NATURAL PRODUCT RADIANCE

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VOLUME 5

NUMBER 1

January-February 2006

 CONTENTS

 

Editorial                                                                                 5

 

Feature Article

Herbal medicines: Are they safe?                                                                            6
Milind Parle and Nitin Bansal

IPC code; Int. cl.7
¾ A61K 35/78

 

Research Articles

 

Ginger shreds as flavouring in ice cream                                                                15
Suneeta Pinto, A K Rathour, A H Jana, J P Prajapati and M J Solanky

IPC code; Int. cl.7 ¾ A23G 9/00, A23G 9/02

 

Utilization of Cosmos sulphureus Cav. flower dye on wool using mordant Combinations                                                                                                         19
Sunita Kale, Sangita Naik and Sucheta Deodhar
IPC code; Int. cl.7 ¾ C09B 61/00, D06P 1/34, D06P 3/14

 Antimicrobial properties of Heracleum candicans Wall.                                            25
Mohinder Kaur, Yogita Thakur, Munish Thakur and Romesh Chand

 IPC code; Int. cl.7
¾ A61K 35/78, A61P 31/00, A61P 31/04, A61P 31/10

 

Effect of feeding Linseed on the lipid profile of rats                                              29

R Modgil, S Arora and R Samuels
IPC code; Int. cl.7
¾ A61K 35/78, A23D 9/00

 

Development of quality control methods for polyherbal formulation,

Chyawanprash                                                                                                        33
Rahul P Kasar, K S Laddha, Jayesh Chaudhary and Anil Shukla

IPC code; Int. cl.7 ¾ A61K 35/78

 

Green Page: Research Articles

Propagation prospects of dye yielding plant, Rhinacanthus nasutus (Linn.) Kurz                                                                                                              42
Nilanjana Das

IPC code; Int. cl.7
¾ A01H 4/00, A01G 1/00, C09B 61/00

 

Benzyl amino purine and adenine sulphate induced multiple shoot and root 
induction from nodal explants of Brahmi [Bacopa monnieri (Linn.)Penn.]                    44
M Ramesh, R M Saravanakumar and S Karutha Pandian

IPC code; Int. cl.7
¾ A01H 4/00, A01H 5/04, A01H 5/06

 

Explorer: Research Articles

Plants used in folklore medicine by Bangnis of East Kameng, Arunachal 
Pradesh                                                                                                                       
52
Vishal Gupta

IPC code; Int. cl.7
¾ A61K 35/78

Medicinal plants used by the tribal and rural people of Satna district, Madhya 
Pradesh for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases and disorders                           60

S N Dwivedi, Sangeeta Dwivedi and P C Patel

IPC code; Int. cl.7
¾ A61K 35/78, A61P 1/00

 

Ethnomedicinal wisdom of tribals of Nandurbar district (Maharashtra)                       64
S K Tayade and D A Patil

IPC code; Int. cl.7 — A61K 35/78, A61P 1/00

 

Review Article

Anti-HIV substances of natural origin – An updated account                                       70
Prabodh C Sharma, O P Sharma, Neeru Vasudeva, D N Mishra and S K Singh

IPC code; Int. cl.7
¾ A61K 31/18

 

Readers write………                                                                                          4

Guidelines to Authors                                                                                          79

Index                                                                                                                               81  

 

 

Feature Articles

 

Natural Product Radiance
Vol.5, January – February 2006, 6-14

 

Herbal Medicines : Are they safe?

Milind Parle and Nitin Bansal

 

The herbal drug industry is growing at an astounding rate all over the world. Herbal remedies are now available not only in drug stores, but also, in food stores and supermarkets. Therefore, the efficacy and safety of herbal drugs is very crucial. One of the most serious hazards associated with herbal medicines is that consumers mistakenly assume that since herbs are obtained from nature, they must be safe. However, herbal medicines need to be used with utmost caution. Strychnine, curare and morphine are a few examples of poisonous alkaloids obtained from plant source. Ginkgo biloba Linn. has been shown to be beneficial in managing Alzheimer’s disease, but is recently reported to precipitate epileptic seizures. No doubt, many herbs are found to be miraculous cures for several diseases such as vincristine for cancer treatment and codeine as an anti-tussive agent. The authors are of the view that before marketing, herbal remedies must undergo animal studies and clinical trials so as to establish their therapeutic value. This has become important, since Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act 1994 have included herbs along with vitamins, as food supplements. Thus, FDA has almost lost its control over herbal drugs. There is a need to ponder over some basic issues such as uniform nomenclature, authentication and standardization of plants and plant parts, acceptable impurities, contaminants, pharmacokinetic profile and shelf life before advocating herbal remedies.
k
eywords :
Herbs, Cardiotoxic, Contaminants, Hepatotoxic.
IPC code; Int. cl.7
¾ A61K 35/78

 

Research Articles

Natural Product Radiance
Vol.5, January – February 2006, 15-18

Ginger shreds as flavouring in ice cream
Suneeta Pinto, A K Rathour, A H Jana, J P Prajapati and M J Solanky

 Ginger ice cream was prepared in an “ice and salt” type hand freezer using ginger shreds at 4, 6 and 8 % levels of ice cream mix and compared with control made using vanilla flavouring. The basic ice cream mix had 12% fat, 11% MSNF, 15% sucrose, 0.25% sodium alginate and 0.15% glycerol mono-stearate. Addition of ginger shreds resulted in decrease in all the compositional attributes (fat, protein, sugars and total solids) and pH and an increase in acidity, which was significant especially at higher levels of shred addition. The ginger shreds tended to increase the viscosity of ice cream mixes and melting resistance of ice cream significantly, especially at higher levels of its addition. The shreds had an adverse effect on overrun in ice cream. Ice cream containing 4% ginger shreds was found suitable for preparing ‘Ginger ice cream’; it had an edge over control with regard to sensory perception. The body and texture score of such ice cream increased significantly up to 6% addition, beyond which the score tended to decrease.  

Key words: Ginger shreds, Overrun, Melting resistance, Flavouring, Viscosity, Whipping ability.
IPC code; Int. cl.7
¾ A23G 9/00, A23G 9/02

 

Natural Product Radiance
Vol.5, January – February 2006, 19-24
 

Utilization of Cosmos sulphureus Cav. flower dye on wool using mordant combinations

Sunita Kale, Sangita Naik and Sucheta Deodhar 

Natural dyes are biodegradable and eco-friendly. In the present study an attempt is made to dye wool with Cosmos, Cosmos sulphureus Cav. flower dye using three different mordant combinations in three varying proportions and to test the fastness properties of dyed samples. The results revealed that wool could be dyed with Cosmos flower dye. Wool dyed with Cosmos flower dye exhibited excellent to outstanding sunlight fastness irrespective of mordant combination and mordanting method

Keywords: Natural dyes, Cosmos flowers, Mordant, Wool dyeing 
IPC code; Int. cl.7
¾ C09B 61/00, D06P 1/34, D06P 3/14

 

Natural Product Radiance
Vol.5, January – February 2006, 25-28
 

Antimicrobial properties of Heracleum candicans Wall.

Mohinder Kaur, Yogita Thakur, Munish Thakur and Romesh Chand

Chloroform and methanol extracts of root and shoot of the herb Heracleum candicans Wall. showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella and Pseudomonas species, while petroleum ether extract of root showed inhibitory activity against Salmonella typhi and Pseudomonas species only. Antifungal activity against six species of fungi, viz. Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Phytophthora and Pythium was observed in petroleum ether and chloroform root extracts. Petroleum ether extract of shoot showed antifungal effect against five fungal species, viz. Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Phytophthora and Pythium. Methanol root extracts also showed antifungal activity against Alternaria species. only. Similarly, methanol shoot extract showed inhibitory activity against Aspergillus and Pythium species only. The results suggest significant antimicrobial activity of the extracts against tested fungi and bacteria. The present study justifies the claimed uses of this herb in the traditional system of medicine to treat various diseases. 

Key words: Medicinal plant, Heracleum candicans, Antibacterial, Antifungal, Himachal Pradesh hills.
IPC code; Int. cl.7
¾ A61K 35/78, A61P 31/00, A61P 31/04, A61P 31/10

 

Natural Product Radiance
Vol.5, January – February 2006, 29-32

Effect of feeding Linseed on the lipid profile of rats

                        R Modgil, S Arora and R Samuels

Three varieties of linseed, viz. ‘Janki’, ‘Surbhi’ and ‘Nagarkot’ were fed to male albino rats for 40 days at two different levels (15 and 25%), so as to see their effect on the concentration of Total cholesterol (TC), Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and Triglyceride (TG). A significant (P<0.05) decrease was observed in TC, LDL-C and TG levels, whereas a significant (P<0.05) increase was seen in HDL-C level as compared to control groups. Maximum rise in the HDL-C level was observed in rats fed on a diet containing 25% of linseed. It is suggested that linseed might have beneficial effect in decreasing the elevated lipid levels in human beings also.

Keywords: Linseed, Linum usitatissimum, Triglyceride, Total cholesterol, High–density lipoprotein, Cholesterol, Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

IPC code; Int. cl.7 ¾ A61K 35/78, A23D 9/00

 

Natural Product Radiance
Vol.5, January – February 2006, 33-41

Development of quality control methods for polyherbal formulation, Chyawanprash

Rahul P Kasar, K S Laddha, Jayesh Chaudhary and Anil Shukla

 Chyawanprash is a traditional polyherbal formulation which is widely, used as tonic, rejuvenator, anabolic, immunomodulator and memory enhancer. Chyawanprash contains the pulp of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. as the prime ingredient, along with powder and extract of several other herbs. It is observed that the consistency and taste varies from one manufacturer to another. Even these variations are observed in the same pharmaceutical company in different manufacturing batches. Hence, it is the need of the hour to standardize the raw materials to obtain product consistency. With the advent of new analytical tools and sophisticated instrumental technology, the quality assurance profile for a crude drug or its bioactive constituents can be made possible. Two in-house batch of Chyawanprash was prepared according to the procedure described in text Charaksamhita and remaining one Chyawanprash sample was procured from market. These batches were evaluated by physicochemical methods and its bio-efficacy was determined by various biological methods like antioxidant study, microbial contamination study and finally stability study was performed on the formulation according to the ICH guidelines. 

The results of two in-house batches were found in close proximation with the marketed batch. The method used for determination of quality control of Chyanwanprash was found to be precise and reproducible and can be used for quality control of other marketed formulations. These studies on Chyawanprash were noticed reproducible and precise and may be considered as the methods for its quality control.

 Keywords: Chyawanprash, Phytoconstituents, Physicochemical Parameter, Standardization, Stability study.
IPC code; Int. cl.7
¾ A61K 35/78

 

Green page: Research Article

Natural Product Radiance
Vol.5, January – February 2006, 42-43

 Propagation prospects of dye yielding plant, Rhinacanthus nasutus (Linn.) Kurz
Nilanjana Das

 The paper deals with cultivation prospects of an indigenous plant, Rhinacanthus nasutus (Linn.) Kurz syn. R. communis Nees which is co The paper deals with cultivation prospects of an indigenous plant, Rhinacanthus nasutus (Linn.) Kurz syn. R. communis Nees which is commonly used for extracting a dye and for various medicinal purposes. Due to over exploitation this herb is vanishing from natural habitat hence its propagation on commercial scale is recommended. An attempt is made to propagate this plant through stem cuttings; rooting of stem cuttings through application of growth regulators has been undertaken as a protocol for large scale propagation. Maximum rooting percentage (75%) was observed in apical shoot cuttings treated with 2000 ppm of IBA followed by 2000 ppm of IAA.

 Keywords: Rhinacanthus nasutus, Threatened plant, Propagation, Natural dye, Medicinal uses
IPC code; Int. cl.7
¾ A01H 4/00, A01G 1/00, C09B 61/00

 

Natural Product Radiance
Vol.5, January – February 2006, 44-51 

Benzyl amino purine and adenine sulphate induced rapid multiple shoot and root induction from nodal explants of Brahmi [Bacopa monnieri (Linn.)Penn.]

M Ramesh, R M Saravanakumar and S Karutha Pandian

In vitro multiple shoot and root induction of Brahmi [Bacopa monnieri (Linn.) Penn.] was achieved from nodal explants. Shoot segments obtained from field grown plants were surface sterilized and cultured on Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) medium without any hormones to get regular supply of node explants. In order to find out the suitable conditions for propagation from nodal explants, MS medium with different combinations of auxins and cytokinins were tested. All the treatments were found effective in inducing shoots except those with auxin/cytokinin alone. The percent response of 92-100 was observed in 90% of treatments. The effect of special cytokinin like adenine sulphate on multiple shoot formation from the nodal explants of B. monnieri was tested on MS medium fortified with different hormonal concentrations of auxin and cytokinin. High percentage of multiple shoot formation (96.3) and maximum number of shoots (16.33) was observed in the combinational treatment of IAA (0.2 mg/l) and BAP (1.5 mg/l). Addition of adenine sulphate at 60mg/l along with IAA (0.2mg /l) and BAP (1.5mg/l) was found most effective in inducing highest number of shoots (18). All the other tested combinations have little effect on increasing the number of shoots. In vitro propagated plants were successfully transplanted to plastic pots containing sterile soil with 85% survival rate and later established under ex vitro condition.

 Key words: Adenine sulphate, Bacopa monnieri, Callus induction, Micropropagation, Multiple shoots, Benzyl Amino Purine (BAP), Indole-3-Acetic Acid (IAA), Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA), Kinetin, Nodal explants.
IPC code; Int. cl.7
¾ A01H 4/00, A01H 5/04, A01H 5/06, A61K 35/78

Explorer: Research Article

Natural Product Radiance
Vol.5, January – February 2006, 52-59

 Plants used in folklore medicine by Bangnis of East Kameng, Arunachal Pradesh

Vishal Gupta 

The state of Arunachal Pradesh has 25 major tribes and many sub-tribes that belong to the Indo-Mongoloid group and comprise 63.66 % of the state’s population. The district of East Kameng is home to the Bangni tribe who practice Jhum, depend on forests for supplementing their daily needs and are now taking to the newer modes of land use and settled agriculture. They have evolved their culture and tradition, myths and folktales in close association with the nature and have an intricate understanding of the forests and natural resources. This paper attempts to describe 74 traditional medicinal and healing plants of this tribe, comprising of 4 Pteridophytes and 70 Angiosperms, belonging to 37 families. These could be screened for the active principles and assessed for their medicinal potential.

 
Keywords: Bangni tribe, East Kameng district, Arunachal Pradesh, Ethno-botany.
IPC code; Int. cl.7
¾ A61K 35/78

 

Natural Product Radiance
Vol.5, January – February 2006, 60-63 

Medicinal plants used by the tribal and rural people of Satna district, Madhya Pradesh for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases and disorders

S. N. Dwivedi, Sangeeta Dwivedi and P C Patel 

Gastrointestinal ailments are very common among the people of our country and tribals believe that it is a root cause for the occurrence of several other diseases. Modern synthetic medicine has so far not produced any effective curative drug. It only gives temporary relief. However, traditional herbal medicines have a better remedy for the diseases of digestive system. In the present paper herbal preparations used for gastrointestinal disorders by tribal and rural people of Satna district, Madhya Pradesh has been discussed. An effort is also made to correlate modern uses and activities of plants with the plants used by tribals and rural people for the curative purpose of gastrointestinal disorders.

Keywords: Medicinal plants, Tribal and Rural people, Satna district, Madhya Pradesh, Gastrointestinal diseases.
IPC code; Int. cl.7
¾ A61K 35/78, A61P 1/00

 

Natural Product Radiance
Vol.5, January – February 2006, 64-69
 

Ethnomedicinal wisdom of tribals of Nandurbar district (Maharashtra)

S K Tayade and D A Patil

 The results of ethnobotanical survey among tribals of Nandurbar district are presented in this paper. The ancient knowledge of herbal uses, still put into practice by the tribals such as Pawara, Bhil, Mavachi and Kokani have been recorded for 73 angiospermic species belonging to 66 genera and 39 families. The ethnomedicinal uses range in diverse diseases like gonorrhoea, impotency, irregular menstruation, stomach complaints, white discharge, urinary stones, goiter, pimples, ringworm, jaundice, tooth-ache, rheumatism, etc., apart from common diseases/ailments like fever, cold, cough, headache, burns, snake-bite and swellings. The botanical and vernacular name, family, plants part used and preparation are given for each plant. 

Keywords: Ethnomedicine, Medicinal plants, Tribals, Nandurbar district, Maharashtra.
IPC code; Int. cl.7 —
A61K 35/78, A61P 1/00 

Natural Product Radiance
Vol.5, January – February 2006, 70-78

 

Review Article

Anti-HIV substances of natural origin – An updated account

Prabodh C Sharma, O P Sharma, Neeru Vasudeva, D N Mishra and S K Singh

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection targets and destroys a specific type of white blood cells (T4 Lymphocytes), leading to the development of Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). With the recent advances in biochemistry and pathophysiology of HIV the complete life cycle of HIV and its pathogenesis is well understood and therefore, the anti-HIV agents can be classified on the basis of their role in replicative cycle of HIV virion. A number of synthetic, semi-synthetic as well as drugs of natural origin are reported to be active against HIV. In this paper, various drugs of plant and mineral origin have been thoroughly discussed including their classification based upon their mechanisms of action. Since, more than 90% of HIV infected individuals live in developing countries where easy access to expensive and synthetic drugs is scare and hence natural substance shall be proved to be a boon to mankind in continuing battle against AIDS.

Key words: AIDS, Anti-HIV, CD4, Natural Anti-HIV agents.
IPC code; Int. cl.7
¾ A61P 31/18