Total visitors: 3,994  since 08-03-05

 Natural Product Radiance

A Bimonthly Digest on Natural Products

 

 

VOLUME 4

NUMBER 1

January - February 2005

 

 

CONTENTS

 

 

Feature

 

Pitfalls in Journey from Traditional to Modern medicine

 

Ashwani Koul, Subhash Chander Gangar and Vandana Sandhir

IPC code; Int. cl. 7 A61K 35/78            

6

 

 

Article

 

Quantitative estimation of iron in Unani herbo-mineral products employing ion exchange chromatography

 

Tajuddin, S H Afaq and Yusuf Salim,       

IPC code; Int. cl.7  A61K 33/26, B01J 39/06                

14

 

 

Essential oils as Therapeutics

 

S C Garg

IPC Code; Int. cl.7 C11B 9/00, A61P/00 A61P 31/00, A61P 33/10  

18

 

 

Antibacterial potential of some plants used by tribals in Maruthamalai hills Tamil Nadu

 

M Senthilkumar, P Gurumoorthi and K Janardhanan        

IPC code; Int. cl.7 A61P 31/04      

27

 

 

Green Page

 

Intercropping in young tea plantation

 

Swapon Baruah, Nassimuddin Ahmed and Samiran Saikia 

IPC code; Int. cl.7 A01G1/00                   

35

 

 

Growing colourful and nutritious Amaranths

 

A L Bhatia       

IPC code; Int. cl.7 A01H5/00    

40

 

 

Ayurvedic Tips

 

Bronchial Asthma (Tamakashwasa)

 

Dr. Aashish Phadke                                                                 

44

 

 

Explorer

 

Hitherto untapped plantlore from Nandurbar district (Maharashtra)

 

S. K. Tayade and D. A. Patil               

IPC Code; Int.cl.7 A61F13/00, A61F103/00, A61K 35/78, A61P/00                                             

46

 

 

Internet News

 

New chemical process to convert Cotton Gin Residue into valuable product  

 70

Dyeing fabrics with Gold                                                          

70

Edible Flowers                                                                          

70

Applications of essential oils in common problems                    

71

Lupin may be the next food allergen                                         

72

GM cotton cuts herbicide use    

                                   

72

Projects/Schemes

 

TIFAC Support For Herbal/ Natural Product/Process Technology               

73

Tripura Small Industries Corporation (T.S.I.C.)            

73

Dioscorea Project                                              

74

 

 

Exhibition/Conference

 

Forthcoming Conferences, Seminars, Exhibitions and Trainings                  

75

 

 

Classified Digests

 

Beverage                                                                                 

51

Dye                                                                                         

52

Fishery                                                                                    

53

Food                                                                                       

54

Fruit                                                                                        

56

Gum                                                                                        

58

Insecticide/Fungicide                                                                

59

Spices                                                                                     

60

Therapeutics                                                                            

60

Tissue culture                                                                           

65

Vegetable                                                                                

66

In Brief                                                                                    

68

Readers write                                                                          

4

Guidelines to Authors                                                               

76

About IPC Codes                                                                   

78

Subscription form                                                                    

79

Index                                                                                       

80

  

 

Feature

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, January-February, 2005, pp. 6-13

 

Pitfalls in Journey from Traditional to Modern medicine

Ashwani Koul1*, Subhash Chander Gangar1 and Vandana Sandhir2

 

For thousands of years, man has sought healing powers from the natural world especially from plants. With the advent of modern medicine humans started isolating the active components and used them as such or made more effective analogs for therapy. Crude extract(s) based traditional medicine, on the other hand has better compatibility with the human body with minimal side effects. It is evident that crude extract has lesser side effects because of the modulatory activity of some components present in it along with the active component, which neutralizes the side effects and even synergies the medicinal effects of the later. In this article authors have analyzed the advantages of use of crude extract than their active component or synthetic counterpart based on information in literature.

 

Keywords: Traditional medicines, Modern medicines, Crude extracts, Synthetic compounds.

 

IPC code; Int. cl. 7 A61K 35/78

 

 

 

Article

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, January-February, 2005, pp. 14-17

 

Quantitative estimation of iron in Unani herbo-mineral products employing ion exchange chromatography

Tajuddin, S H Afaq * and Yusuf Salim

 

The ion exchange chromatography was conducted on Unani Syrup preparation of iron (Sharbat-e-faulad), manufactured by the three different pharmaceutical companies and compared with the standard Fesovit spansules. The ion exchanger was antimony (v) arsenosilicate, which is of crystalline nature and found to be highly selective for iron. The results indicate that the syrup manufactured by Hamdard (Wakf) Laboratories, Delhi (SFH) contains 96.11 + 3.5 mg/10 ml. The sample of Rex (U&A) Remedies (Pvt) Ltd., Delhi (SFR) contains 78.4 + 1.5 mg/10 ml and Dwakhana Tibbia College, Aligarh (SFD) contains 30.37 + 1.8 mg/10 ml iron. The Fesovit spansules (FS) manufactured by Glaxo-Smith Kline Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Bangalore contains 47.7 + 0.9 mg per spansule. SFH comprises highest content of iron and most suitable for severe iron deficiency anaemia. SFR is the standard sample and negligible discrepancy noted in the content of iron claimed by manufacturer, whereas in SFD 25.308% less iron was determined in comparison to claimed amount of iron. Standard operational procedure (SOP) is required to be implemented for standard preparations of traditional medicines.

 

Keywords: Iron estimation, Ion exchange chromatography, Unani syrup preparation, Sharbat-e-faulad, Fesovit, Iron deficiency anaemia.

 

IPC code; Int. cl.7 A61K 33/26, B01J 39/06

 

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

 Vol.4, January-February, 2005, pp. 18-26

 

Essential oils as Therapeutics

 S C Garg

 

Essential oils are the volatile secondary plant metabolites, which mainly consist of terpenoids and benzenoids. Research in the later half of 20th century has revealed that many curative properties attributed to various plants in indigenous medicine are also present in their essential oils. These oils exert a number of general effects from the pharmacological viewpoint. When applied locally, the essential oils mix readily with skin oils, allowing these to attack the infective agents quickly and actively. Therapeutic properties of various essential oils based on folklore, experiences and claims of aromatherapists and scientific studies have been summarised in this review. In vitro studies conducted by the author on antimicrobial and anthelmintic properties of some essential oils have also been discussed.

 

Keywords: Essential oils, Therapeutics, Aromatherapy, Antimicrobial, Anthelmintic.

 

IPC Code; Int. cl.7 C11B 9/00, A61P/00, A61P 31/00, A61P 33/10

 

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, January-February, 2005, pp. 27-34

 

Antibacterial potential of some plants used by tribals in Maruthamalai hills, Tamil Nadu

M Senthilkumar, P Gurumoorthi and K Janardhanan*

 

In this study an attempt was made to assess the antibacterial potential of three medicinal plants used by tribals in Maruthamalai hills, Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu. Antibacterial activity of 35 extracts at three different concentrations of various plant parts of Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.,  Pergularia daemia R. Br. and Toddalia asiatica var. floribunda Lam. collected from Maruthamalai hills, in Western Ghats was evaluated against certain bacterial pathogens such as Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi. All the extracts exhibited tested antibacterial activity at higher concentrations.

 

Keywords: Medicinal plants, Antibacterial activity, Strychnos nux-vomica, Pergularia daemia, Toddalia asiatica, Maruthamalai hills, Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu.

 

IPC code; Int. cl.7  A61P 31/04

 

 

 

Green Page

 

Natural Product Radiance

 Vol.4, January-February, 2005, pp. 35-39

 

Intercropping in young tea plantation

Swapon Baruah*, Nassimuddin Ahmed and Samiran Saikia

           

A field experiment was conducted during 2000-2001 with a view to find out suitable vegetable crops for intercropping in young tea during formative years for optimizing farm return. The analysis of Tea Equivalent Yield (TEY) of different crop combinations indicated that the combination of Tomato (rabi) and Cucumber (kharif) produced the highest yield followed by French bean (rabi) and Cowpea (kharif) crop combination. The Yield of System Total (YST) also showed the same trend by these two crop combinations

 

Keywords: Intercropping, Tea, Vegetable crops, Tomato, Cucumber, French bean, Cowpea, Rabi, Kharif.

 

IPC code; Int. cl.7 A01G 1/00

 

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, January-February, 2005, pp. 40-43

 

Growing colourful and nutritious Amaranths

A L Bhatia

 

Amaranths are colourful, quick growing and nutritious plants suitable for growing as a backdrop in sunny border garden. Amaranths are locally known as Batu, Bhabhri, Cholai, Ganhar, Harave, Keere, Maarsu,  Marsha, Pung-keerai, Rajakeera, Ramdana, Sawal and  Sil. They have recently gained popularity as an ornamental plant. Amaranth is a useful annual addition to the garden during the warmer months. It is refreshing to have the annual plant varieties like Amaranths in garden. Plants in the Amaranths family thrive in the sun and poor soil and grow quickly to the size of a small shrub. They grow vigorously, resist drought, heat and pests and adept readily to new environments, as weeds also that are inhospitable to conventional cereal crops. Amaranths are both historic and contemporary plants. The varieties and species belonging to the genus Amaranthus Linn. are complex and diverse both genetically and taxonomically. Even within one species, the ranges of forms and uses are remarkable. The paper deals with the introduction, utilization and cultivation aspects of this crop to help plant growers and researchers in developing Amaranths as an economic and prospective crop.

 

Keywords: Amaranths, Cholai, Rajakeera, Ramdana, nutritious, ornamental, cultivation

IPC code; Int. cl.7 A01H5/00

  

 

 

Ayurvedic Tips

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, January-February, 2005, pp. 44-45

 

Bronchial Asthma (Tamakashwasa)

 Dr. Aashish Phadke

 

Ayurveda discussed about a disease namely Shwasa, wherein there are set of complaints such as difficulty in breathing, anorexia (loss of appetite), fatigue, etc. As depicted by its name itself shwasa means breath, so whenever there is difficulty in breathing in (shwasa) and breathing out (Nishwasa), the disease is called as Shwasa in common language. Ayurveda has classified this disease into further five subtypes. Of which one is Tamakashwasa, which shows a great similarity in its symptomatology with bronchial asthma. There are various medications oral, local and also of certain Panchakarma. Ayurvedic practitioners for bronchial asthma especially recommend therapy like Vamana therapy.

 

Causes

 

As per the ancient classical text of Ayurveda, diet which can aggravate vitiated vata (dushta vata) for example, chana, vatana (peas), rajama, dried food items (fast food), more oily, more spicy or those food articles causing increased kapha, viz. curd, yoghurt, cold drinks, ice creams and fish should be avoided. Also there is a mention of pollutants like fumes and smoke (dhoomra) and pollen grains, which can also leads to the exacerbation of the complaints. Psychosomatic parameters like Bhaya (fear), Krodha (anger), Shoka (grief), Chinta (stress), etc. can also leads to the exacerbations of the disease.

 

Symptoms

 

Patient suffering from Tamakshwasa exhibits following symptoms and signs.

(i). Patient cannot breath properly, breaths with great difficulty tries to loosen clothings at neck chest and waist, gets increased perspiration.

(ii). There is typical whistling sound (sound of pigeon Kapotkujanavat dhwani) while breathing

(iii). Patient feels better and less trouble in breathing while in a sitting posture.

(iv). There exists great difficulty in breathing in lying down position.

 (v). Patient feels better with hot articles (hot water for drinking, oil massage of luke warm oil to chest and then there after fomentation with hot water bag).

 

Management of Tamakashwasa

 

Vamana therapy is one of the therapies, which has been recommended in Ayurveda for the management of bronchial asthma. It is a systematic medically induced emesis with the help of which we can remove the excess quantity of vitiated kapha dosha, thereby helping in the therapy of vatakaphaja type of Tamakashwasa. Whereas Snehana ( Oleation massage with til oil ) and Swedana (Sudation/steaming with medical decoctions) should be undertaken in both types.

 

Medicinal herbs like Vasa, Arusha (Adhatoda vasica Nees), Ginger, Adrak (Zingiber officinale Rosc.), Indian Aloe, Ghee-kunvar (Aloe vera Linn.), Licorice, Mulhatti (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.), Nightshade, Kantakari (Solanum surattense Burm.f. syn. S. xanthocarpum Schrad. & Wendl.) are found to be useful in the management of Tamakashwasa.

 

Home Remedies

 

      Take th teaspoonful (tsf) dry ginger powder + th tsf turmeric powder + pinch of salt + 1 tsf Honey Lick this mixture as a linctus.

      Make a decoction of Tulsi leaves (8 to 10) +3 to 5 Black Pepper seeds + Ginger powder tsf +1 clove +Gavatichai- ki- patti (Lilly Tea) 1 + Kadishakkar +1 cup water Boil it on low flame without putting lid, up to 1/4th cup. Then strain it, and get a fluid called Kashayam /Kadha /Ukala. This has to be taken thrice a day. To be prepared and consumed fresh every time.

      Take1 tsf of Ajawayan +1 tsf of turmeric + 1 tsf of licorice powder + tsf of dry ginger powder + pinch of black pepper + 1 cup of water Boil it on low flame without putting lid, up to 1/4th cup. Then strain it, and get Kadha. This has to be taken thrice a day. To be prepared fresh and consumed fresh every time.

 

All these things are to be taken in Avegavastha i.e. when there is NO stage of attack of bronchial asthma, this will help to improve the duration between two attacks. But at the time of attacks, one must seek medical help promptly.

 

Dos & Dont

 

      Do not have chilled, cold drinks, ice creams, etc.

      Do not have fish / seafood products.

      Do not have excessive oily and spicy, pungent food.

      Do not sleep at very late night (because that can also increase vitiated vata ).

      Do not take curds, curd products.

      Do not take tension or stress.

      Do not have any self medication (even though it is Ayurvedic Medicine).

      Take medications regularly without any gap from a qualified doctor.

      Do not eat food which are known to create exacerbation of the disease.

      Certain diet rules (Pathya) are also to be followed for controlling or even eradicating this dreadful disorder.

 

 

 

Explorer

 

Natural Product Radiance

 Vol.4, January-February, 2005, pp. 46-50

 

Hitherto untapped plantlore from Nandurbar district (Maharashtra)

S. K. Tayade1* and D. A. Patil2

 

An account of hitherto unreported information on medicinal uses of 45 plant species of Angiosperms obtained from the tribal as well as rural people of Nandurbar district of Maharashtra has been communicated in this paper. Information on vernacular name, parts and different forms of preparations used, uses, and administration methods of the plant have also been provided.

 

Keywords: Ethnomedicine, Medicinal plants, Nandurbar district, Maharashtra.

IPC Code; Int.cl.7 A61F13/00, A61F103/00, A61K 35/78, A61P/00

 

 

 

Classified Digests

 

Beverages

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, January-February, 2005, pp. 51

 
The vasculoprotective effects of flavonoid-rich cocoa and chocolate beverage

 

Cocoa flavonoids are derived from the cacao bean, found in the fruit pod of the cacao tree, Theobroma cacao Linn. It is an important ingredient of chocolates, commonly sold in markets. The scientists at San Francisco, CA, USA reviewed the vasculoprotective effects of flavonoid-rich cocoa and chocolate. There is growing evidence that dietary supplementation with flavonoid-rich cocoa and chocolate may be cardioprotective because of their interference in many pathophysiological mechanisms associated with atherosclerosis. Possible beneficial effects by cocoa flavonoids include: antioxidant properties, improvement in endothelial function, blood pressure lowering, decreased platelet activation and function, and modulation of immune function and inflammation. Larger, long-term clinical trials investigating the potential beneficial effects of purified flavonoids and food sources rich in flavonoids, including cocoa and chocolate, are certainly warranted.

 

It is also important to note that most dark chocolate contains a higher amount of antioxidant cocoa flavanols than does milk chocolate. For example, a 40-g serving of milk chocolate provides 394 mg of cocoa flavonoids, whereas dark chocolate contains 951mg. Hot cocoa mix, in contrast, contains 45 mg of cocoa flavonoids in a 240ml serving.

 

On the basis of published literature, authors concluded that the cocoa flavonoids are important nutritional compounds in human health, as evidenced by their influence on a number of biochemical and physiological functions. They exhibit potent antioxidant effects under in vitro conditions and in vivo after consumption of flavonoid-rich chocolate and/or cocoa products. The antioxidant properties appear to be associated with an increase in plasma epicatechin concentrations. Blood pressure lowering is also noted after short-term dark chocolate intervention in the presence of mild isolated systolic hypertension. The antithrombotic properties of the cocoa flavonoids are significant in many studies, as exhibited by a suppressive effect on platelet reactivity and platelet-related primary haemostasis even after a single chocolate dose. Modulation of immune function and inflammation are also emerging as potential cardioprotective effects of the cocoa flavonoids, specifically, a reduction of proinflammatory cytokines.

 

It is clear that the cocoa flavonoids represent an exciting new area of nutritional research with significant implications for cardiovascular protection. Other food and beverage sources of the flavonoids found in cocoa products and chocolate include green and black tea (especially Ceylon), red wine, cherries (sweet), apples, purple grapes, blackberries, raspberries, and broad-beans. Further experimental studies with cocoa flavonoids are needed to define the specific mechanisms of action. Long-term studies with large sample sizes are also warranted to determine optimal doses and long-term effects of purified flavonoids and food sources rich in flavonoids, including cocoa and chocolate (Engler & Engler, Nutr Res, 2004, 24(9), 695-706].

 

 

 

Dye

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, January-February, 2005, pp. 52

 

Standardization of extraction and ecofriendly dyeing profiles of Eucalyptus bark dye

 

Presently there is a trend towards the use of natural dyes throughout the world due to the ecofriendly nature of these colours. But there are technical drawbacks of natural dyes regarding complexity of dyeing process, which result into problems like reproducibility of shades, limited shades, inadequate fixation and fastness properties. These drawbacks restrict their wide usage in textile dyeing. During the last few years, effective R & D efforts have been made at NBRI, Lucknow to tackle some of the impediments of natural dyes. Several natural dyes have been undertaken for the standardization of their extraction and application profiles, shade development work using different soft mordants in safe limits.

 

The bark of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. found in the form of long thin strips or sheets of dead outer tissue and is a plant waste. This agro-waste contains about 20% of tannins. Tannins are considered very useful material in dyeing processes because of their ability to fix dyes with the fabrics. Water soluble dye has been extracted from bark through aqueous and solvent extraction procedure using vacuum evaporator and spray dryer. Different shades like light to dark brown, biscuit, golden yellow, coca-cola and brownish black were developed using different mordants. Eco-friendly dyeing profile was developed by using soft mordants like alum, tannic acid and ferrous sulphate, and no salt of chromium, lead, etc. were used. Eucalyptus bark dye is a valuable natural colorant and can be used for silk and wool dyeing for development of brown or darker shades [Sachan & Kapoor, Colourage, 2004, 51(9), 41-44].

 

 

 

Food

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

 Vol.4, January-February, 2005, pp. 54

 

Oat and Amaranth meals Potential substitute for patients allergic to cereals

 

Cereals are an important part of diets for hypercholesterolemic patients. The scientists at Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Faculty of Human Nutrition at Warsaw and others at Israel evaluated Oat and Amaranth meals effect on plasma lipid profile in rats fed cholesterol-containing diets. The purpose of the study was to compare oatmeal (Avena sativa Linn.) with two samples of amaranth (Amaranthus erythrostachys Moq. syn. A. hypochondriacus Linn.) meals to determine whether this pseudocereal can be a substitute for allergic to cereals individuals. The total phenols of the samples were determined with the FolinChocalteu reagent, anthocyanins, and flavonoids spectrophotometrically. The antioxidant activities were estimated with nitric oxide scavenging radical (NO) and by β-carotene bleaching (β-carotene). It was found that the contents of different protein fractions, antioxidant compounds, and the antioxidant activities of oatmeal were significantly higher than those of the two amaranth samples. The results of kinetic reactions showed that samples differed in their capacities to quench these radicals, and oats have shown more antioxidant activity than amaranth.

 

The study concluded that oat and amaranth meals positively affect plasma lipid profile in rats fed cholesterol-containing diets. The degree of this positive influence is directly connected to the contents of the bioactive components and the antioxidant activities of the studied samples. It is suggested that amaranth could be a valuable substitute for hypercholesterolemic patients allergic to cereals [Czerwiski et al, J Nutr Biochem, 2004, 15(10), 622-629].

 

 

 

Fruit

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, January-February, 2005, pp. 57

 

Zein coatings for apples (Malus domestica Borkh)

 

High gloss coatings are used to improve apple fruit (Malus domestica Borkh) appearance and sales. The industry standard has been shellac-based formulations, which have problems with whitening, low gas permeability, and association with non-food uses. Zein, a natural corn protein, was used to formulate alternative, shiny coatings by dissolving zein in aqueous alcohol with propylene glycol (PG). At least 4% (by weight) PG has been found necessary for adequate gloss. However, increasing levels of both compounds resulted in increased gloss. Whitening, which occurred on the coated fruit surface upon wetting, was reduced by decreasing zein content to less than 11% [Bai et al, Postharvest Biol Technol, 2003, 28(2), 259-268].

 

 

 

Insecticide/Fungicide

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, January-February, 2005, pp. 59

 

Efficacy of vegetable oils with Pirimiphos-methyl against maize weevil

 

The major insect pest of stored maize and grain products in the tropics is Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky. The toxicity of coconut, groundnut and soybean oils applied at 1, 2, 5 and 10 ml/kg and Pirimiphos-methyl at 2.5, 5 and 10μl active ingredient in 2ml of water/kg of grain alone or in combination, to adults and immature stages of S. zeamais, the persistence of the treatments in maize grains and their effects on seed viability were evaluated by scientists in the laboratory at Department of Crop Science, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana. All the treatments caused significant mortality compared to untreated controls. Low dosages of the oils and Pirimiphos-methyl when combined were highly toxic to adult S. zeamais. The mixtures completely inhibited the development of immature stages of the weevil. Only Pirimiphos-methyl and the mixtures retained some activity 60 days after application.

 

Thus, the results revealed that Pirimiphos-methyl could be used at reduced rates if combined with vegetable oils to control infestations of S. zeamais in stored maize [Obeng-Ofori & Amiteye, J Stored Prod Res, 2005, 41(1), 57-66].

 

 

 

Therapeutics

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

 Vol.4, January-February, 2005, pp. 62

 

Effect of chronic administration of Stevia leaves extract on fertility in rats

 

Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.) Bertoni leaves have been used as powerful sweetening agents (as stevioside). Physiological and pharmacological experiments have suggested that stevioside and its extracts promote effects on some physiological systems, such as cardiovascular and renal. In addition, stevioside and Stevia extracts are able to induce diuresis, natriuresis and kaliuresis. The hypoglycaemic effect reported by some authors has been observed exclusively with total extracts and not with purified stevioside. In an experiment female rats and mice fed with a 5% aqueous extract displayed reduced fertility, an effect apparently not reversible following drug withdrawal.

 

Dr Melis at Brazil evaluated the effects of chronic administration of Stevia on fertility in rats and to examine the possibility that its extract may induce changes (i) in male accessory sex glands and (ii) in androgenic levels in rats. During experiment crude aqueous extract of leaves; 3.8 kg were evaporated under reduced pressure and at 30-50C to yield 1 kg of dry, concentrated extract. Twenty male Wistar rats (25-30 days old) were used as experimental animals.

 

The study showed that chronic administration (60 days) of a aqueous extract of leaves produced a decrease in final weight of testis, seminal vesicle and cauda epididymidis. In addition, the fructose content of the accessory sex glands and the epididymal sperm concentration are decreased. Stevia treatment tended to decrease the plasma testosterone level, probably by a putative affinity of glycosides of extract for a certain androgen receptor and no alteration occurred in luteinizing hormone level. These data are consistent with the possibility that Stevia extracts may decrease the fertility of male rats [Melis, J Ethnopharmacol, 1999, 67(2), 157-161].

 

 

 

Therapeutics

 

Natural Product Radiance

 Vol.4, January-February, 2005, pp. 64

 

Grapefruit oil as potential novel efflux pump modulators

 

The constant use of antibiotics in the hospital environment has selected bacterial populations that are resistant to many antibiotics. In particular, many strains of Staphylococcus aureus are developing increasing resistance to available antibacterial agents (methicillin-resistant S. aureus, MRSA) producing a serious problem in medical microbiology. Efflux pumps are widely involved in antibiotic resistance. Such modulators can be used to enhance the activity of antibacterial agents whose clinical efficacy has been limited by the increasing prevalence of resistant strains. An example is the NorA membrane-associated multidrug efflux protein, which can decrease susceptibility to fluoroquinolones in S. aureus.

 

Grapefruit oil (GFO) is a complex mixture of chemicals extracted from the peel of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Mack.) with one of its major constituents being the monoterpene hydrocarbon, limonene. GFO contains some of the grapefruit juice (GFJ) components concentrated thousands of times and, owing to its strong fruity fragrance, GFO is often added as a flavour enhancer during commercial preparation of GFJ concentrate. The significance of furanocoumarins present in GFO on CYP3A4 inhibition has recently been reported. Researchers working at Welsh School of Pharmacy, Cardiff University, UK carried out studies to evaluate the susceptibility of MSSA and MRSA strains to antibacterial agents in the presence of GFO isolates and to determine both intrinsic antibacterial activity and modulating effect of the GFO components.

 

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and MSSA strains were treated with: (a) grapefruit oil (GFO) components, isolated by chromatography and characterised by NMR and mass spectroscopy; (b) antimicrobial agents, or (c) a combination of both to evaluate (MIC determination) intrinsic antibacterial activity and to determine whether GFO components could modulate bacterial sensitivity to the anti-bacterial agents. Preliminary data suggested that the grapefruit component bergamottin epoxide enhances the susceptibility of test MRSA strains to agents e.g. ethidium bromide and Norfloxacin, to which these microorganisms are normally resistant. The GFO components identified and synthesized in this present report, namely the bergamottin and coumarin epoxides, have also been characterized by their ability to maintain and restore the intracellular accumulation of P-gp substrates within MDR positive cell lines. Therefore, they potentially have a broad application for the enhancement of therapeutic agents used for both bacterial infections and MDR solid tumours [Abulrob et al, Phytochemistry, 2004, 65 (22), 3021-3027].

 

 

 

Vegetable

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, January-February, 2005, pp. 64

 

Influence of packaging material and storage condition on Broccoli

 

Food and Biotechnology scientists at Sweden studied the influence of packaging material and storage condition on the sensory quality of broccoli. Oriented polypropylene (OPP), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) were used as packaging materials. The LDPE contained an ethylene-absorbing sachet. The samples were stored for 1 week, either at a constant temperature of 10˚C or for 3 days at 4˚C, followed by 4 days at 10˚C. The atmospheres that were developed inside the different packaging materials during storage differed significantly. After storage, the broccoli was evaluated both raw and cooked using a triangle test and a quantitative descriptive analysis. The triangle test showed significant differences in the smell of broccoli stored in different packaging materials after cooking. No differences were detected in the raw broccoli. The quantitative descriptive analysis showed significant differences in the fresh smell and flavour, the chewing resistance, and the crispness, between samples after cooking. Overall, including all the sensory properties studied, broccoli packaged in LDPE (5% O2, 7% CO2) that contained an ethylene absorber was perceived to be the sample most similar to fresh broccoli. There were no differences in weight loss between broccoli stored in the different packaging materials [Jacobsson et al, Food Qual Prefer, 2004, 15(4), 301-310].