), 113-123].

 

 

Condiment

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.3, November- December, 2004, pp. 435

 

 Coriander leaf puree
 

Coriander (Coriandrum sativum Linn.) leaves are used for flavouring food, snacks and some soft drinks in India since ancient times. The food scientists at Department of Food Sciences, Faculty of Food Systems, United Arab Emirates University, UAE, Department of Chemical Engineering & Technology, Panjab University, Chandigarh and Department of Food Science & Technology, G.N.D. University, Amritsar, India evaluated the colour kinetics and rheology of coriander leaf puree and storage characteristics of the paste for its storage for a longer period.

 The colour degradation kinetics of coriander leaf puree was studied using a fraction conversion technique during thermal treatment at 50, 65, 80, 95 and 110 °C for up to 60 min. Blanched, comminuted coriander leaf puree was subjected to heat treatment at selected temperatures in an oil bath with agitation. Treated samples were removed from the bath at selected time intervals (0–60 min after come-up period), cooled immediately and analyzed for colour using a Hunterlab colourimeter. The rheological characteristics of the puree were evaluated using a computer-controlled Haake rotational viscometer at 50, 60, 70 and 80 °C and it was found that the Herschel–Bulkley model adequately represented shear stress-shear rate data. Temperature dependency of the consistency index and apparent viscosity at a shear rate of 100 s−1 followed the Arrhenius relationship and the flow activation energy ranged between 17.2 and 17.9 kJ/mol. Coriander puree was converted to paste by adding common salt (2%) and the required volume of citric acid to adjust the pH to 4.2. The paste was then filled into glass bottles and stored at selected temperatures (5, 25 and 37 °C) for 6 months and was periodically evaluated for colour, total aerobic plate count and physicochemical properties. Coriander puree/paste colour was expressed in terms of tristimulus colour value a and combination (L×a×b). First order reaction kinetics adequately described the changes in colour values during both thermal treatment of puree and storage of paste. The process activation energies were 29.3 and 22.1 kJ/mol, respectively, for a and (L×a×b) during thermal treatment. The corresponding values during storage were 12.7 and 12.2 kJ/mol. The paste was microbiologically stable with no significant changes (P>0.05) in physicochemical characteristics during storage [Ahmed et al, Food Chem, 2004, 84(4), 605-611].

  

Dye

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.3, November- December, 2004, pp. 436

 

 Removal of malachite green dye

The scientists at Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guru Jambheshwar University, Hisar, India investigated removal of malachite green dye from aqueous solution by adsorption using agro-industry waste. During experiment adsorbents prepared from Prosopis cineraria Druce (Hindi - Khejri) sawdust—an agro-industry waste were used to remove the malachite green from an aqueous solution in a batch reactor. The adsorbents included formaldehyde-treated sawdust (PCSD) and sulphuric acid-treated sawdust (PCSDC). The effects of adsorbent surface change, initial pH, initial dye concentration, adsorbent mass and contact time on dye removal have been determined. Similar experiments were carried out with commercially available coconut based carbon (GAC) to evaluate the performance of PCSD and PCSDC. The adsorption efficiency of different adsorbents was in the order GAC>PCSDC>PCSD. Kinetic parameters of adsorption such as the Lagergren pseudo-first-order constant and the intra particle diffusion were determined. An initial pH of the solution in the range 6–10 was favourable for the malachite green removal for both the adsorbents. These experimental studies have indicated that PCSD and PCSDC could be employed as low-cost alternatives in wastewater treatment for the removal of dyes [Garg et al, Dyes & Pigments, 2004, 62(1), 1-10].

  

Fruit

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.3, November- December, 2004, pp. 440

 

 Browning inhibitor formulation for fresh-cut apples

 The scientists at U S Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center, United States and  J. J. Strossmayer University, Osijek, Croatia have investigated a browning inhibitor for fresh-cut apples that would not support human pathogen survival.

 Granny Smith and Fuji wedges varieties of apple were treated with acidic or neutral browning inhibitors with and without addition of sodium hexametaphosphate. Wedges in modified atmosphere packaging pouches were observed for browning during storage at 4°C and 10°C. A pH 2.9 dip containing ascorbic acid, citric acid, and sodium hexametaphosphate suppressed browning for at least 3 week at 4°C, whereas formulations without hexametaphosphate failed within 1 week. The results demonstrate that browning to fresh-cut apples can be controlled with a formulation unlikely to support human pathogen survival or growth [Pilizota & Sapers, J Food Sci, 2004, 69(4), SNQ140-SNQ143].

  

Oil/Fats

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.3, November- December, 2004, pp. 441

 

 Potato peels as a natural antioxidant in Soybean oil

 During storage fats and oils undergo pronounced oxidative changes at high temperature hence due to oxidative changes the nutritional quality of fats and oils decreases. However, addition of some suitable antioxidant in fats and oils retard the oxidation process. Synthetic antioxidants used to prevent oxidation process are known to have toxic and carcinogenic effects on humans. A strong need for effective antioxidants, from natural sources, as alternatives, to prevent deterioration of foods have been felt. Extracts from spices, herbs and hulls are known to have varying degrees of antioxidant activities have been reported to be more effective than some major synthetic antioxidants.

Petroleum ether extract of potato peels are known to possess strong antioxidant activity due to the presence of chlorogenic, gallic, cinnamic and ferulic acids as the major antioxidant compounds in the extract. However, effects of temperature and time period of storage on the antioxidant activity of potato peel extract have not yet been reported. Therefore, scientists at Biotechnology & Food Research Centre, PCSIR Laboratories Complex, Lahore, Pakistan evaluated the Utilization of potato peels extract as a natural antioxidant in soybean oil.

 The potato peel extract, as natural antioxidant was evaluated during 60 days storage of refined soybean oil at 25 and 45 C. Free fatty acids (FFA), peroxide values (POV) and iodine values (IV) were used as a criteria to assess the antioxidant activity of potato peel extract. Different organic solvents, including ethanol, methanol, acetone, hexane, petroleum ether and diethyl ether, were used to prepare extracts of potato peels. Maximum amount of extract (21%) was obtained with petroleum ether, followed by diethyl ether (15.25%) and methanol (14.75%). After 60 days’ storage at 45 C, soybean oil, containing 1600 and 2400 ppm of petroleum ether extract of potato peels, showed lower values of FFA (0.120, 0.109%) and POVs (10.0, 9.0 meq/kg) than the control samples (FFA 0.320%, POV 59 meq/kg). Soy bean oil containing 200 ppm of BHA and BHT showed FFA values of 0.102 and 0.078%, whereas POVs were 8.0 and 6.0 meq/kg, respectively, after 60 days, storage at 45 C. Similarly, after 60 days, storage at 45 C, iodine values of soy bean oil containing 1600 and 2400 ppm of potato peel extract were 71 and 77, respectively, which were higher than the control samples of oil (58). However, iodine values for soybean oil treated with 200 ppm of BHA and BHT were 80 and 84, respectively, after 60 days’ storage at 45 C.

 The results conclude that potato peel extract at various concentrations possess very strong antioxidant activity, almost equal to synthetic antioxidants (BHA & BHT). Therefore, potato peel extract in oils, fats and other food products can safely be used as natural antioxidant to suppress lipid oxidation. However, the level of potato peel extract needed was 8–12 times higher than that of the synthetic antioxidants to control the development of rancidity during storage of cooking oils at elevated temperature [Rehman et al, Food Chem, 2004, 85(2), 215-220].

 

Therapeutics

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.3, November- December, 2004, pp. 445

 

 Cannabis improves night vision
 

Cannabis sativa Linn., commonly known as Marijuana (Hindi - Bhang) has been utilized in ethnomedicine in psychiatry, migraine, other pain conditions and in obstetrics and gynecology. It is reported that Jamaican fishermen who smoked or ingested a crude tincture of cannabis were apparently able to see and navigate their boats through dangerous coral reefs in the darkness of night under conditions that seemed highly improbable. Modern investigation of the phenomenon being scanty, scientists at USA and Morocco investigated effect of cannabis on night vision especially the dark adaptometry and scotopic sensitivity in kif smokers of the Rif mountains of northern Morocco. The study supports the previous ethnobotanical observations that cannabis may improve night vision. This effect seems to be dose-dependent and cannabinoid-mediated. Further study may reveal whether this clinical application of cannabis could be added to treatment of pain, spasticity of multiple sclerosis and nausea of chemotherapy as recognized indications for this ancient substance [Russo et al, J Ethnopharmacol 2004, 93(1), 99-104].

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.3, November- December, 2004, pp. 445

 

 Bronchodilatory effect of  Common purslane in airways of asthmatic patients

Asthma has now become the chronic disease and epidemiological studies indicate that it is increasing throughout the world. Common purslane, Portulaca oleracea Linn. (Hindi - Kulfa) is an annual plant, which grows in many areas of the world. Its therapeutic effects for respiratory diseases are indicated in ancient Iranian medical books especially diuretic, anti-ascorbic, antipyretic, anti-asthma, anti-inflammatory and antitussive effect.

Relaxant effect of this plant has also been observed on smooth muscle tissue in previous studies. Therefore, scientists at Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Iran examined the bronchodilatory effect of the boiled extract of P. oleracea in the airway of asthmatic patients.

 The relaxant effect of the orally administered 0.25ml/kg of 5% boiled extract in comparison with 3mg/kg oral theophylline and 200μg inhaled salbutamol was studied by measuring forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), maximal mid-expiratory flow (MEF25–75) and specific airway conductance (sGaw). The FEV1, PEF, MEF25–75 and sGaw were measured before, administration and repeated 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after administration of the oral extract and theopylline. For inhaled salbutamol measurements were performed 5, 15, 30, and 60 min post-inhalation. Results showed that the boiled extract of the plant caused significant increases in all measured pulmonary function tests (PFTs), (P<0.05 to P<0.01). There was no significant difference between the maximum increase in measured PFTs due to the boiled extract and theophylline. However, maximum increase in PEF and MEF25–75 due to the boiled extract were significantly lower than those of salbutamol (P<0.05 for both cases). The onset of bronchodilatory effect of extract was similar to that of theophylline beginning 60 min, but the effect of extract decline after 120 min after administration. In conclusion, the results of the present study showed that Common purslane has a relatively potent but transient bronchodilatory effect on asthmatic airways [Malek et al, J Ethnopharmacol, 2004, 93(1), 57-62].

 

Vegetable

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.3, November- December, 2004, pp. 449

 

 Leukaemia cell growth inhibitory properties of Onion powders

 The scientist at Department of Food Science and Technology, Tajen Institute of Technology, Taiwan evaluated the free radical scavenging and leukaemia cell growth inhibitory properties of Onion powders treated by different heating processes. During experiment methanol extracts of onion powder dried by hot air (60°C), vacuum (35°C) and lyophilization (35°C) were used to study the effects of drying method on the quercetin composition and the subsequent antioxidative changes.

 It was found that hot air-dried onion had higher radical scavenging activities in both DPPH and peroxide radicals than those of the freeze- and vacuum-dried onions. HPLC analyses showed that freeze- and vacuum-dried onions contained more quercetin glycosides, whereas hot air-dried onion dominated in aglycone. A strong cell proliferation inhibition activity in hot air-dried onion was observed for leukaemia cell lines CEM and U937, whereas freeze- and vacuum-dried onions gave comparatively moderate inhibition. Low cell proliferation inhibition was obtained in 3 dried onions for leukaemia cell lines K562, P3HR-1 and Raji [Fu, J Food Sci, 2004, 69(1), SNQ50-SNQ54].

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.3, November- December, 2004, pp. 449

 

 Pre-washing uncut carrots with chlorine ensure sugar retention

The scientists at Institute of Food Technology of Hohenheim University, Germany analyzed quality of shredded, packaged carrots as affected by different washing treatments to ensure sugar retention in shredded and washed carrots and to improve the sensorial and microbial quality of packaged ready-to-eat produce. 

 During experiment different washing treatments with chlorinated and ozonated water were applied to carrots (Daucus carota Linn.) on an industrial scale. Quality of shredded carrots was determined by sensory evaluation and microbiological analysis. Washing shredded carrots resulted in increased sugar leaching and loss of sensorial quality, whereas pre-washing uncut carrots with chlorine ensured sugar retention, reduced microbial load and concurrently minimized cross-contamination. Comparable germ reduction was not achieved by pre-washing with ozone. The findings demonstrate that pre-washing uncut carrots with chlorine provide sufficient microbiological safety paired with improved sensorial properties [Klaiber et al, J Food Sci, 2004, 69(4), SNQ161-SNQ166].

 

Internet News

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.3, November- December, 2004, pp. 455

 

 Cinnamon oil – A potential killer for dengue fever mosquitoes

Mosquitoes are the deadly agents to carry malaria, yellow fever and West Nile virus. Conventional pesticides are effective in controlling mosquito larvae before they hatch but repeated use of these synthetic pesticides has raised serious environmental and health concerns. Therefore, the need for natural environment friendly agents for killing mosquito larval was felt.

 The researchers at School of Forestry and Resource Conservation at National Taiwan University evaluated pesticidal activity of Cinnamon oil. The oil, obtained from bark and leaf of the tree, Cinnamomum zeylanicum Breyn. (Hindi- Dalchini) has shown great potential as an environment friendly pesticide, with the ability to kill mosquito larvae and also expected it could be a good mosquito repellant against adult mosquitoes.

 The scientists tested eleven compounds in cinnamon leaf oil for their ability to kill emerging larvae of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Four compounds — cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl acetate, eugenol and anethole exhibited the strongest activity against A. aegypti in 24 hours of testing. All four compounds had LC50 values of less than 50 parts per million (ppm), with cinnamaldehyde showing the strongest activity at an LC50 of 29 ppm.

 Cinnamaldehyde is the main constituent in cinnamon leaf oil and is used worldwide as a food additive and flavoring agent. A formulation using the compound could be sprayed just like a pesticide, but without the potential for adverse health effects plus the added bonus of a pleasant smell

(http://center.acs.org/applications/ccs/application/index.cfm?PressReleaseID=2369&categoryid=9%20onClick=).