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 Natural Product Radiance

A Bimonthly Digest on Natural Products

 

 

 

VOLUME 4

NUMBER 2

March - April 2005

 

 

CONTENTS

 

Research Articles

 

Preparation of Kulfi from admixtures of partially de-oiled groundnut meal and milk/milk powders

90

Lata Ramachandran, Sukhminder Singh and Ashwani Kr. Rathour

 

IPC code; Int.cl.7A23G9/00, A23G9/02 

 

 

 

Effect of Garlic and Red Clover extracts on adenosine deaminase enzyme activities in cancerous and non-cancerous human liver tissues

97

İlker Durak, Aslıhan Avcı, Erdal Göçmen and Erdinç Devrim

 

IPC code; Int. cl.7—A61P 43/00, A61P 35/00, A61K 35/78 

 

 

 

 Efficacy of Neem in combination with cow urine against mustard aphid and its effect on coccinellid predators

102

M P Gupta

 

IPC code; Int. cl.7A01N 65/00

 

 

 

Article

 

Interactions of herbs and food products with drugs: Grapefruit juice as an example

107

Inder Pal Singh, Sandip B Bharate and K K Bhutani

 

IPC code; Int. cl.7 A61K 35/78, A23L 2/06

 

 

 

Green Page: Research Article

 

Agrotechniques to maximize productivity of Hydroalcoholic extract from medicinal garden herb, Calendula

 113

Subhendu S Gantait and T K Chattopadhyay

 

IPC code; Int. cl.7 A01G 9/00

 

 

 

Article

 

Synthetic seeds ― A potential tool to conserve plants

117

Satish V Patil, Bipinchandra K Salunke and Javeid A Bhat 

 

 

 

Unani Tips

 

Urticaria (Sharaa): Prevention and Cure 

119

Jamal Akhtar, Bilal Ahmad and Nighat Anjum   

 

 

 

Explorer: Article

 

Utilization of termite, Odontotermes formosanus by tribes of South India in medicine and food

121

V Wilsanand

 

IPC code; Int. cl.7 A23L 1/00, A61K 35/64 

 

 

 

Internet News

 

Pear Bars

143

Fruit and vegetable films keep food fresh and tasty

143

Peanuts as source of health-promoting antioxidants

143

Coral reefs may grow with global warming

143

Vaccines from crops

144

Carrots and fish help prevent breast cancer 

144

Full-fat salad dressing is best 

145

Caffeine and diabetes

145

Yoghurt suppresses Helicobacter pylori  

145

Creamy Marigold cleanser

146

Grapefruit can reduce weight

146

Pesticidal potential of Congress grass on mustard aphid

146

Herbal extract from wild oats straw for smoking cessation  

146

 

 

Projects/Schemes

 

BARC ― Technology Transfer & Collaboration

147

Food preservation by radiation processing 

147

NBRI organizes Training on Commercial Floriculture

147

Biodiesel test vehicles project at IIP Dehra Dun 

147

 

 

Exhibition/Conference

 

Forthcoming Conferences, Seminars, Exhibitions and Trainings

148

 

 

Classified Digests

 

Beverage

126

Dye

128

Feed and Fodder

130

Fibre

131

Food 

131

Fruit   

132

Fuel

134

Insecticide 

134

Therapeutics 

135

Tissue culture

139

Vegetable

139

In Brief 

140

Readers write 

 88

Subscription form

149

Index  

150

                                           

Research Articles

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, March- April, 2005, pp. 90-96

 
Preparation of Kulfi from admixtures of partially de-oiled Groundnut meal and milk/milk powders

Lata Ramachandran, Sukhminder Singh and Ashwani Kr. Rathour

 

Three types of dry Kulfi (frozen dessert) blends were prepared from partially de-oiled groundnut meal (PDGM), stabilizers and salts (B1); PDGM, whole milk powder, stabilizers and salts (B2); and PDGM, skim milk powder, stabilizers and salts (B3). The kulfis, designated as K1, K2 and K3, made from B1, B2 and B3, respectively were compared with the control kulfi (Kc) for their average chemical composition, physico-chemical properties and microbiological quality. Comparative appraisal of the sensory scores showed significantly higher scores of Kc than K1, K2 and K3 for colour and appearance, flavour and overall acceptability but K1 had the highest body and texture scores.

 

Keywords: Groundnut meal, Milk, Kulfi, Frozen dessert, Chemical composition, Physico-chemical properties, Microbiological quality, Sensory score.

 

IPC Code; Int.cl.7 A23G9/00, A23G9/02

  

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, March- April, 2005, pp. 97- 101

 
Effect of Garlic and Red Clover extracts on adenosine deaminase enzyme activities in cancerous and non-cancerous human liver tissues

 İlker Durak, Aslıhan Avcı, Erdal Göçmen  and Erdinç Devrim

 

Possible effects of aqueous garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) and red clover (Trifolium pratense Linn.) extracts on adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities were investigated in cancerous and non-cancerous human liver tissues and results were compared with those of Fludarabine, a known ADA inhibitor. Ten cancerous and 10 non-cancerous adjacent liver tissues were obtained from patients with metastatic type liver cancer by surgical operations. Kinetic analyses were carried out to establish Vmax and Km values of the reaction catalyzed by ADA in the presence or absence of inhibitor. ADA activity was found to be lower in the cancerous tissues compared with non-cancerous tissues. Aqueous garlic and red clover extracts induced significant inhibition ADA activity in both the tissues. Inhibition percentage was relatively higher in the cancerous tissues as compared with non-cancerous tissues. Furthermore, we observed that inhibition percentage induced by garlic and red clover extracts were higher than those of Fludarabine at the concentrations studied.

Keywords: Liver Cancer, Adenosine deaminase, ADA, Garlic, Allium sativum, Red clover, Trifolium pretense.

 IPC code; Int. cl.7A61P 43/00, A61P 35/00, A61K 35/78

  

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, March- April, 2005, pp. 102-106

Efficacy of Neem in combination with cow urine against mustard aphid and its effect on coccinellid predators

M P Gupta

 

Neem leaf extracts (NLE) and neem kernel extracts (NKE) in cow urine, neem oil, insecticides Phosphamidon, Dimethoate and their combinations were evaluated against the mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi Kalt. alongwith their impact on the activity of predator, coccinellid beetles. The treatments significantly reduced incidence of mustard aphid and increased the grain yield of mustard. Combination treatments of Dimethoate 0.03% either with NKE 3% or NLE 3% followed by Dimethoate 0.045% and Phosphamidon 0.04% were most effective in reducing the aphid incidence. Grain yield was maximum in Phosphamidon 0.04% followed by neem oil 1% + Dimethoate 0.03% and NKE 3%. Net profit was also maximum in phosphamidon (Rs. 9246/ha) and NKE 3% (Rs. 5938/ha). Whereas, incremental cost benefit ratio was highest in NKE 2% (15.5) and NKE 3% (15.1). The results conclude that the incidence of mustard aphid can be safely and successfully managed by adopting 3 or 4 foliar sprays of neem kernel extract (in cow urine) 3% either alone or in combination with reduced dose of Dimethoate 0.03%.

Keywords: Neem kernel extract, Neem leaf extract, Cow urine, Mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi, Coccinellid beetles.

IPC code; Int. cl.7A01N 65/00

 

Article

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, March - April, 2005, pp. 107- 112

 
 Interactions of herbs and food products with drugs : Grapefruit juice as an example

Inder Pal Singh

Plants have been used throughout human history for their medicinal properties and herbal medicines are popular worldwide. Since, all herbal medicines are mixtures of more than one active ingredient, such combinations of many substances obviously increase the likelihood of interactions taking place. Although herbal medicines have been used as remedies for number of illnesses, many of them have shown interactions with the synthetic drugs and also exhibited adverse effects. These herb-drug interactions may be adverse as well as beneficial. Herb-drug interactions are discussed in this article with an example of Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) juice-drug interaction. The oral bioavailability of many drugs was found to be increased when these are consumed along with grapefruit juice.

 Keywords: Herb-drug interactions, Grapefruit juice, Citrus paradisi, Furanocoumarin.

 IPC code; Int. cl.7A61K 35/78, A23L 2/06

 

Green Page: Research Article

 Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, March - April, 2005, pp. 113- 116

 
Agrotechniques to maximize productivity of Hydroalcoholic extract from medicinal garden herb, Calendula

Subhendu S Gantait and T K Chattopadhyay

Among the various agrotechniques, optimum nutrient management is one of the most important factors, which affect the growth and overall accumulation of active ingredients in the different organs of the plants as the capacity to produce dry matter per unit area is dependent on nutrient management. Two years field experiment was carried in winter season during 2000-2002 at Horticulture Research Farm, BCKV, Kalyani, Nadia (West Bengal) on clay loam soil taking 27 treatment combinations comprised of three levels (0,10, 20g/m2) of each of N, P2O5 and K2O under 3 replications to work out the optimum nutrient management for obtaining higher hydroalcoholic extract (HAE) from different parts of Calendula. The highest amount of HAE was noticed in the flower followed by leaf, shoot and to a lesser extent in root. The treatment combination of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the ratio of 20:10:20 g/m2 was observed to provide optimum nutrition for maximum productivity of flower as well as percentage of HAE producing 2308.70 g/m2 flower and 16.2, 14.4, 9.6 and 6.0% of HAE in flower, leaf, shoot and root, respectively on clay loam soil.

Keywords: Calendula, Marigold, Calendula officinalis, Hydroalcoholic extracts, Nutritional variability.

IPC code; Int. cl.7 A01G 9/00

 

Green Page: Article

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, March - April, 2005, pp. 117-118

 
 Synthetic seeds ― A potential tool to conserve plants

Satish V Patil, Bipinchandra K Salunke and Javeid A Bhat

The definition of synthetic seed refers to the encapsulation of somatic embryos that functionally mimic the behaviours of true seeds and sprout into seedlings under suitable conditions. Synthetic seed production technology is considered to be one of the potential alternatives to produce commercially important agronomic, horticultural crops and elite plant species. Transgenic plants produced through genetic engineering, somatic and cytoplasmic hybrids obtained by protoplast fusion as well as sterile and unstable genotypes might be able to multiply through this technology. In near future, synthetic seed production technology might become a valuable tool to study the germination of true seeds and various unfamiliar events in germination process.Method of encapsulation, method of synthetic seed production and potential applications of synthetic seeds have been discussed in this small article.

 

Unani Tips

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, March - April, 2005, pp. 119-120

 
Urticaria (Sharaa) : Prevention and Cure

Jamal Akhtar, Bilal Ahmad and Nighat Anjum

Urticaria or hives, known as Sharaa in Unani medicine is one of the commonest allergic reactions. They are itchy, elevated, red blotches of varying size. It usually affects the throat, arms, legs and trunk. Rashes often disappear quickly but usually gone within 48 hours, although new ones may continue to appear for days or weeks. When the rashes last within six weeks it is called acute urticaria. But if new rashes keep occurring for more than six weeks it is called chronic urticaria. Chronic urticaria is not serious but can be a sign of an underlying disease process.

Unani or Greeco-Arabic medicine is based on the concept of balancing body humours. They either fell out of balance, which might yield diseases. Unani medicine involves four elements – earth, air, water and fire, along with four natures – cold, hot, wet and dry and four humours – blood or Sanguis (hot and wet), phlegm (cold and wet), yellow bile or Choler (hot and dry) and black bile or Melancholer (cold and dry). In case of urticaria, there is an excess of yellow bile or Choler humour, but it may be due to imbalance of other humours also. Unani system of medicine has described two types of the Urticaria: One is due to predominance of Sanguis humour called Sanguis Urticaria (Sharaa-e-Damvi). The second is due to predominance of Phlegm humour called Phlegmatic Urticaria (Sharaa-e-Balghami). The signs and symptoms are much more severe in Sanguis urticaria than Phlegmatic urticaria.

Causes

Exact cause is not known in about 80% cases of chronic urticaria. However, the common causes of urticaria include medication such as antibiotics, which is most common cause in present day practice, codeine, anticonvulsant drugs, aspirin, etc. Foods such as shellfish, nuts, peanuts, eggs, barriers and food additives and inhalants such as animal dander, pollens and molds, etc. can also cause urticaria. Contact allergens like plant substances, skin creams, perfumes, chemical hair dyes and insect bites such as bee sting are very common which cause a high intensity urticaria.

There are a number of distinct physical causes also such as exposure to cold water and air. Tight fitting clothes or jewellery (especially artificial) can cause rashes to the skin. Cholinergic urticaria is a rare disorder, which is due to heat, exercise or emotional stress. Another rare type of urticaria is Aquagenic urticaria where rashes appear due to contact with sweat or water. Sun exposure sometimes results in hives known as Solar urticaria. Bacterial, viral, fungal infections and intestinal worms have also been found to cause of hives.

Indigestion, constipation, heavy meals, teething in children, menstrual irregularities, excessive alcohol intake, ingestion of spicy foods and metabolic disorders have also been described several other causes of urticaria in Unani System of Medicine. It is more prevalent in females then males. It is more common in young people, but can occur at any age.

 Symptoms

Onset of the skin rashes is very sudden in most of the cases but sometimes it may be gradual. Red or skin coloured warts that resemble mosquito bites appear on the skin, which changes quickly in size, shape and location. Itching on the affected part is the most common problem, which compels the patient to visit the doctor. Swelling of lips, face and tongue (Angioedema) may also occur, which increases the severity of the illness.

DO’s

Keep the temperature of the skin cool.

Apply cold compresses to an itchy area.

Wear cool, loose, light and cotton clothes.

Use hygienic food and drinks.

Take lukewarm baths using herbal soap and rinsing thoroughly.

Steam bath at frequent intervals.

Take easily digestible meals without over eating.

Mild to moderate exercise.

Keep fingernails short to avoid skin damage from any inadvertent scratching.

Engage yourself in different activities to divert the attention from scratching.

Take up an enjoyable hobby that distracts from the itching during the day and makes you tired enough to sleep at night.

DONT’s

Exposure to excessive heat and humidity for a long time.

Scratch or rub the itchy areas.

Take alcohol.

Use tight fitting clothes.

Use artificial jewellery.

Take medicine especially pain relieving drugs without a doctor’s advice.

Eat food responsible for hives.

Wear rough clothing, particularly wool, over an itchy area.

Home Remedies

Following preparations are useful in the treatment of Urticaria: 

Preparation No. 1

Take concoction of the fruits of Tamar Hindi (Tamarindus indica Linn.) and fruit of Alu Bukhara (Prunus domestica Linn.) in equal quantity and add sugar. 50ml of this solution can be taken twice daily.

Preparation No. 2

Boil heartwood of Sandal Surkh (Pterocarpus santalinus Linn.) 3g, fruit of Unnab (Zizyphus sativa Gaertn.) 5nos, Saunf (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) 6g, flower of Mundi (Sphaeranthus indicus Linn.) and deseeded fruit of Maveez munaqqa (Vitis vinifera Linn.) 7no. in water and filter it. After adding desirable quantity of sugar it can be taken twice daily.

Preparation No. 3

Seed of Kalizeeri (Centratherum anthelminticum Linn.) 3g and fruit of Abhal (Juniperus communis Linn.) 3g, boiled in water and filtered can be used once in morning.

Preparation No. 4

Paste of unripe fruit of Shahtoot (Morus alba Linn.) in vinegar is suggested to apply locally on the affected parts daily. 

Preparation No. 5

Extract of Rasaut (Berberis aristata DC.) 3g, heartwood of Sandal Safaid (Santalum album Linn.) 3g, and extract of Kafoor (Cinnamomum camphora Linn.) 1g, are powdered and mixed in distilled concentrate of Arq-e-Gulab (Rosa damascena Mill.).This paste may be used locally twice daily.

Preparation No. 6

Vinegar and distilled concentrate of Gulab (Rosa damascena Mill.), mixed in equal parts is suggested for local application twice daily.

Preparation No. 7

Dried leaf pulp of Gheekawar (Aloe barbadensis Mill.), exudate of Mur Makki [Commiphora myrrha (Nees) Engl.] and Boora-e-Armani (Aluminium silicate) taken in equal parts are powdered. A paste, made by adding Honey and Vinegar with this powder can be applied on the affected part twice daily. 

Pharmacopoeial Medicines

For Oral Use

1. Sharbat-e-Unnab (syrup) – 20-50 ml daily in divided dosages.

2. Sharbat-e-Murakkab (syrup) – 20-50 ml daily in divided dosages.

3. Hab-e-Musaffi-e-Khoon (Pills) – 2 tablets thrice daily.

4. Arq-e-Mundi (syrup) – 20-50 ml daily in divided dosages.

5. Arq-e-Ushba (syrup) – 20-50 ml daily in divided dosages.

6. Arq-e-Shahatra (syrup) – 20-50 ml daily in divided dosages.

7. Saafi (syrup) – 20-50 ml daily in divided dosages.

8. Majoon Ushba (Semisolid Preparation) – 10g once daily.

9. Majoon Chobchini (Semisolid Preparation) – 10g once daily.

10.Jawarish Tamar Hindi (Semisolid Preparation) – 10g twice daily after meal.

11.Jawarish Amla (Semisolid Preparation) – 10g twice daily after meal.

12.Jawarish Anarain (Semisolid Preparation) – 10g twice daily after meal.

For opical Use

13. Marham-e-Kafoori (Ointment) – Local application twice daily.

 

Explorer: Article

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, March - April, 2005, pp. 121- 125

 
 Utilization of termite, Odontotermes formosanus by tribes of South India in medicine and food

 V Wilsanand

Termites form an important part of the diet of human beings around the world including India. It is also a rich source of food for various other vertebrates and plants. By food value, termites are rich source of protein, thus forming an important diet for pregnant women and children. Termites are also used in South Indian folk medicine. Many South Indian tribes including 'Kannikaran', 'Paniyan', 'Palliyan', 'Sholaga', 'Irular' and 'Kota' have been using the termite Odontotermes formosanus Shiraki for the treatment of asthma, a disease likely to be deteriorated by viral infection. 'Kanikaran' and 'Palliyan' tribes also have been using O. formosanus as food to enhance lactation in women. Preliminary studies confirm the antimicrobial potentialities of O. formosanus, besides a role in growth and development, thus supporting the tribal remedies. Present paper is a compilation of information from literature on utilization of termites as medicine and food.

Keywords: Entomophagy, Ethnozoology, Termite, Odontotermes formosanus, South Indian Tribes, Zootherapy.

IPC code; Int. cl.7 A23L 1/00, A61K 35/64

 

Classified Digests

Beverages

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, March - April, 2005, pp. 126

 
New beverage made of wine vinegar and grape juice

 

A  team of scientists at Department of Pharmacology, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, Tamaho-cho, Nakakoma-gun, Yamanashi,  Japan  has made a beverage from  wine vinegar and grape juice (Budo-no-megumi™) for people who wish to obtain effective amount of both polyphenols and vinegar for their health. In this study, authors assessed its cardiovascular effects using an in vivo pentobarbital-anesthetized rat. A recommended dose of the beverage (3 ml/kg, p.o.) decreased the heart rate and mean blood pressure, while no significant change was detected in the electrocardiogram parameters (n = 6). These results suggest that the new beverage may be useful for people who are worried about palpitation and/or hypertension. More work will be required to estimate which components in the beverage are essential to the current results in addition to establishing its long-term efficacy [Sugiyama et al, Nutr Res, 2003, 23(9), 1291-1296].

 

Dye

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, March - April, 2005, pp. 128

 Dyeing of polyester fibre using indigo

The scientists at Department of Textile Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon and Dyeing Technology Center, Daegu, South Korea studied on dyeing of polyester fiber using indigo and its extended wash fastness properties. Besides, HPLC analysis of indigo moieties extracted from indigo dyed samples was investigated to determine the spectral adsorption changes. It is found that the deep shade of indigo dyeing was achieved. The effects of indigo dyeing conditions such as temperature, time and wash fastness to the polyester fibers are also investigated.

 Polyester fibre was dyed with indigo vat dye to examine the practical dyeing feasibilities and behaviours. Vat dyes, which commonly applied to the cellulosic fibers, could be considerable colourants to dye polyester substrate, especially focusing on fastness aspect in terms of washing test. In this work, the optimized dyeing conditions and behaviours were investigated. In addition, extended multiple washings of indigo dyeing, which were compared with the results of disperse dyeing, were carried out to determine the fastness properties. HPLC analysis showed that when dyeing time increased, structural changes of indigo components were attributed to the decreasing colour strength of dyeings. From the comparison of indigo disperse system and leuco system, it was found that disperse system of indigo had little effect to achieve dye uptakes [Son et al, Dyes Pigments, 2004, 61(3), 263-272].

 

Feed and Fodder

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, March - April, 2005, pp. 130

 Use of Lotus corniculatus to increase lamb and wool production under dryland farming conditions

 

Birdsfoot trefoil, Lotus corniculatus Linn. is a forage adapted to a variety of soil types. There is considerable interest in New Zealand in the pastoral value of Birdsfoot trefoil (BFT) for dryland farming areas, where other legumes and grasses have reduced productivity in summer/autumn due to drought conditions and to reduced soil fertility in hill country. Birdsfoot trefoil contains a low concentration of condensed tannins (CT), 20–40g/kg DM, which bind leaf protein after mastication. In grazing sheep, the action of the CT in BFT has increased wool growth by up to (11%) during summer, milk yield (21%) during mid and late lactation and both ovulation rate (27%) during mating and lambing percentage (20%). Experimental evidence suggests that CT have the potential to control parasite infections and reduce dag formation (accumulation of faeces in the wool surrounding the anus), which could potentially lead to reduced use of anthelmintics to control parasites. Additionally, relative to perennial ryegrass, growth of sheep was higher (35%) when grazing BFT. However, there was no evidence to support CT making a positive contribution to this effect, as judged by the level of response to polyethylene glycol (PEG) supplementation. Thus Rami’rez-Restrepo and others in New Zealand carried out studies to assess the effect of feeding L. corniculatus on sustainable productivity of lactating Ewes (female sheep) in the spring under commercial dryland farming conditions without the use of anthelmintic drenches, using a system approach, where effects on animal productivity and parasites were measured in the same experiment. Two grazing experiments were conducted for 12 and 13 weeks, respectively, over the spring periods of 2000 and 2001 at Massey University's Riverside farm in the Wairarapa (New Zealand) to compare effects of grazing L. corniculatus (cv. ‘Grasslands Goldie’) or Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne Linn.)/White clover (Trifolium repens Linn.) dominant pasture during lactation on Ewe and Lamb live weight (LW), wool production, faecal nematode egg counts (FEC) and dag score. Ewes and their lambs (mainly twins) were rotationally grazed on Lotus or pasture (n = 50) without any anthelmintic treatment at a herbage allowance of 6.5 and 8.0 kg green DM/Ewe/days for experiments 1 and 2, respectively.

 

The results indicate that under dry land farming conditions, the use of this herb as forage during the spring/early summer lactation period can be used to increase lamb growth and wool production, whilst eliminating the need for pre-lambing anthelmintic drenching and, probably, reducing the amount of insecticide needed to control flystrike. These effects are probably due to the CT in lotus reducing rumen protein degradability and controlling internal parasites, and to the higher digestibility and voluntary feed intake (VFI) of lotus compared to perennial ryegrass/white clover pasture. The absence of endophyte in Lotus may also have contributed to these effects [Rami’rez-Restrepo et al, Anim Feed Sci Technol, 2004, 117(1-2), 85-105].

 

Food

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, March - April, 2005, pp. 131

Flavour and storage stability of potato chips in various oil blends

Potato chips are commonly used snacks by all age groups. Flavour of these chips during storage is the main factor involved as far as quality is concerned. Research scientists at University of Tennessee Knoxville, TN evaluated flavour and storage stability of potato chips fried in cotton seed and sunflower oils and Palm Olein /Sunflower oil blends. During experiment potato chips fried in cottonseed and sunflower oils and 20 and 40% palmolein oil blends were stored at 23 to 25°C for 0-, 3- and 6-week in dark and in 1.5-1.7 feet candles of light (LS). Cottonseed oil was used as a control.

Result conclude that based on the peroxide values, addition of 20 or 40% palmolein oil to sunflower oil can produce chips that are more stable to oxidation during storage than chips fried in sunflower oil without any effect on flavour. Also, the stability of chips fried in the blend sunflower oil/palmolein oil was similar to or greater than that of chips fried in cottonseed oil during dark or light storage, respectively. Thus snack food processors could replace cottonseed or sunflower with palmolein/sunflower blends without sacrificing chips flavour or storage stability, perhaps at a saving in potato chips production costs also as palmolein oil is low-cost oil. In addition, such blends have a similar unsaturation and fatty acid composition as cottonseed oil [Pangloli et al, Food Chem Toxicol, 2002, 67(1), 97-103].

 

Fruit

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, March - April, 2005, pp. 132

 

Value added products from lesser-known fruits of Paradise tree

 Paradise tree or Bitterwood, Simarouba glauca DC., found in coastal region of Karnataka, bears fruits in the rainy season and birds eat them even before fully ripen to black. In order to explore the possibilities of utilizing the fruit pulp for processing, an investigation was carried out by researchers at the Division of Horticulture, GKVK, UAS, Bangalore. The juice was utilized for the preparation of ready-to-serve (RTS) and squash whereas the pulp for making jam. RTS of 15 and 20°Brix TSS with 15 per cent juice and 0.3 per cent acidity, squashes of 40 and 45°Brix TSS with 40 percent juice and one per cent acidity were prepared. While jams of pure Simarouba and Simarouba-Grape in the pulp ratio of 100:0 and 50:50 were prepared, respectively. The products were filled into the pre-sterilized glass bottles and pasteurized, cooled and stored under room temperature (24 - 28° C) for up to five months and evaluated chemically at monthly interval. RTS juices prepared with the recipe 15 per cent juice, 20°Brix TSS and the squash prepared with the recipe having 40 per cent juice, 45°Brix TSS recorded maximum ascorbic acid, total sugars and reducing sugars. Jam prepared using 45 per cent Simarouba pulp, 68.5°Brix TSS rated excellent. In addition, these combinations had better colour and was rated superior in quality attributes like appearance, aroma, taste and over all acceptability in organoleptic evaluation after 5 months of storage period [Ramajayam et al, First Indian Horticulture Congress, Abstracts, New Delhi, 1-8 November, 2004, p.384].

 

Fuel

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, March - April, 2005, pp. 133

 

Use of tobacco seed oil methyl ester in diesel engine

Vegetable oils and their methyl/ethyl esters are alternative renewable fuels for compression ignition engines. Different kinds of vegetable oils and their methyl/ethyl esters have been tested in diesel engines. However, tobacco seed oil and tobacco seed oil methyl ester have not been tested in diesel engines, yet. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum Linn.) seed oil is a non-edible vegetable oil and a by-product of tobacco leaves production. In a study (conducted at Pamukkale University, Mechanical Engineering Department, Camli, Denizli, Turkey), the oil extraction process from tobacco seed and the transesterification process for biodiesel production were examined. Tobacco seed oil methyl ester has been produced and tested in a diesel engine as an alternative diesel fuel. The results conclude that tobacco seed oil methyl ester can be partially (up to 25-35%) substituted for the diesel fuel at most operating conditions in terms of performance parameters and emissions without any engine modification and preheating of the blends [Usta, Biomass Bioenergy, 2005, 28(1), 77-86].

 

Therapeutics

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, March - April, 2005, pp. 136

 
Antidiarrhoeal activity of Cissampelos pareira roots

 

Cissampelos pareira Linn. (Hindi- Akanadi) is a sub-erect or climbing herb. It is common in orchards; hedges, parks and gardens on moist soils distributed throughout tropical and subtropical India ascending upto an altitude of 2000m, also common on the hilly tracts along water-courses. The leaves are eaten as potherb and are reported to be cooling.

 

The scientists at National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow and College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal, Karnataka assessed on ethnomedical value of root extract in experimentally induced diarrhoea in experimental animals. The hydroethanolic extract (25-100 mg dry extract/ kg body mass, p.o.) exhibited a dose dependent decrease in the total number of faecal droppings (control 65, reduced to 26-46) and 29.2-60.0% inhibition in castor oil-induced diarrhoea. Further, it produced a significant (p < 0.01) and dose dependent reduction in intestinal fluids accumulation (26.0-59.0%). The extract showed a greater inhibitory effect on the concentration of Na+ (20.0 and 34.5%) than or the concentration of K+ (6.7 and 9.4%). The extract also reduced dose dependent gastrointestinal transit from 46.4 and 38.7%, equivalent to 53.6 and 61.3%. However, C. pareira significantly reduced the lipid peroxidation and inhibited the decrease in antioxidant enzyme levels (superoxide dismutase and catalase) on prior administration to castor oil-induced fluid accumulation. The extract had no effect on normal defecation at 25 mg/kg in mice. However, 50 and 100 mg/kg inhibited defecation by 100% in the initial 2hr and the activity was reduced to 40.0 and 73.0%, respectively, in the third hour [Amresh et al, Acta Pharm, 2004, 54(1), 27-35].

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, March - April, 2005, pp. 136

Tamarind seeds possess antidiabetic effect

In Indian traditional system of medicine, Tamarind, Tamarindus indica Linn. (Hindi - Imli) pulp, seeds and leaves are prescribed for the treatment of various diseases including diabetes mellitus. Scientists at Reproductive Endocrinology and Family Welfare Research Unit, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore, West Bengal, investigated the antidiabetic effect of aqueous extract of seeds of Tamarind in Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. It was found to possess potent antidiabetogenic activity that reduces blood sugar level in STZ-induced diabetic male rat. Supplementation of this aqueous extract by gavage at the dose of 80mg/0.5ml distilled water/100g body weight per day in STZ-induced diabetic rat resulted a significant diminution of fasting blood sugar level after 7 days. Continuous supplementation of this extract for 14 days resulted no significant difference in this parameter from control level. Moreover, this supplementation produced a significant elevation in liver and skeletal muscle glycogen content, activity of liver glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in respect to diabetic group. Activities of liver glucose-6-phosphatase, liver and kidney glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) activities were decreased significantly in the aqueous extract supplemented group in respect to diabetic group. All these parameters were not resettled to the controlled level after 7 days of this extract supplementation but after 14 days of this supplementation, all the above mentioned parameters were restored to the control level [Maiti et al, J Ethnopharmacol, 2004, 92(1), 85-91].

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, March - April, 2005, pp. 137

 Anticancer activities of Hedyotis diffusa Willd.

Hedyotis diffusa Willd. syn. Oldenlandia diffusa Roxb. is a Chinese herbal medicine used for several diseases like rheumatism, arthritis and appendicitis. Salin Gupta and others at New York investigated anticancer activity of the water extract of the raw herb. During experiment in vitro anti-proliferative activities of the extract were tested against eight cancer cell lines and one normal cell line. Microscopic examination and DNAladder analysis were carried out to determine the pro-apoptotic effect of the extract. In vivo studies were carried out to examine the anticancer activities of the extract using C57BL/6J mice bearing B16-F10 lung metastasis. The extract was given at the dose level of 5g raw material/kg on days 3-12 by oral gavage and the extent of lung metastases were examined on day 14.

The extract exhibited a strong antiproliferative activity against all cancer cell lines tested. The concentrations of growth inhibition at 50% (IC50) ranged from 7 to 25mg raw material/ml after 48-hours treatment. The extract had a very limited cytotoxicity (10% inhibition) on the normal pancreatic cells even at the concentration of 50mg/mL. Apoptosis in B16-F10 cells after treatment with the extract was observed by microscopic examination and DNAladder assays. Oral administration of the herbal extract effectively reduced B16-F10 cell growth in the lungs of C57BL/J mice with a 70% reduction in lung metastases (p < 0.001). Thus, this herb extract could be a potential anticancer agent [Gupta et al, J Herbal Pharmacother, 2004, 4(1), 21-33]

  

Vegetable

Natural Product Radiance

Vol. 4, March - April, 2005, pp. 139

Lesser-known vegetable ‘Rutabaga’

A little known and lesser-exploited vegetable, ‘Rutabaga’ – Brassica napobrassica (Linn.) Mill. is a cross between cabbage, Brassica oleracea Linn. and turnip B. rapa. Linn. emend. Metzger. Developed in European country this vegetable crop can successfully be grown in lower hills of Himalayas. The roots, which are eaten after boiling, are 10.75 cm long, 12 cm in diameter and 174g in weight. An average yield of 205q/ha has been recorded in Pithoragarh, Uttranchal region. The roots are rich in nutrients, containing crude protein, 1.09; crude fat, 2.05; minerals, 0.62; crude fibre, 1.67; and moisture, 89.32 per cent [Khan & Nainwal, Prog Hort, 2002, 34(2), 244-246].

 

In Brief

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol. 4, March - April, 2005, pp. 140

 Carbonized Jackfruit peel as an adsorbent

 The scientists at Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology, Deemed University, Tiruchirappalli evaluated the potential of carbonized jackfruit peel as an adsorbent for the removal of Cd (II) from aqueous solution. The jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) is one of the popular fruits in India; hence, significant amount of peel (approximately 2714–11,800 kg per tree per year) is discarded as agricultural waste. Treatment of jackfruit peel with sulphuric acid produced a carbonaceous product which was used to study its efficiency as an adsorbent for the removal of Cd(II) from aqueous solution. Batch experiments were performed as a function of process parameters; agitation time, initial metal concentration, adsorbent concentration and pH. A complete recovery of the adsorbed metal ions from the spent adsorbent was achieved by using 0.01 M HCl [Inbaraj & Sulochana, Bioresource Technol, 2004, 94(1), 49-52].

  

Natural Product Radiance

Vol. 4, March - April, 2005, pp. 142

Amla shredding cum stone extracting machine

Amla, Emblica officinalis Gaertn. is becoming popular as a rich source of vitamin C and its usage in natural dyes and shampoo and many medicinal preparations. In all products Amla shreds are needed. Traditionally Amla shreds and stones are removed manually using knife, which is time consuming, unhealthy and uneconomical. With the objective to develop mechanical process, Scientists at Agricultural Product Process Engineering Unit, Gujarat Agricultural University, Anand have developed a Amla shredding cum stone extracting machine. The machine at 330 RPM speed of roller, shreds 97-98% Amla with minimal breakage of stone (6-7%). The machine could process 60-70 kg Amla per hour, which is 10 times more than the manual processing. The cost of processing of using the developed machine is about Rs.159/tonne as compared to Rs.833/tonne for manual extraction [Kapdi et al, GAU Res J, 2000, 26(1), 40-46].