NATURAL PRODUCT RADIANCE

A Bimonthly Digest on Natural Products

Total visitors: 3,143  since 06-12-05


 

VOLUME 4

NUMBER 5

September-October 2005

 

 

Contents

Review Articles

 

Glycyrrhiza glabra: Medicine over the millennium

Sanjai Saxena

IPC code; Int. cl.7 ¾ A61K7/00, A61K 35/78, A61P 1/04, A61P 1/16, A61P 11/00, A61P 31/00, A61P 35/00

 

 

358

An overview on Hypericum perforatum Linn. 

U M Rao Vattikuti and Veeresham Ciddi* 

IPC code; Int. cl.7 ¾ A01G 7/00, A61K 35/78, A61P 25/24, A61P 31/12, A61P 31/98, A61P 35/00                                                                                                                         

 

368

Article

Therapeutic potential of Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) P. Karst.,  

N Sheena, B Lakshmi and K K Janardhanan 

IPC code; Int. cl.7 A61K 35/84, A61P 1/16, A61P 9/00, A61P 29/00, A61P 35/00, A61P39/06             

 

382

Scope of value addition to camel hide 

Champak Bhakat and M S Sahani 

IPC code; Int. cl.7 ¾ A41D 5/00, B68F 1/00, C14B 15/00                                              

 

387

Dyeing silk with Jatropha flowers                                          
Ekta Grover, Anshu Sharma and Susan Paul

IPC code; Int. cl. 7
C09B 61/00, D06P 1/34, D06P 3/82                                               

 

391

Green Page: Article
Some promising under utilized industrial crops for cultivation on wastelands of India

Vandana Joshi

IPC code; Int. cl.7 ¾ A01G 7/00, C11B 1/04, C08L 7/00                                  

 

396

Explorer: Articles

Soaked and germinated soybean seeds for blood sugar controlA preliminary study 

Manju Pathak 

IPC code; Int. cl. 7— A61K 35/78, A61 P3/10                                               

 

405

 

Development of cow urine based disinfectant
S A Mandavgane, Ashish K Rambhal and Naresh K Mude

IPC code; Int. cl.7
¾  A61L 9/00, A61 L 9/013

410

Unani Tips

Diabetes mellitus Prevention and Management 

Jamal Akhtar, Shakir Jamil and Azhar M U                                                                  

413

 

Internet News

Mushrooms a top source for antioxidant                                               

Chemical analysis of mushrooms shows their nutritional benefits

Olive oil acts like painkiller                                                                   

Pomegranate fruit good in osteoarthritis                                    

Green tea ingredient prevents Alzheimer’s disease                                

 

 

 

440

440

441

441

441

 

Projects/Schemes

Innovative case studies 

Technology for neem seed/kernel biopesticide formulation                     Natural products developed by RRL Bhubaneswar 

IHBT Project on medicine for haemorroids            

 

 

443

443

443

443

Classified Digests

 

Beverage                       

Dye                                

Fibre                            

Food                           

Fruit                               

Insecticide/Pesticide       

Oil/Fats                       

Spices                           

Therapeutics                     

Tissue Culture                   

 

  

 

416

418

419 

420  422  

424

426   

429

431
 435                  

In Brief                        

Book Reviews                       

Editorial                            

Guidelines to Authors 

Index                            

 

436    

442

357

445

447    

Forthcoming Conferences, Seminars, Exhibitions and Trainings

 

 

 

                                                                                              

Review Articles

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, September-October, 2005, 358-367

 

Glycyrrhiza glabra: Medicine over the millennium

 

Sanjai Saxena

 

Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. is an age-old plant used in traditional medicine across the globe for its ethnopharmacological values to cure varieties of ailments from simple cough to hepatitis to more complex like SARS and cancer.  The present paper is an effort to highlight the role of a few major constituents of this plant, which have multifaceted pharmacological actions and could be used as templates for designing new pharmacophores using modern chemical and bioanalytical tools.

 

Keywords: Bioactive constituents, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Licorice,  Liquorice, Pharmacophores, Glycyrrhizin.

 

IPC code; Int. cl.7 ¾ A61K7/00, A61K 35/78, A61P 1/04, A61P 1/16, A61P 11/00, A61P 31/00, A61P 35/00

 

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, September-October, 2005, 368-381

 

 

An overview on Hypericum perforatum Linn.

 

U M Rao Vattikuti and Veeresham Ciddi*

 

Population of the modern world is suffering from dangerous ailments like cancer, AIDS and depression which have been successfully treated by some herbal medicines. The potentiality of Hypericum perforatum Linn. has been proven in treating these diseases. Hypericin, hyperforin and their analogs are the phytoconstituents of this plant having therapeutic value. The significance of these constituents is attributed to their botanical safety and therapeutic efficacy. This review discusses the pharmacology, , extraction and analytical methods of chemical constituents reported from the plant tissue cultures.

 

Keywords: St. John’s Wort, Hypericin, Hyperforin, Biosynthesis, Plant tissue culture, Analysis.

 

IPC code; Int. cl.7 ¾ A01G 7/00, A61K 35/78, A61P 25/24, A61P 31/12, A61P 31/98, A61P 35/00

 

 

 

Articles

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, September-October, 2005, 382-386

 

Therapeutic potential of Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) P. Karst. 

N Sheena, B Lakshmi and K K Janardhanan*

            Mushrooms represent a major and untapped source of potent new pharmaceutical products. The antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antinociceptive, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, antitumour, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective and cardioprotective activities of the methanolic extract of Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) P. Karst. collected from tropical South India were  evaluated for the revalidation of its utilization in Chinese folklore medicine. Review of results is presented in this paper.

 

Keywords: Medicinal properties, Mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum, Reishi, Ling Zhi.

 

IPC code; Int. cl.7A61K 35/84, A61P 1/16, A61P 9/00, A61P 29/00, A61P 35/00, A61P 39/06

 

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, September-October, 2005, 387-390

 

Scope of value addition to camel hide

Champak Bhakat* and M S Sahani

 

Camel hides are utilized as natural product for preparation of a variety of consumer goods. In olden days it was popularly utilized for storing of ghee and oil under village condition. Hide of young calves are useful for making furs and those of adults are used for making leather. There is a great potentiality of utilization of camel hide as natural furs. The available trained persons engaged in rural cottage industry should be given proper incentives, training and facilities for promoting the utilization of camel hide. The paper deals with present status, future prospects and advantages of camel hide utilization.

Keywords: Camel, Natural product, Potentiality, Hide, Economics.

 

IPC code; Int. cl.7 ¾ A41D 5/00, B68F 1/00, C14B 15/00

 

 

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, September-October, 2005, 391-395

Dyeing silk with Jatropha flowers

 

Ekta Grover1*, Anshu Sharma2 and Susan Paul2

 

     In recent years research in the field of textiles is focused on the sources of natural dyes. The dye yielding potential of flowers of Jatropha integrimma Jacq. was evaluated and results are presented for the first time on this plant. The colour shades, mordant wise colour change and fastness to washing, rubbing and perspiration were studied. The results revealed that the dye extracted from these flowers give good shades with satisfactory fastness to light, washing, crocking and perspiration on silk.

Keywords: Jatropha integrimma, Flowers, Dye, Silk, Mordant

 

IPC code; Int. cl. 7C09B 61/00, D06P 1/34, D06P 3/82,

 

 

 

 

Green Page: Article

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, September-October, 2005, 396-404

 

Some promising under utilized industrial crops for cultivation on wastelands of India

                                                                                   Vandana Joshi

 

With ever increasing population and fast depletion of natural resources, it becames necessary to explore the possibilities of using newer plant resources. New crops and new usages of old ones hold promise to restore the balance of trade, reduce our dependence on imports and to meet the growing needs of food, clothes and industrial products for human population. This paper provides a brief overview of such under utilized and potential industrial crops, viz. guayule (for rubber), jojoba, Jatropha, tumba and Paradise tree (for edible oil). This account includes data mainly based on field experience, markets surveys, ethno-botanical information and available relevant literature. The results of recent efforts on under utilized plants in the industrial crop group, made under the All India Coordinated Research Project (AICRP) on Under Utilized Plants (UUP) at NBPGR, New Delhi, towards collection, evaluation, utilization and conservation/maintenance have also been highlighted.

 

Keywords: Industrial Crops, Under utilized plants, Wastelands, Jatropha, Tumba, Guayule, Paradise Tree.

 

IPC code; Int. cl.7 ¾ A01G 7/00, C11B 1/04, C08L 7/00

 

 

 

Explorer: Articles

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, September-October, 2005, 405-409

         

Soaked and germinated soybean seeds for blood sugar control: A preliminary study

Manju Pathak

 

Soy bean (Glycine max Merrill) seeds when soaked and germinated become highly effective blood sugar regulator. This was observed in 35 volunteer type–II diabetes patients. All patients except one were taking oral hypoglycemic drugs (OHG) to control their elevated blood sugar level before they started taking soaked and germinated soybean seeds as a medicine to control their blood sugar. These patients stopped taking OHG during the period of investigation and took only soaked and germinated soybean seeds as a medicine to control their high blood sugar level. It was observed that soaked and germinated soybean seeds are more effective than the OHG. Out of these 35 patients the blood sugar of 22 patients, were observed for three months; of these 22 patients 4 patients got revived.

 

Keywords: Glycine max, Germination, Blood sugar regulator, Type-II diabetes, Humans, Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.

 

IPC code; Int. cl. 7—A61K 35/78, A61 P3/10.

 

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, September-October, 2005, 410-412

         

Development of cow urine based disinfectant

 

S A Mandavgane*, Ashish K Rambhal and Naresh K Mude

 

Because of over-emphasis on the use of chemicals to control infection due to microorganisms, more problems have been created rather than being addressed. Disinfectant prepared during this study is 100% natural and is based on cow urine and biodegradable and antibacterial plant extracts (Neem, Tulsi, Ritha and Pine oil) possessing pleasant aromatherapeutic vapour. No additional artificial dyes or fragrances have been used. Different compositions were tried to get optimum disinfectant action. The results showed that the higher concentration of both Neem and Tulsi extract possess maximum efficacy. The main aim of this product development is to provide employment to the rural youth and to use safe disinfectant for cleaning floors, etc.

 

Keywords: Cow urine, Disinfectant, Neem, Tulsi, Ritha, Pine oil, Phenolic compounds, RWC test.

IPC code; Int. cl.7 ¾  A61L 9/00, A61 L 9/013

 

 

 

Unani Tip

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, September-October, 2005, 413-415

         

Diabetes mellitus

Prevention and Management

 

Diabetes mellitus is a medical disorder characterized by varying or persistent hyperglycemia (elevated blood sugar levels) with or without glycosuria (sugar in urine). There are two factors that are characteristic of diabetes mellitus - decreased production of insulin or decreased sensitivity of body tissues to insulin  or a combination of both. Insulin is a hormone secreted by beta cells of the pancreas which move glucose from the bloodstream into muscle, fat, and liver cells for usage or storage.

 

            There are two major types of diabetes mellitus: Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in childhood. The body makes little or no insulin, and daily injections of insulin are required to sustain life. It is also known as Insulin Dependant Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM). Without adequate insulin, glucose builds up in the bloodstream instead of going into the cells. The body is unable to use this glucose for energy despite high levels in the bloodstream, leading to increased hunger. In addition, the high levels of glucose in the blood causes the patient to urinate more, which in turn causes excessive thirst.Type 2 diabetes is far more common than type 1 and makes up 90% or more of all cases of diabetes. It usually occurs in adulthood. Here, the pancreas does not make enough insulin to keep blood glucose levels normal, often because the body does not respond well to the insulin.Type 2 diabetes is becoming more common due to the growing number of olders, increasing obesity and failure to exercise. It is also known as Non Insulin Dependant Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM).

Some uncommon types of diabetes are also found e.g. gestational diabetes in which hyperglycemia develops at any time during pregnancy. It is temporary and fully treatable, but if untreated it may cause problems with the pregnancy.

Risk factors for diabetes

Symptoms

High levels of glucose in blood can cause several problems, including frequent urination, excessive thirst, hunger, fatigue, weight loss and blurry vision. However, because type-2 diabetes develops slowly, some people with high blood sugar experience no symptoms at all. Erectile dysfunction in men, frequent infection and slow healing is also present in diabetic patients.

Dangerous symptoms in diabetics include the smell of acetone on the patient's breath (a sign of ketoacidosis), kussmaul breathing (a rapid, deep breathing) and any altered state of consciousness or arousal (hostility and mania are both possible, as is confusion and lethargy). The most dangerous form of altered consciousness is the so-called "diabetic coma" which produces unconsciousness. Early symptoms of impending diabetic coma include polyuria, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain, with lethargy and somnolence a later development, progressing to unconsciousness and death if untreated.

Diagnosis is confirmed by investigations such as two fasting plasma glucose levels above 110 mg/dl on two different days or plasma glucose level more the 200 mg/dl after ingestion of 75g of glucose. Other tests includes glucose tolerance test (G.T.T.) and urine analysis for sugar and ketone bodies.

Complications

Among the major risks of the disorder are chronic problems affecting multiple organ systems which will eventually arise in patients with poor glycemic control. Many of these arise from damage to the blood vessels. These illnesses can be divided into the following:

1. Small vessel disease complications

2. Large vessel disease complications                                            

Diabetes mellitus is the most common cause of adult kidney failure worldwide. Retinal damage (from microangiopathy) makes it the most common cause of blindness among non-elderly persons. Hypoglycemia due to over dose of insulin, ketoacidosis, diabetic coma are also common in diabetics. Investigations to rule out the complications should also be done like Blood Urea, Serum Creatinine, ECG, Retinoscopy, etc.

DO’s

Choose an enjoyable physical activity that is appropriate for current fitness level. Regular exercise is important for everyone. It helps control the amount of glucose in the blood and also helps burn excess calories and fat to achieve optimal weight.

·         Exercise every day at the same time of the day, if possible.

DONT’s

Home Remedies

Following preparations are useful in the management of diabetes.

Preparation No. 1

 

Take water extract of Giloe [Tinospora cordifolia (Willd. ) Miers ex Hook. f. & Thoms.] stem 100 mg twice daily.

 

Preparation No. 2

 

Take 1/2 teaspoonful leaf juice of Karela (Momordica charantia Linn.) and 1/2 teaspoonful powder of Zard Chob (Curcuma longa Linn.), mixed in one teaspoon gel of Gheekawar (Aloe vera Linn.). Take the mixture twice a day before lunch and dinner. 

Preparation No. 3

Mix and grind seeds of Methi (Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn.) 100 g, Zard Chob (Curcuma longa Linn.) and Dakhni Mirch (Piper nigrum Linn.) 50g each. Take one teaspoon of this powder with a glass of milk twice daily.

Preparation No. 4

Take Jamun [Syzygium cuminii (Linn.) Skeels] seed powder 10g or juice of Karela (Momordica charantia Linn.) 30ml twice daily.

Preparation No. 5

Take 500 mg powder of Qust Shireen (Saussurea lappa C. B. Clarke) twice a day.

Preparation No. 6

Boil 15 fresh leaves of Mango (Mangifera indica Linn.) in 1 glass of water and leave it overnight. Filter this water and drink first thing in the morning.

Preparation No. 7

Take powder of Zeera Safaid (Cuminum cyminum Linn.) 5 mg daily twice a day.

Preparation No. 8

Take decoction of Abhal (Juniperus communis Linn.) 20 ml thrice daily.

 

Preparation No. 9

 

Take a cup of juice of leaves of Bael (Aegle marmelos Correa ex Roxb.) twice in a day.

Qurs-e-Tabasheer, Qurs-e-Tabasheer lolvi, Safoof-e-Zayabitus and Doolabi are few of the pharmacopoeial preparations available in the market, which can be used under physician’s advice.

Jamal Akhtar*, Shakir Jamil**, Azhar MU*

*Unani Experts (TKDL), NISCAIR, CSIR, New Delhi

**Head, Dept. of Moalijat, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi

E-Mail: jamal7862@yahoo.co.in

 

 

 

Classified Digests

Beverages

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, September-October, 2005, pp. 416

Storage stability of mango soy fortified yoghurt powder

Yoghurt (fermented milk product) contains more digestible protein, more calcium and certain B group vitamins. Besides nutritional value, it has hypocholesterolaemic and antitumouric effects also. Studies have indicated that consumption of soy protein decreases total serum cholesterol and minimizes risks of several cancers. Mango pulp which contains a high proportion of sugar, mostly monosaccharide, is easily adsorbed by the digestive system. Fortification of yoghurt with soy solids and mango pulp not only increases its nutrient content including minerals and vitamins but also adds to its health promoting value.

 

Since the shelf- life of yoghurt is very short i.e. 1 day at ambient temperature (25–35°C) and about 4–5 days at 7°C. Yoghurt can be dried by freeze, spray, microwave or convective drying methods which take into consideration the viability and activity of the yoghurt bacteria.  The scientists at Post Harvest Technology Centre, Department of Agricultural and Food Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, evaluated the stability of mango soy fortified yoghurt (MSFY) powder packaged in two different packaging materials, viz. high density polypropylene (HDPP) and aluminium laminated polyethylene (ALP) pouches and stored under accelerated storage conditions (38 ± 1°C, 90 ± 1% relative humidity).

             

During experiment mango soy fortified yoghurt (MSFY) powder was obtained after recirculatory convective drying, conditioning and grinding and was packaged in pouches of high density polypropylene (HDPP) and pouches of aluminium laminated polyethylene (ALP) pouches. The shelf-life of MSFY powder was predicted on the basis of free flowness of product under accelerated storage condition (38 ± 1°C, 90% relative humidity) and was calculated to be 45 and 54 days in HDPP and ALP, respectively. The storage stability of MSFY powder in terms of quality parameters free fatty acid (FFA), thiobarbituric acid (TBA), hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF), starter counts and colour change was studied in both packaging materials. The magnitude of quality change of MSFY powder measured during storage suggests that ALP was better than HDPP. The kinetics of quality parameter change was of zero order [Pradyuman Kumar and Mishra HN, Storage stability of mango soy fortified yoghurt powder in two different packaging materials: HDPP and ALP, J Food Eng, 2004, 65(4), 569-576].

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, September-October, 2005, pp. 416

Camel milk as an adjunct to insulin therapy

Researchers at Department of Medicine, S.P. Medical College, Bikaner, National Research Center on Camel, Bikaner and Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur, India observed that camel milk supplementation reduces the insulin requirement in Type 1 diabetic patients. It is found that one of the camel milk protein has many characteristics similar to insulin and it does not form coagulum in acidic environment. This lack of coagulum formation allows the camel milk to pass rapidly through the stomach together with the specific insulin like protein/insulin and remains available for absorption in intestine.

Scientists determined the long-term efficacy and safety of camel milk as an adjunct to insulin therapy in patients with Type 1 diabetes. The important observation of this study was the significant reduction in insulin doses to obtain glycemic control at the end of 1 year in patients taking camel milk. It is suggested that camel milk is having antidiabetic activity possibly because of : Insulin like activity, regulatory and immuno modulatory functions on β-cells; there is a good amount of lysozyme, lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase, immunoglobulin G and secretory immunoglobulin A in camel milk. It is found that amino acid sequence of some of the camel milk proteins is rich in half-cystine, which has superficial similarity with insulin family of peptides.

In conclusion, camel milk as an adjunct to insulin therapy appears to be safe and efficacious in improving long-term glycemic control and helps in reduction in the doses of insulin in patients with type 1 diabetes [Agrawal RP, Beniwal R, Kochar DK, Tuteja FC, Ghorui SK, Sahani MS and Sharma S, Camel milk as an adjunct to insulin therapy improves long-term glycemic control and reduction in doses of insulin in patients with type-1 diabetes A 1 year randomized controlled trial, Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 2005, 68 (2), 176-177].

                                                       Dye                  

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, September-October, 2005, pp. 418

Methylene Blue dye adsorption on Neem leaf powder

Low-cost adsorbents have been investigated at the laboratory scale for the treatment of coloured effluents with different degrees of success by researchers at Department of Chemistry, Gauhati University, Guwahati, India. The dye, Methylene Blue, was adsorbed on an adsorbent prepared from mature leaves of the Neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.). A batch adsorption study was carried out with variable adsorbate concentration, adsorbent amount, pH and temperature. Ninety-three per cent of the dye could be removed by 2g of the Neem leaf powder from 1 litre of an aqueous solution containing 25mg of the dye at 300K. The adsorption followed pseudo first order kinetics with a mean rate constant of 3.73×10−3/min and an intra-particle diffusion rate constant of 6.36×10−2mg/g/min−0.5. A possible mechanism of adsorption was suggested on the basis of concurrently operating surface adsorption and pore diffusion. The experimental data yielded excellent fits with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm equations. The Langmuir monolayer capacity had a mean value of 8.76mg/g. The adsorption of the dye was endothermic in nature (ΔH: 4.62–16.74kJ/mol) and was accompanied by an increase in entropy (ΔS: 54.22–90.23J/mol/K) and a decrease in Gibbs energy (ΔG: −10.33 to −13.62kJ/mol in the temperature range of 300–330K). The results indicated that the dye, Methylene Blue, strongly interacts with a biomass-based adsorbent, the Neem leaf powder.

The Neem tree regularly sheds its leaves during January–February, which become waste. These leaves can be put to good use as an adsorbent for removal of colour from industrial and other effluents. However, as with all other bio-resources, the processes are likely to be very complicated and a detailed characterization of the surface will be necessary to develop more insight into the mode of action [Bhattacharyya Krishna G and Sharma Arunima, Kinetics and thermodynamics of Methylene Blue adsorption on Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder, Dyes Pigments, 2005, 65 (1), 51-59].

Fibre

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, September-October, 2005, pp. 419

Drying of Hemp for long fibre production

Hemp (Cannabis sativa Linn.) is grown for its strong stem fibre and its absorbent core. Drying of hemp stems is an important stage in the production of this fibre crop. Strategies for harvesting and managing the cut crop are needed that maximize the stem drying rate so that periods of good weather can be used to enable a consistent high-quality fibre to be produced. The equilibrium relative humidity for a range of stem moisture contents from 7 to 35% wet basis was determined for hemp stems between 5 and 40°C and expressed using the modified Halsey equation. Drying behaviour of stems exposed to excess air showed that stems stripped of leaves and heads immediately before cutting dried significantly faster than unstripped, control stems. Retted stems dried at least four times faster than unretted controls. Drying of swaths similar to those produced by a commercial cutter, showed that stripped stems dried significantly faster than unstripped under good weather conditions. Thus, stripping was confirmed as having potential to accelerate swath drying. When chopped stems, in a normal width of swath and spread to twice the width were compared with unchopped controls, the chopped material dried but also wetted faster. Because spreading exposed the stems more to solar radiation, wind and rainfall, both drying and wetting were enhanced. Turning a partially dried swath, particularly of chopped material, was effective in promoting drying where atmospheric conditions were favourable. Sufficient data are presented to allow modelling of drying of the materials in swath [Bruce DM, Hobson RN, Hamer PJC and White RP, Drying of Hemp for Long Fibre Production, Biosyst Eng, 2005, 91 (1), 45-59].

Food

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, September-October, 2005, pp. 420

Genetically modified rice may stimulate insulin secretion

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide (GLP-1) is the most potent physiological insulinotropic hormone in humans. It is a potent blood glucose-lowering hormone that stimulates the secretion of insulin from pancreatic beta-cells. Scientists of Japan produced large amounts of a GLP-1 analogue, [Ser8, Gln26, Asp34]-GLP-1, which is resistant to trypsin-digestion, as part of a chimeric rice seed storage protein, a 26kDa globulin, in genetically modified rice seeds. Junction sites between GLP-1 analogue and globulin were replaced by tryptic cleavage sites. The highest level of GLP-1 analogue accumulation was ≈20–50μg per seed. We found that GLP-1 analogue derived from trypsin-digested genetically modified rice seeds stimulated insulin secretion from a mouse pancreatic beta-cell line, MIN6. These findings suggest that the consumption of genetically modified rice seeds containing elevated levels of the GLP-1 analogue may control blood glucose levels in humans.

 

This observation suggests that oral administration of genetically modified rice seeds containing GLP-1 analogue may be able to stimulate insulin secretion and lower blood glucose levels. Presently, its effect on the production of cAMP, the concentration of released insulin and blood glucose in vivo is investigated.

In this study, rice seeds as biopharmaceutical foods and bioreactors for producing GLP-1 analogue were used, since rice is the most important food crop in Asia and is the most effective plant for cultivation. This rice seed-based system may also be suitable for producing other biopharmaceutical peptides and proteins [Sugita Koichi, Endo-Kasahara Saori, Tada Yoshifumi, Lijun Yang, Yasuda Hiroshi, Hayashi Yuji, Jomori Takahito, Ebinuma Hiroyasu and Takaiwa Fumio edited by Ulf-Ingo Flügge, Genetically modified rice seeds accumulating GLP-1 analogue stimulate insulin secretion from a mouse pancreatic beta-cell line, FEBS Lett, 2005, 579 (5), 1085-1088].

 

 

Fruit

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, September-October, 2005, pp. 422

Effect of pomegranate juice on macrophage cholesterol metabolism

Macrophage cholesterol accumulation and foam cell formation are the hallmarks of early atherogenesis. Pomegranate juice (PJ) was shown to inhibit macrophage foam cell formation and development of atherosclerotic lesions. The scientists at Institute for Research in the Medical Sciences and Rambam Medical Center, Haifa Israel
elucidated possible mechanisms by which pomegranate juice reduces cholesterol accumulation in macrophages. J774.A1 macrophages were preincubated with PJ followed by analysis of cholesterol influx [evaluated as LDL or as oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL) cellular degradation], cholesterol efflux and cholesterol biosynthesis. Preincubation of macrophages with PJ resulted in a significant reduction (P<0.01) in Ox-LDL degradation by 40%. On the contrary, PJ had no effect on macrophage degradation of native LDL or on macrophage cholesterol efflux. Macrophage cholesterol biosynthesis was inhibited by 50% (P<0.01) after cell incubation with PJ. This inhibition, however, was not mediated at the 3-hydroxy-3 methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase level along the biosynthetic pathway. It can be concluded that PJ-mediated suppression of Ox-LDL degradation and of cholesterol biosynthesis in macrophages can lead to reduced cellular cholesterol accumulation and foam cell formation.

PJ exerts a direct effect on macrophage cholesterol metabolism by reducing cellular uptake of Ox-LDL and inhibiting cellular cholesterol biosynthesis. Both of these processes eventually lead to a reduction in macrophage cholesterol accumulation and foam cell formation and attenuation of atherosclerosis development, as indeed shown in atherosclerotic mice after PJ consumption [Fuhrman Bianca, Volkova Nina and Aviram Michael, Pomegranate juice inhibits oxidized LDL uptake and cholesterol biosynthesis in macrophages, J Nutr Biochem, 2005, 16(9), 570-576].

 

   

 

Insecticide/ Pesticides

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, September-October, 2005, pp. 424

Potential use of cabbage 4to control Alternaria rot in bell pepper

The scientists at Mexico isolated allyl, benzyl, 2-phenylethyl and phenyl isothiocyanates in a ratio of 1:3.5:5.3:9.6, respectively, in cabbage leaves through solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The same proportion was used to prepare an isothiocyanate mixture from reagent grade isothiocyanates (MCIT) to test the effect on Alternaria alternata growth in vitro. Application of 0.28 and 0.56 mg/ml of MITC, with or without packing in low density polyethylene bags (LDPE), were also tested on bell pepper fruit inoculated with A. alternata, using a commercial fungicide as positive control. A concentration of 0.03 mg/ml of MITC inhibited 100% Alternaria growth in vitro. A treatment with 0.56 mg/ml of MCIT with LDPE bags performed better than the commercial fungicide to control fungi rot on bell pepper with no adverse effects on fruit quality. MCIT combined with LDPE bag showed potential to control Alternaria rot on bell pepper [Troncoso R, Espinoza C, Sánchez-Estrada A, Tiznado ME  and García Hugo S, Analysis of the isothiocyanates present in cabbage leaves extract and their potential application to control Alternaria rot in bell peppers, Food Res Int, 2005, 38(6), 701-708].

 

 

 

Oil/Fats

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, September-October, 2005, pp. 426

Used frying oils and fats and their utilization in the production of methyl esters of higher fatty acids

From the point of view price and available capacity used frying oils or fats (UFO) represent an attractive raw material for the production of methyl esters (ME) of higher fatty acids as alternative fuels for diesel engines. If they are treated such that the required quality, with an acidity number up to 3.0 mg KOH/g and a water content up to 0.1 wt%, is achieved they can be processed to ME using standard techniques of alkali-catalysed transesterification with methanol which are utilized for production of the ME from new oils/fats. The problematic waste can thus be converted to an ecologically friendly fuel. Vacuum distillation of free fatty acids in a film evaporator is an effective method for simultaneously decreasing the content of FFA and water in UFO. Final distillation of raw ME in a film vacuum evaporator results in practically all parameters required by the standard, in the final ME being achieved. Undesirable low-temperature properties of ME derived from UFO, due to higher fraction of saturated acyls, can be adjusted by the addition of depressants—flow improvers for winterization. Some simplified methods for the quality control of UFO and ME are discussed. The conversion of acylglycerols to ME is monitored by GLC with a packed column, where the peak areas of ME in the sample before and after the reaction with an effective methylation agent are compared. The method for the determination of the water content in esters utilizes the reaction of calcium carbide with water, the volume of acetylene being measured [Cvengro J Ján and CvengroImageová Zuzana, Used frying oils and fats and their utilization in the production of methyl esters of higher fatty acids, Biomass Bioenergy, 2004, 27(2), 173-181].

 

 

Therapeutics

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, September-October, 2005, pp. 431

Anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic properties of Bael leaves

Aegle marmelos Corr. (Hindi ¾ Bael) leaves are used for several diseases in Ayurvedic and Unani system of medicine hence to evaluate analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities experimental studies were done by the scientists of University of Madras, Chennai, India and National Institute of Animal Health, Science City, Japan. The extracts of the leaves showed significant inhibition of the carrageenan-induced paw oedema and cotton-pellet granuloma in rats. The extracts also produced marked analgesic activity by reduction in the early and late phases of paw licking in mice. A significant reduction in hyperpyrexia in rats was also produced by the most of the extracts. In addition, all the extracts derived from the leaves showed antipyretic activity in mice made hyperthermic by dried yeast injection. The response of chloroform, diethyl ether and methanol extracts was almost comparable to that of Paracetamol. Thus, this study has confirmed the traditional claims [Veerappan Arul, Shigeru Miyazaki and Renganathan Dhananjayan, Studies on the anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic properties of the leaves of Aegle marmelos Corr., J Ethnopharmacol, 2005, 96(1-2), 159-163].

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, September-October, 2005, pp. 432

Wild chamomile mouthwashes  for oral mucositis

The dried flower heads of the plant Chamomile, Matricaria chamomilla Linn.  have been used in traditional and herbal medicine for centuries because of its anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, antipeptic, sedative, antibacterial and antifungal properties. Oral mucositis is a known complication of Methotrexate (MTX), a broad-spectrum anti-cancer agent, used to treat a number of autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, but a single efficacious intervention or agent for prophylaxis or management of this side effect has not yet been identified.  The researchers at Department of Internal Medicine, University General Hospital of Heraklion Crete, Heraklion, Crete, Greece induced oral mucositis in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis, and successfully treated with Wild chamomile mouthwashes [Mazokopakis EE, Vrentzos GE, Papadakis JA, Babalis DE and Ganotakis ES, Wild chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) mouthwashes in methotrexate-induced oral mucositis, Phytomedicine, 2005, 12 (1-2), 25-27].

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, September-October, 2005, pp. 431

Hypolipidemic effect of Caper Bush fruit  extract  in normal and diabetic rats

In the South-eastern region of Morocco (Tafilalet), Caper Bush, Capparis spinosa Linn.  (Hindi ¾ Kabra) fruits are recognized as potent hypoglycaemic agents by several traditional healers. Hence, the scientists at Morocco and France conducted a study in order to evaluate the beneficial effects of the oral administration of the aqueous extract of these fruits, which are the most commonly found in the Moroccan kitchen and used as medicinal plant for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, on plasma lipid parameters in normal and Streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats.

The effect of single and repeated oral administrations of the aqueous extract of fruits(CS) at a dose of 20 mg/kg on lipid metabolism in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats was studied. In normal rats, the aqueous extract of fruits induced a significant decrease on plasma triglycerides concentrations 1 week (P < 0.05) and 2 weeks (p < 0.01) after once daily repeated oral administration. A significant decrease of plasma cholesterol levels was also observed 4 days (P < 0.05) and 1 week (P < 0.05) after repeated oral administration. In diabetic rats, this treatment caused a significant decrease of plasma triglycerides levels after repeated oral administration. Four days after repeated oral administration of aqueous extract, the plasma cholesterol levels were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) and still dropped after 2 weeks (P < 0.01). On the other hand, the repeated oral administration of aqueous extract caused a significant decrease of body weight 4 days after repeated oral treatment in diabetic rats (P < 0.05). Thus the aqueous extract (20 mg/kg) exhibits a potent lipid lowering activity in both normal and severe hyperglycaemic rats after repeated oral administration of aqueous extract [Eddouks M, Lemhadri A and Michel JB, Hypolipidemic activity of aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa L. in normal and diabetic rats, J Ethnopharmacol, 2005, 98(3), 345-350].

 

In Brief

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, September-October, 2005, pp. 436

 

Grafting Watermelon onto Squash or Gourd rootstock

 

Watermelon is actually 92 percent water hence once it is cut into chunks, quickly become mushy. This presents a challenge to the fresh-cut market, which demands firm, attractive fruit. Benny Bruton, a plant pathologist, at South Central Agricultural Research Laboratory, in Lane, Oklahoma, evaluated watermelon tops grafted onto gourd and squash rootstock and confirmed them to be resistant to Fusarium wilt, a widespread and costly plant fungus. And grafting may also have solved the problem of mushy fresh-cut watermelon once and for all. The study revealed that grafting watermelon plants onto other rootstock yields at least 25 to 30 percent firmer fruits. And it has the added advantage of disease resistance to many soil borne pathogens as well as Fusarium wilt. Firmer fruit could be a big plus for growers [Core Jim, Agric Res Mag, 2005, 53(7), 8-9].

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.4, September-October, 2005, pp. 439

Flexible packaging material for ripe mango powder

Four types of ripe mango powders prepared from three varieties of mangoes were stored by the scientists at Department of Foods and Nutrition, Post Graduate and Research Centre, Acharya NG Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, India in two types of flexible packaging material for six months and the nutrient and physicochemical changes were analysed at regular periods. The Baneshan powder had the highest nutrient retention followed by Baneshan+Suvarnarekha blend, Suvarnarekha and Suvarnarekha+Totapuri blend. The physicochemical changes as well as nutrient changes were less pronounced in the powders packaged in metallized polyester/polyethylene than the powders in the polyester poly packaging [Hymavathi TV and Khader Vijaya, Carotene, ascorbic acid and sugar content of vacuum dehydrated ripe mango powders stored in flexible packaging material, J Food Comp Analys, 2005, 18 (2-3), 181-192].

 

 

 

Forthcoming Conferences, Seminars, Exhibitions and Trainings

 

 

 

1. International Conference on Malaria, 4 to 6 November 2005, New Delhi, OP Singh,  Malaria Research Centre, Indian Council of Medical Research, 22 Sham Nath Marg, Delhi-110054, India, Fax: +91-11-23946150, E-mail: conf@mrcindia.org; Website: http://www.mrcindia.org/conf

 

2. Second Diabetes India International Conference, 18- 20 November 2005, Jaipur, B M Birla Auditorium, Statue Circle, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India; Website: www.diabetesindia.com

 

3. International Beekeeping Congress, November 13-18, 2005, Bangalore, India, Dr. V. Sivaram and Dr. M. Anita, Organizing Secretary (Organized by: Century Foundation, Bangalore), Chairperson – Scientific Committee, IBC Secretariat - # 35, 3rd Cross, Vignananagar, Bangalore – 560075, India, Telefax: 91-(080)-25244592, E-mail: info@cenfound.org; Website: www.cenfound.org/IBC-2005/indexpage.html

 

4. Third International Conference on Plants & Environmental Pollution (ICPEP-3), 29 November – 2 December 2005, Lucknow, Dr R.D. Tripathi and Dr Kamla Kulshreshtha, International Society of Environmental Botanists, National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow-226001, India, Phone: +91-522-2205831 to 35; extns.- 222, 223, 353; Fax: +91-522-2205836/2205839, E-mail: isebnbrilko@satyam.net.in; Website: http://www.geocities.com/isebindia/index.html

 

5. International Congress on Fungal Biotechnology, 1-5 December 2005, NOIDA, Uttar Pradesh, India, Prof. Dr. Ajit Varma, Director, Amity Institute of Herbal & Microbial Studies, Campus Office: Sector 125, New Super Express Highway, Noida 201303, UP, India, Phone: 91 120 2432780 extn 132, 91 120 2431182 (Direct). For Delhi/Gurgaon Callers' Tel: 95120 2432780 extn 132, 95120 2431182 (Direct); Fax: 91 120 2431878, For Delhi/Gurgaon Callers' Fax: 95120 2431878, E-mail: ajitvarma@aihmr.amity.edu; Website: www.amity.edu

6. First International Guava Symposium- 2005, 5-8 December 2005, Lucknow, Dr Ramesh Chandra, Organizing Secretary, IGS-2005, Central Institute for Sub-tropical Horticulture, Lucknow-227107, Phone: 0522-2841022, 2841026, 2841023(O), 2416702 (R), 9415082889; Fax: 2841025; E-mail: integuavasymp@cishlko.org ;Website:www.intguavasym.net

7. International Conference on Natural Farming and Farmers' Knowledge, 14 –16 December 2005, Hisar, Haryana, India, Dr S K Kaura, Natural Farming Network in Association with National Indigenous Knowledge Exchange; E-mail: nf_network@mailcity.com; Website: http://www.geocities.com/nf_net/icnffk.html

 

8. Training on Preparation of Full Fat Soyflour and Bakery Products, 19-23 December 2005, Bhopal, Dr S D Kulkarni, Project Director, Soybean Processing and Utilization Centre, Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Nabi Bagh, Berasia Road, Bhopal-462038, Phone: 0755-2730987, 2737191, fax 2734016; E-mail: sdk@ciae.mp.nic.in; director@ciae.mp.nic.in

9. Training on Shrimp and Fish Nutrition and Feed Management, 14-23 December, 2005, Chennai, Dr P. Ravichandran, Director I/C, Central Institute of BrackishwaterAquaculture, #75, Santhome High Road, R. A. Puram, Chennai - 600028, Phone: 044-24618847, 24616948, 24610565; Fax: 24610311; E-mail: ciba@tn.nic.in; Website: www.nic.in/ciba.

10. Training on Biochemical Techniques for Oil Palm Evaluation, 21-26 November 2005, Pedavegi, Andhra Pradesh, Director, NRC for Oil Palm, Pedavegi, West Godavari Dist, Andhra Pradesh- 534450, Phone: 08812-259532, 259524, Fax: 259531, E-mail: nrcop@rediffmail.com

11. Training on Production of Value Added Fish Products, 21-26 November 2005, Cochin, Dr K Devadasan, Director, Central Institute of Fisheries Technology, Cochin-682029; Phone: 0484-2666845(14 lines), Fax: 2668212, E-mail: cift@ciftmail.org

12. National Seminar on Coastal Agriculture, 21-23 December 2005, Thiruvananthapuram, Director, Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Sreekariyam, Thiruvananthapuram-695017, Phone: 0471-2598551, 2598554, Fax: 2590063, E-mail: ctcritvm@yahoo.com

 

13. 2nd International Congress of Chemistry and Environment , 24 to 26 December 2005, Indore, Dr S. L. Gargh, Sector A/80, Scheme No. 54, Vijay Nagar, A.B. Road, Indore, M.P., 452 010, India, Phone :91-731-5004000, 91-731-2552837, Fax : 91-731- 2552837, Mobile : 94250-56228, E-mail: iccechem@sancharnet; Website: http://www.chemenviron.org

 

14. International Conference on Ethnopharmacology and Alternative Medicine and Fifth Annual Conference of National Society of Ethnopharmacology, 20 to 22 January 2006, Amala Nagar, Thrissur, Dr K. K. Janardhanan, Organizing Secretary, Amala Cancer Research Centre, Phone: 91-487- 2307950/2307868, Fax: 91 487 2307868, E-mail: info@iceam.org; Website: www.iceam.org