NATURAL PRODUCT RADIANCE
A Bimonthly Digest on Natural Products

With A Supplement on

Herbal Cosmetics and Cosmeceuticals


Total visitors: 5,660  since 9-09-05

VOLUME 4

NUMBER 4

July - August 2005

 

 

Contents

 

 Review Article

Therapeutic Potential of Mushrooms

Mahendra Rai, Girish Tidke and Soloman P Wasser

IPC code; Int. cl.7 A61K 35/84, A61P 9/00, A61P 31/00,

A61P 35/00                                                                                                                                            246

 

Articles

Antiulcerogenic effect of some plants extracts

A H Atta, Soad M Nasr and Samar M Mouneir

IPC code; Int. cl.7― A61K 35/78, A61P 1/04                                                            258

 

Pharmaceutical development of novel microalgal compounds for

 Mdr Mycobacterium tuberculosis,

S Prakash and B Valentin Bhimba

IPC code; Int. cl.7 ¾ A61K 35/80, A61P 31/06                                                         264

Explorer: Article

Development of cow dung based herbal mosquito repellent,

S A Mandavgane, V V Pattalwar and A R Kalambe

IPC code; Int. cl.7 ¾ A01M 1/00                                                                                270

Ayurvedic Tips

Healthy Recipes,
Dr Partap Chauhan                                                                                                   
273

 

Green Page: Article

Alligator Apple —A lesser-known multipurpose plant,

Dr Singh, S Senani, R P Medhi and R B Rai

IPC Code; Int. cl.7― A01G1/00, A01G17/00, C11B 1/00                                         274

 

Some hepatoprotective garden plants

P G Latha, S R Suja, S Shyamal and S Rajasekharan

IPC Code; Int. cl.7― A61K 35/78, A61P 1/16                                           278    

 

Internet News

Mushrooms cultivation on farm wastes                                                                    302

Curry-leaf tree and diabetes                                                                                     303

Whole stalks planting of sugarcane                                                                          303

Knifing carrots                                                                                                          303     

Exhibition/Conference

Forthcoming Conferences, Seminars, Exhibitions and

Trainings                                                                                                                   304  

 

Classified Digests

 

Beverage                              280

Dye                                       283

Food                                     284

Fruit                                      287

Insecticide/Fungicide              289               

Oil/Fats                                 290

Therapeutics                          293

Tissue Culture                        297

 

In Brief                                  299

Editorial                                 245

 

                                                                                 

Supplement on Herbal Cosmetics and Cosmeceuticals

                                                        CONTENTS

 

Articles

 

Herbal Cosmetics for Skin and Hair care

V P Kapoor

IPC code; Int. cl.7 ¾ A61K 7/00, A61K 7/06, A61K 7/13, A61K 7/48                    306

 

Cosmetics Potential of Herbal Extracts

Prashant L Kole, Hemant R Jadhav, Prasad Thakurdesai and Anantha Naik Nagappa

IPC code; Int.cl.7 ¾ A61K 7/00, A61K 7/02, A61K 7/06, A61K 7/48, A61K 35/78

                                                                                                                                     315

Cosmeceutical applications of Aloe gel

Radha Devi and Madhusudan Rao Y

IPC code; Int. cl.7― A61K 7/00, A61K 35/78 322

 

Herbal remedies for acne

S Mahesh Kumar, M J N Chandrasekar, M J Nanjan and B Suresh

IPC code; Int. cl.7― A61K 7/00, A61K 35/78                                                           328

 

Aroma oils as cosmeceuticals

K Gowthamarajan G T Kulkarni and T Subburaju 

IPC code; Int. cl.7― A61P 11/00, A61P 13/00, A61P 17/00, A61P 21/00,
A61P 25/00,A61P 27/00, C11B 9/00                                                                      
   335

 

Home remedies for skin care in Unani System of medicine,

 Anwar Jamal, Aisha Siddiquiand Syed Mehtab Ali                                                   339

 

 

Digests

The treatment of atopic dermatitis with licorice gel                                                   341

In vivo and in vitro evaluation of hair growth potential of Shoe flower                    341

Herbal control from head lice                                                                                     341

Synergistic effect of Aloe vera gel and essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum Linn. on acne                                                                                                                             342

Effect of mineral oil, sunflower oil and coconut oil on prevention of hair damage    342

Natural vegetable fats in the prevention of irritant contact dermatitis                       343

Antiageing properties of Date palm kernel extract                                                     343

Skin-whitening agent from Sophora flavescens roots                                                343

Skin lightener from plant source                                                                                 343

Paw Paw herbal shampoo for removal of Head Lice                                                 344

Cosmetics applications of Wild Yam                                                                         344

Natural preservatives for cosmetics                                                                           344

Book Review                     345

Guidelines to Authors      346

Subscription Form           347

Index                                 348

Review Article

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, July-August, 2005, pp. 246-257

 

Therapeutic Potential of Mushrooms

                                                                                                                            

Mahendra Rai1*, Girish Tidke1 and Soloman P.Wasser2

 

Mushrooms are an important natural source of foods and medicines. Traditional aboriginals knew the medicinal importance of edible and wild mushrooms and these are now being screened for their bioactivity in various ailments. Mushrooms represent a major and untapped source of potent new pharmaceutical products. A wide range of activities including antitumour, cardiovascular and antimicrobial are reported in mushrooms. In developing countries like India mushroom progress is a boon in the field of food, medicine, and in generating employment. The alternative systems of medicine utilize the curative properties of mushrooms. The present review is aimed to discuss biological activities of mushrooms and their roles in various human diseases.

Keywords: Mushrooms, Antimicrobial, Bioactivity, Biomedical, Cardiovascular, Therapeutics.

IPC code; Int. cl.7A61K 35/84, A61P 9/00, A61P 31/00, A61P 35/00.

 

 

 

Article

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, July-August, 2005, pp. 258-263

 

Antiulcerogenic effect of some plants extracts

A H Atta1*, Soad M Nasr and Samar M Mouneir1

 

Methanol extracts were prepared from aerial parts of 8 medicinal plants and evaluated for their potential antiulcerogenic effects using ethanol and Aspirin - induced gastric ulcerations in rats. Oral administration of the methanol extract (400 mg/kg-) of Bidens bipinnata Linn., Zygophyllum album Linn. f.,  Plantago major Linn. (leaves) and Schouwia thebaica Webb. significantly (P< 0.01) decreased the average ulcer index with a curative ratio ranged from 100% for B. bipinnata to 58.3% for S. thebaica in the ethanol-induced gastric ulceration. Mentha microphylla C. Koch., Conyza linifolia Willd., C. dioscoridis (Linn.) Desf., Cynanchum acutum Linn. and P. major (seeds) decreased the ulcer index, however, their curative ratios were below 50% but higher than the reference drug Ranitidine (curative ratio 38.9%). B. bipinnata, Z. album and P. major (leaves) in a dose of 400 mg/kg significantly decreased the number of gastric ulcer and decreased total protein in gastric juice in aspirin-induced gastric ulceration. The total acidity was significantly (P< 0.01) decreased by all tested plant extracts. Based on the decreased ulcer index, increased curative ratio, decreased number of gastric ulcers and decreased total protein and total acidity, B. bipinnata, Z. album and P. major leaves in a dose of 400 mg/kg produced a potent antiulcerogenic effect against alcohol- and aspirin-induced gastric ulcer. Moderate effect was produced by S. thebaica.

Keywords: Antiulcers, Medicinal plants, Mentha microphylla, Conyza dioscoridis, Conyza linifolia, Zygophyllum album, Bidens bipinnata, Cynanchum acutum, Plantago major, Schouwia thebaica.

IPC code; Int. cl.7― A61K 35/78, A61P 1/04

 

 

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, July-August, 2005, pp. 264-269

 

Pharmaceutical development of novel microalgal compounds for Mdr Mycobacterium tuberculosis

 

S Prakash1 and B Valentin Bhimba2*

 

The role of marine algae in the discovery of drugs that could reach the pharmaceutical market has increased notably in recent years, due to a substantial improvement in biological screening methods. Multi Drug Resistant (MDR) TB is the major hurdle in the TB control programmes. The selected resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were screened for the bioactive compounds extracted from marine microalgae. It is noted that Isochrysis galbana has rich bioactive compounds than the other algal species.

 

Keywords: Marine microalgae, Microalgal compounds, Tuberculosis, Mdr TB, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Isochrysis galbana.

 

IPC code; Int. cl.7 ¾ A61K 35/80, A61P 31/06

 

 

 

Explorer: Article

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, July-August, 2005, pp. 270-272

 

          Development of cow dung based herbal mosquito repellent

 

S A Mandavgane*, V V Pattalwar and A R Kalambe

 

The chemical based mosquito repellents available in the market contain some harmful and poisonous chemicals, which are likely to cause threat to human health. An attempt has been made to prepare a 100% herbal product, based on traditional practices and rural wisdom. It is effective and cheaper than presently chemical based mosquito repellent. Since it is totally herbal, it has no side effects on inhalation or even on digestion. This paper deals with selection and optimization of ingredients, their characteristics, medicinal properties and studies conducted about the comparison with the existing mosquito repellent. The cow dung is considered very sacred in Indian philosophy, it says that Gomay Vaste Laxmi i.e. Goddess of Wealth resides in cow dung. The efforts are made to study the traditional beliefs from scientific approach. The main aim of this product development is to provide employment to the rural youth and economic gains to farmers.

 

Keywords: Cow dung, Pallethrin, Neem, Tulsi.

IPC code; Int. cl.7 ¾ A01M 1/00

 

 

Ayurvedic Tip

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, July-August, 2005, pp. 273

Healthy recipes

Dr Partap Chauhan

Barley sherbet (Jau ka sattu) for hyperacidity

      In Ayurvedic system of medicine the Barley sherbet or Jau ka sattu prepared from Barley (Hordeum vulgare Linn.) (Hindi–Jau) is considered to be
Madhur (sweet), Kashya (astringent), Ruksha (dry), Laghu (light and easily digestible) and Sheet (cold). It quenches thirst, cools the body and gives instant energy, especially in the summer. It is good for hyperacidity, urinary tract infection, skin disorders and heat-induced headache. It also helps to reduce weight, if taken with honey. Barley sherbet pacifies pitta dosha and kapha dosha and aggravates vata dosha. Raw sugar is mixed to pacify its vata quality. It is very useful in pitta-aggravating disorders. Excessive intake can cause flatulence.

Ingredients: Barley seeds 100g (or as per requirement).
Preparation: Take a pan with a heavy base and heat it a little. Put in the barley and roast on low fire till the seeds turn brown. Make sure the seeds do not burn. Let them cool. Grind these seeds to form a fine powder. Store in an air-tight container. 
To drink, take three tablespoonfuls of the powder and two tablespoonfuls of powdered raw sugar and dissolve in a glassful of chilled water. Those with aggravated kapha dosha can use honey instead of raw sugar.

Herbal drink (Tulasyadi fant) for sinusitis and fever

      Basil, Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Hindi  ¾ Tulsi) is a traditional medicine for fever and cold and its herbal drink is good for sinusitis also. According to Ayurvedic system of medicine the herbal drink prepared from Tulsi is Katu and tikat, dry, light, warm and pungent. It is very good for sinusitis, flu, influenza, hay fevers, bronchitis, kaphaj fever, asthma like kaphaj related disorders. This recipe pacifies kapha dosha and vata dosha. It increases pitta dosha.

Ingredients: Fresh leaves of holy basil 10, black pepper balls 5 pieces, ginger 3 grams and cloves 3 pieces.

Preparation: Crush coarsely all the ingredients. Boil these crushed ingredients in one cup of water and boil at moderate fire for 5 minutes. Sieve this mixture and add half cup of boiled warm milk and sugar (half teaspoon). Drink warm. It is better to avoid cold exposure for 1- 2 hour of drinking this tea. Relax and take bed rest.

 

 

Green Page: Article

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, July-August, 2005, pp. 274-277

 

Alligator Apple —A lesser-known multipurpose plant

 

D R Singh*, S Senani, R P Medhi and R B Rai

 

Alligator apple (Annona glabra Linn.) is a lesser-known plant having various useful properties. The paper deals with its cultivation prospects, nutritional composition of seeds and potential uses of seed oil as biodiesel.

 

Keywords: Alligator apple, Fatty acid, Bio-diesel.

 

IPC Code; Int. cl.7― A01G1/00, A01G17/00, C11B 1/00

 

 

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, July-August, 2005, pp. 278-279

 

Some hepatoprotective garden plants

 

P G Latha*, S R Suja, S Shyamal, and S Rajasekharan

 

Number of plants grown as ornamentals have medicinal value also. A good many garden plants are hepatoprotective. The present paper deals with six ornamental plants, which are used, in traditional medicines for liver disorders and their heptaprotective properties have been confirmed pharmacologically.

 

Keywords: Hepatoprotective plants, Ornamental plants.

 

IPC Code; Int. cl.7― A61K 35/78, A61P 1/16

 

 

 

 

Classified Digests
Beverages

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, July-August, 2005, pp. 280

 

Ingestion of tea leads to reduction in body fat and LDL

 

Catechins, the major component of green tea extract, have various physiologic effects. There are few studies, however, on the effects of catechins on body fat reduction in humans. It has been reported that the body mass index (BMI) correlates with the amount of malondialdehyde and thiobarbituric acid–reactive substances in the blood. Researchers at Health Care Products Research Laboratories, Tokyo investigated the effect of catechins on body fat reduction and the relation between oxidized LDL and body fat variables. After a 2-weeks diet run-in period, healthy Japanese men were divided into 2 groups with similar BMI and waist circumference distributions. A 12-week double-blind study was performed in which the subjects ingested 1 bottle oolong tea/day containing 690 mg catechins (green tea extract group; n = 17) or 1 bottle oolong tea/day containing 22 mg catechins (control group; n = 18).

 

Body weight, BMI, waist circumference, body fat mass, and subcutaneous fat area were significantly lower in the green tea extract group than in the control group. Changes in the concentrations of malondialdehyde-modified LDL were positively associated with changes in body fat mass and total fat area in the green tea extract group. Daily consumption of tea containing 690 mg catechins for 12 weeks reduced body fat, which suggests that the ingestion of catechins might be useful in the prevention and improvement of lifestyle-related diseases, mainly obesity [Nagao Tomonori, Komine Yumiko, Soga Satoko, Meguro Shinichi, Hase Tadashi, Tanaka Yukitaka and Ichiro Tokimitsu, Ingestion of a tea rich in catechins leads to a reduction in body fat and malondialdehyde-modified LDL in men, Am J Clin Nutr, 2005, 81(1), 122-129].

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, July-August, 2005, pp. 281

 

Natural additives for enhancing shelf-life of mango squash

           

Various fruits and fruit products are preserved with chemical additives like sulphur dioxide, sulphite and bisulphite. Researchers at Sri Paramakalayani College, Alwarkurichi, Tamil Nadu have attempted to preserve mango squash by using chemical additive alone, and by using non-toxic medicinal herbs along with chemical additives. During experiment shelf-life, acidity and microbiological status of the mango squash preserved by potassium metabisulphite (0.062% KMS) combined individually with 3% extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Hindi – Tulsi) and 5% Aegle marmelos (Hindi – Bael) leaves were found to be better than the squash preserved with chemical alone (0.062% KMS). The rate of lowering of acidity is found to be slow (P< 0.05) in squash with chemical in combination with natural additives than the chemical alone. Further, the fungal count is found to be low in chemical in combination with natural additives than the chemical alone [Narayanan, KR, Effect of chemical and its combination with natural additives on the shelf-life and microbiological status of the mango squash, J Dairying Foods Home Sci, 2004, 23(3 & 4), 228-231].

 

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, July-August, 2005, pp. 282

 

Technique for the decolorization of sugarcane juice

           

Sugarcane juice contains a variety of polyphenols such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, phenolic glucosides and phenylpropanoids. These compounds are the main source of colorants, essentially considered impurities. During processing of sugarcane juice for making sugar, these polyphenols are removed by using bone char or ion-exchange resins. However, since much brine/caustic liquid waste is discharged when ion-exchange resins are regenerated, efforts have been made to reduce these various wastes.

 

            The Japanese scientists worked on a novel technique for the decolorization of sugarcane juice by removing polyphenols with octadecylsilyl-silicagel (ODS) adsorption, then recover these important polyphenols compounds from all fractions of the sugarcane juice. The ODS treatment proposed in this study was found very effective for clarification of sugarcane juice (nearly 90%). The sugar obtained from the juice had a pale colour with 48IU of colour value. Even the colour value of C-molasses produced by this method was smaller than that of conventional raw sugar. The polyphenols recovered from the ODS could conceivably be used as an antioxidant in food. However, authors concluded that there are many technical improvements needed before commercialization of this practice [Okuno M and Tamaki H, A Novel technique for the decolorization of sugarcane juice, J Food Sci, 2002, 67(1), 236-238].

 

Food

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, July-August, 2005, pp. 284

 

Processing of raw banana into flour

           

Ripe banana is a prized fruit for all age groups because it is nutritious and easily available in all seasons at low cost. The limited information on the method of preparation of banana flour and its chemical composition motivated the researchers at G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar to process raw banana in to flour using oven drying and freeze drying (lyophilization) techniques and to compare the chemical composition of two types of flours.

 

The chemical composition of both the flours was analyzed and the flour prepared by lyophilization was found superior to oven dried banana flour as it has higher crude protein (5.32%), crude fat (3.33%), energy (379 kcal), total ash (2.46%), calcium (44 mg/100mg), phosphorus (115.60 mg/100g), iron (25.50 mg/100g) and b-carotene (119.53 mg/100g) content. It had low amount of moisture (4.33%) and fibre (2.5%) content as compared to oven dried banana flour. The cost of oven dried banana flour was calculated out to be Rs.8.80/100g while the cost of lyophilized banana flour was calculated out to be Rs.8.90/100g. These flour can be used for the formulation of nutritious weaning mixes and supplementary foods. This can also be used for preparation of various food items like puris, parathas, cakes, toffees, etc [Singh Pragya, Shukla Pushpa and Chauhan GS, Development and quality evaluation of banana flours prepared by oven drying and lyophilization, J Dairying Foods Home Sci, 2004, 23(3 & 4), 216-219].

 

 

Fruit

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, July- August, 2005, pp. 287

 

Chitosan coating on peeled litchi fruit

 

Litchi [Litchi chinensis (Gaertn.) Sonn.] pulp is very perishable and thus has a short shelf life, with marketers and consumers alike desiring a longer period. Chinese researchers have investigated the effects of chitosan coating on quality maintenance and shelf-life extension of peeled fruits of cv. ‘Huaizhi’. Manually peeled litchi fruits were treated with aqueous solutions of 0%, 1%, 2% or 3% of chitosan, placed into trays over-wrapped with plastic film, and then stored at −1°C. Changes in sensory quality in terms of taste and colour scales and weight loss were evaluated. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activities were also measured. Application of chitosan coating retarded weight loss and the decline in sensory quality, with higher contents of total soluble solids, titratable acid and ascorbic acid and suppressed the increase in activities of PPO and POD. The results showed that application of chitosan coating effectively maintained quality attributes and extended shelf life of the peeled fruit [Dong Huaqiang, Cheng Liangying, Tan Jiahou, Zheng Kunwang and Jiang Yueming, Effects of chitosan coating on quality and shelf life of peeled litchi fruit, J Food Eng, 2004, 64(3), 355-358].

 

 

Insecticide/ Larvicide

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, July-August, 2005, pp. 289

Antifungal activity of Aloe vera pulp against plant pathogenic fungi

 

The leaf pulp of Aloe vera Tourn. ex Linn., designated as the gel, and the bitter, yellow liquid fraction have been tested against pathogens (bacteria and fungi) affecting human and plants. However, their activity for fungal control in commercial industrial crops has not been determined. Thus, researchers at Mexico carried out studies to evaluate the inhibitory effect of Aloe pulp and liquid fraction on the mycelial growth of three phytopathogenic fungi and to determine the extract concentrations that can inhibit mycelial development. A. vera leaves were cut from plants grown under greenhouse conditions at the University Antonio Narro, disinfected with sodium hypochlorite and separated in two groups. In the first group, the pulp was manually scraped out; in the second, a laboratory roll processor was used for the pulp and liquid fraction separation. Both types of extracts were pasteurized. Antifungal activity of pulp and liquid fraction was evaluated on the mycellium development of Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum and Colletotrichum coccodes that were isolated from a potato crop by the hyphae point and monosporic techniques. Fungal plugs 0.4mm in diameter were placed in petri dishes with a potato–dextrose–agar (PDA) culture media and treated with various concentrations of pulp or liquid fraction. The cultures were incubated at 24±2 C and the radial growth of mycelia measured daily for 7 days. The antifungal effect was measured under a totally random design with four replications.

 

The results obtained in this work indicate antifungal properties of A. vera pulp against F. oxysporum and the liquid fraction against R. solani, F. oxysporum and C. coccodes pathogens. The liquid fraction shows a broader range of antifungal activity than the pulp. It controlled the three pathogens, whereas the pulp inhibited only F. oxysporum. No difference was found between the manually or mechanically extracted pulps. Therefore, the commercial extraction (mechanical) method is adequate for pulp and liquid fraction production. A. vera pulp and liquid fraction may be an attractive alternative for the use of a natural product for control of fungi that attack commercial crops, avoiding chemical fungicides application [Jasso de Rodríguez D, Hernández-Castillo D, Rodríguez-García R and Angulo-Sánchez JL, Antifungal activity in vitro of Aloe vera pulp and liquid fraction against plant pathogenic fungi, Ind Crops Prod, 2005, 21(1), 81-87].

 

 

Therapeutics

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, July- August, 2005, pp. 293

Rice bran oil lowers cholesterol in humans

 

Researchers at the Division of Functional Foods Research, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA carried out studies to assess the effects of defatted rice bran and rice bran oil in diet on blood lipids in moderately hypercholesterolemic persons. Twenty-six healthy volunteers consumed a diet with 13–22g dietary fibre/day for 3 weeks and then 13 of the volunteers were switched to a diet with defatted rice bran to double the fiber intake for 5 weeks. Study 2 was a randomized, crossover, 10-week feeding study performed on 14 volunteers who consumed a diet with rice bran oil (1/3 of the total dietary fat) substituted for an oil blend that had a fatty acid composition similar to that of the rice bran oil. Serum lipids and factor VII were measured in both studies. Defatted rice bran did not lower lipid concentrations. In study 2, total cholesterol was significantly lowered with consumption of the diet containing rice bran oil than with consumption of the control diet. Moreover, with consumption of the rice bran oil diet, LDL cholesterol decreased by 7% (P < 0.0004), whereas HDL cholesterol was unchanged. Rice bran oil, not fiber, lowers cholesterol in healthy, moderately hypercholesterolemic adults. There were no substantial differences in the fatty acid composition of the diets; therefore, the reduction of cholesterol was due to other components present in the rice bran oil, such as unsaponifiable compounds [Most Marlene M, Tulley Richard, Morales Silvia and Lefevre Michael, Rice bran oil, not fiber, lowers cholesterol in humans, Am J Clin Nutr, 2005, 81(1), 64-68].

 

 

 

Natural Product Radiance                                                      

Vol.4, July-August, 2005, pp. 295

 

Hypolipidemic effect of North eastern herbal home remedy

 

Clerodendron colebrookianum Walp. is a perennial shrub indigenous to the north eastern region of India. It is widely used by a cross section of people of this region as a home remedy against hypertension and as anthelmintic. The usual process is to boil the tender leaves and shoots in water with salt and spices and take both the infusion and the residue and occasionally tender leaves and shoots are fried in mustard oil and eaten. Keeping these reports in to view the researchers at Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Guwahati and Department of Zoology, Gauhati University, Guwahati Assam investigated the effect of crude extract and different organic extracts of leaf on lipid profile, which is closely associated with many cardiovascular diseases.

It was found that after administration of both crude and organic extracts the serum lipid profile, i.e. total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) lowered significantly (P<0.001) from their respective control except TG in methanol extract (ME)-treated rats. The decreased percentage of TC, TG and LDL after administration of crude extract (CE) and ethylacetate extract (EE) with normal diet were found to be 35, 39 and 48%, and 33, 18 and 91%, respectively, after 7 days of treatment. In case of ME the lowering of TC and LDL were noted to be 41 and 85%, respectively. Both TC and TG were lowered significantly (P<0.001) even after the administration of crude extract against high-fat diet. Significant increase of cardioprotective lipid, i.e high density lipoprotein (HDL) after administration of EE (46%) and ME (38%) was another interesting finding of this experiment. Total cholesterol:HDL and LDL:HDL ratios were significantly lower in the experimental group. Therefore, it was concluded that the leaves have definite cardioprotective potentiality, and there is a valid scientific basis for consuming it for better health in NE region of India [Rajlakshmi Devi and Sharma D K, Hypolipidemic effect of different extracts of Clerodendron colebrookianum Walp. in normal and high-fat diet fed rats, J Ethnopharmacol, 2004, 90(1), 63-68].

 

                                                     In Brief

Natural Product Radiance

Vol. 4, July-August, 2005, pp. 300

 

Almond shell waste: possible local rockwool substitute in soilless crop culture

 

Almond shell is the name given to the ligneous material forming the thick endocarp or husk of the almond tree (Prunus dulcis Linn.) fruit. When almond fruit is processed to obtain the edible seeds, big ligneous fragments are separated. These materials remain available as a waste product for which no important industrial use has been developed, so they are normally incinerated or dumped without control.

 

Almond shell used (100% pure) as growing media can be more eco-friendly and less expensive than traditional rockwool since it can be locally produced. Three commercially produced random samples of two different textures and two volumes (19 and 25L) were evaluated as growing media for soilless production by scientists of Spain. Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of volume and texture and to compare this substrate with rockwool in terms of yield and quality characteristics of fruits in melon and tomato culture. The physical, physico-chemical and chemical properties studied did not differ significantly between both textures. Tomato plants grown in almond shell residue used 21% less water compared to rockwool over the course of production. It is found non-limiting in comparison to rockwool for melon and tomato crops in relation to fertigation parameters, water uptake and yield. The results suggested that almond shells seem to be an acceptable growing media as rockwool substitute for soilless vegetable production [Urrestarazu Miguel, Martínez Gabino Alberto and Salas María del Carmen, Almond shell waste: possible local rockwool substitute in soilless crop culture, Sci Hort, 2005, 103(4), 453-460].

 

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol. 4, July-August, 2005, pp. 301                

 

Noxious weed, Eupatorium as a source of organic manure

           

Eupatorium [Chromolaena odorata (Linn.) King & Robinson] is a noxious weed found in humid places. It has the potential to produce considerable quantity of biomass. Farmers traditionally use the succulent biomass of this weed as a source of green manure in wetland paddy cultivation. Research workers at College of Agriculture, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala studied response of okra to the applications of the compost of this weed and green leaf manure along with four other sources of organic manures, viz. vermicompost, coirpith compost, fresh poultry manure and farmyard manure on equivalent N basis (12 tonne/ha of farmyard manure). The results suggest the usefulness of composting this weed biomass before use. Eupatorium compost is similar to poultry manure in terms of crop performance [Nawaz M and George S, Eupatorium, Chromolaena odorata (Linn.) King & Robinson, biomass as a source of organic manure in okra cultivation, J Trop Agric, 2004, 42(1-2), 33-34].

 

 

SUPPLEMENT ON

HERBAL COSMETICS AND COSMECEUTICAL

Guest Editor

 

Dr G.T. Kulkarni

Department of Pharmacy

J. S. S. College of Pharmacy Rocklands Ootacamund – 643 001

Tamil Nadu

Phone (O): + 91-423-2443393

E-mail:gtkulkarni@yahoo.co.in

 

 

Article

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol. 4, July-August, 2005, pp. 306-314                     

Herbal Cosmetics for Skin and Hair care

V P Kapoor

            The cosmetics are the utility products used extensively throughout the world for maintaining and improving general appearance of face and other parts of body e.g. mouth, hand finger, eye, hair, etc. It includes creams, powders, face pack, lotions, moisturizers, shampoo, hair oil, conditioners, nail polish, etc. Smooth, shinning, healthy skin and hair certainly count for a beautiful woman or handsome man. Numerous chemical toxins, microorganisms, chemicals, infections present in atmosphere cause damage to skin. Cosmetics alone are not sufficient to take care of skin and body parts, it require association of active ingredients to check the damage and ageing of the skin. Herbal cosmetics are now emerged as the appropriate solution to the current problem. Personal care industry is currently more concentrated on herbal cosmetics as now-a-days it is a fast growing segment with a vast scope of manifold expansion in coming years. Herbal cosmetics are the preparations, which represent cosmetics associated with active bio-ingredients, neutraceuticals or pharmaceuticals. The use of bioactive phytochemicals from a variety of botanicals have dual function, (i) they serve as cosmetics for the care of body and its parts and (ii) the botanical ingredients present therein influence biological functions of skin and provide nutrients necessary for the healthy skin or hair. In general, botanicals provide different vitamins, antioxidants, various oils, essential oils, hydrocolloids, proteins, terpenoids and other bioactive molecules. A vast biodiversity and different climatic conditions of our country provide a variety of botanicals, which can be used in the formulations. Our traditional knowledge about the use of plant wealth as described in Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Tibetan system of medicine, is of great help to identify the phytochemicals for skin and body care preparations. Necessary efforts are required to associate the modern cosmetology with bioactive ingredients based on our traditional system of medicine leading to emergence of novel cosmeceuticals for skin and body care.

Keywords: Herbal cosmetics, Skin care, Hair care, Natural colours, natural dyes.

IPC code; Int. cl.7 ¾¾ A61K 7/00, A61K 7/06, A61K 7/13, A61K 7/48

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol. 4, July-August, 2005, pp. 315-321                           

Cosmetic potential of herbal extracts

Prashant L Kole, Hemant R Jadhav, Prasad Thakurdesai and

Anantha Naik Nagappa*

Cosmetology, the science of alteration of appearance, has been practiced since primordial times. In India, the concept of using herbs for beautification finds its origin in traditional medicine literature like Ayurveda. The cosmetic preparations were used for the purpose of worship and sensual enjoyment. Moreover, since centuries, the herbal extracts, as a whole or part thereof, have been used for various ailments of the skin, hair and for overall appearance. The market research shows upward trend in the herbal trade with the herbal cosmetic industry playing a major role in fuelling this worldwide demand for herbals. The recent interest of consumers in herbal cosmetics has been stimulated by the decline of faith in modern cosmetics, the belief that plant remedies were natural and thereby superior to man-made synthetic cosmetics, and the reference to successful historical use by different cultures. These reasons have contributed to the increased acceptance as well as manufacture of herbal cosmetics. Many herbs have been scientifically evaluated for their cosmetic potential. Some traditional plants like Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn., Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Mimosa tenuiflora Benth., Aloe vera Linn., etc. need special mention. The great void remains though for a systematic, thorough review of scientific data that provides a basis for the use of specific herbs and their efficacy as cosmetics. Similarly, there is a lack of scientific review of phytochemicals that are used in cosmetic preparations. This review attempts to fill-up this gap and emphasizes the need for safety evaluation of herbal cosmetics.

Keywords: Herbal cosmetics, Plant extracts, Therapeutic activities, Cosmeceuticals.

IPC code; Int.cl.7 ¾ A61K 7/00, A61K 7/02, A61K 7/06, A61K 7/48, A61K 35/78,

 

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol. 4, July-August, 2005, pp. 322-327

 

Cosmeceutical applications of Aloe gel

Radha Devi and Madhusudan Rao Y*

 

Aloe vera is considered as a cosmeceutical herb i. e. a blend of cosmetic and pharmaceutical product. The gel from its leaves finds a wide range of cosmetic and therapeutic applications which include anti-wrinkle creams, moisturizers, sunscreens, haircare products and wound healing, treatment of burns, frostbite, inflammation, diabetes and cancer. It is also used as protective against radiation exposure and as antimicrobial agent. The present article discusses the chemistry, cosmetic and medicinal applications of Aloe gel and its adverse effects.

 

Keywords: Aloe vera, Cosmeceutical, Pharmaceutical product

IPC code; Int. cl.7― A61K 7/00, A61K 35/78, A61P 17/00

                                                                                                        

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol. 4, July-August, 2005, pp. 328-334

Herbal remedies for acne

S Mahesh Kumar*, MJN Chandrasekar, MJ Nanjan and B Suresh

Acne represents a significant challenge to dermatologists because of its prevalence, complexity and range of clinical expression. It is the single most common skin disease affecting 85% of teenage boys and 80% of teenage girls and can continue throughout adulthood. Treatment of acne with topical and systemic allopathic medicines results in mild to severe side effects. Hence, herbs and herbal preparations play a significant role as alternative line of treatment. This article describes the commonly used herbs in the treatment of acne.

Keywords: Medicinal herbs, Acne, Skin diseases.

IPC code; Int. cl.7― A61K 7/00, A61K 35/78, A61P 17/00, A61P 17/10

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol. 4, July-August, 2005, pp. 335-338

 

Aroma oils as cosmeceuticals

 

K Gowthamarajan1* GT Kulkarni 1 and T Subburaju2

Aroma oils, also known as essential oils are the highly concentrated extracts from plants, herbs and flowers. They exhibit calming, stimulating, pain alleviating and mood enhancing effects and improve the functionality of internal organs, like heart, lungs, etc. Essential oils are important components of cosmetics. Recently, cosmeceuticals are becoming popular throughout the world. In American market, all the cosmetics and toiletries are now being named as cosmeceuticals, as they claim to have therapeutic effect along with their effect on skin and hairs as cosmetic also. This article highlights the cosmeceutical applications of essential oils.

Keywords: Aromatic oils, Essential oils, Cosmetics, Cosmeceutical, Pharmaceutical product.

IPC code; Int. cl.7― A61P 11/00, A61P 13/00, A61P 17/00, A61P 21/00, A61P 25/00,  A61P 27/00,  C11B 9/00.

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol. 4, July-August, 2005, pp. 339-340

 

Home remedies for skin care in Unani System of medicine

Anwar Jamal1, Aisha Siddiqui2, Syed Mehtab Ali3

 

The concept of beauty especially for females, having desire to look beautiful, charming and young by different beauty ways, using various herbs, are the things, which are known since centuries. In fact, the concept of beauty and cosmetics is as old as mankind and civilization, which prove not only women but men also adorned themselves with jewellery, scents and cosmetics. The use of turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn.), saffron (Crocus sativus Linn.), etc. for bodily-decorations; sandal surkh (Pterocarpus santalinus Linn.), Sandal Safaid (Santalum album Linn.) for beautification and henna (Lawsonia inermis Linn.) for dying hair in different colours and conditioning was also practiced in the olden times. Different ingredient(s) and techniques for making face powder, perfumed powder and ubtan (cleaning paste) are used to make natural cosmetics at home.

In Unani System of Medicine there are several home remedies, which can be used in routine for beautification and protection of face and skin from various problems. Some of them have been given in this paper.

 

 

 

Digests

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol. 4, July-August, 2005, pp. 342

Synergistic effect of Aloe vera gel and essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum Linn on acne

The researchers at Nigeria investigated possible synergistic effect of Aloe vera gel on the anti-acne properties of Ocimum gratissimum Linn. oil and compared the activities of both agents singly and in combinations with the anti-acne agent Dalacin™ (1% Clindamycin phosphate solution). The efficacy of the Ocimum oil lotion products increased with increasing Aloe gel contents. Products formulated with the undiluted or 50% aloe gels were most active and resolved inflammatory lesions faster than the standard product. The Aloe gel alone showed minimal activity. Aloe vera gel enhanced the anti-acne properties of Ocimum oil; the oil or its combination with aloe vera gel is more effective than 1% Clindamycin in the treatment of acne vulgaris [Orafidiya LO, Agbani EO, Oyedele AO, Babalola OO, Onayemi O and F F Aiyedun , The effect of Aloe vera gel on the anti-acne properties of the essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum Linn leaf – a preliminary clinical investigation,  Intern J  Aromather, 2004, 14(1), 15-21.]

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol. 4, July-August, 2005, pp. 343

Antiageing properties of Date palm kernel extract

Hormones play a central role in skin appearance and are implicated in skin ageing. Recently, along with the remarkable increase in interest in natural products, the application of phytohormones in antiageing products has become very important. In this context scientists at Dr. N. Domloge, Skin Biology and Evaluation Department, Vincience Research Center, France developed Date palm kernel extract. Date palm kernel is rich in phytohormones were investigated for antiageing properties. Ten healthy women volunteers, between the ages of 46 and 58 years, applied the cream formula with 5% date palm kernel or placebo on the eye area twice a day for 5 weeks. The evaluation was made both clinically and by silicon replica analysis followed by statistical analysis using the Wilcoxon test. Silicon replica results showed that topical application of date palm kernel reduced the total surface of wrinkles by 27.6% (P = 0.038). Moreover, date palm kernel reduced the depth of wrinkles by 3.52% (P = 0.0231). These results are statistically significant and were clinically confirmed where visual improvement was seen in 60% of the volunteers treated. This in vivo study demonstrates that date palm kernel exhibits a significant antiwrinkle effect and is therefore of interest in antiageing skin care products [Bauza E, Dal Farra C, Berghi A, Oberto G, Peyronel D and Domloge N, Date palm kernel extract exhibits antiageing properties and significantly reduces skin wrinkles, Intern J Tissue React, 2002, 24(4), 131-136].

 

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol. 4, July-August, 2005, pp. 344

Skin-whitening agent from Sophora flavescens roots

Several tyrosinase inhibitors including arbutin and kojic acid have been widely used for the purpose of skin whitening in cosmetic industry, especially in Northeast Asia.

Kim and others evaluated Sophora flavescens Ait. (Family – Fabaceae) for tyrosinase inhibitory activity and identified active principles for the purpose of development of a skin-whitening agent. The ethanol extract and dichloromethane fraction from roots of this species showed significant inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase. From the dichloromethane fraction, three known prenylated flavonoids, sophoraflavanone G, kuraridin and kurarinone were isolated. Compared with kojic acid (IC50=20.5mM), these compounds showed more potent tyrosinase inhibitory activity. The IC50 values are 6.6, 0.6 and 6.2 mM for sophoraflavanone G, kuraridin and kurarinone, respectively. These flavonoids may have potential for use as skin-whitening agents and their in vivo activity should be evaluated for this purpose. Further, in vivo cytotoxicity using high concentrations of them should also be investigated to clarify their beneficial/harmful effects [Kim SJ, Son KH, Chang HW, Kang SS and Kim HP, Tyrosinase Inhibitory Prenylated Flavonoids from Sophora flavescens, Biol Pharm Bull, 2003, 26(9), 1348-1350].