NATURAL PRODUCT RADIANCE

A Bimonthly Journal on Natural Products 

Total visitors: 397  since  25-09-07

VOLUME 6

NUMBER 4

July - August 2007

 

CONTENTS 

 

Readers Write                                                                                                           284

Editorial                                                                                                                      285

Research Articles/Articles

Safety evaluation of a polyherbal formulation, Zuroor-e-Qula

M Paridhavi and S S Agrawal

IPC code; Int. cl.8 ¾ A61K 36/00, A61P 1/00, A61P 29/00, A61P 31/04                                      286

 

Dechitinising property of Caesalpinia bonduc (Linn.) Roxb. against Culex quinquefasciatus

K Periyanayagam, K Sundara Saravanan and M Ismail

IPC code; Int. cl.8— A61K 36/48, A01P 7/04                                                                                   290

 

Process optimization for the extraction of hyperforin and hypericin from St. John’s Wort

V K Koul and Suman Koul

IPC code; Int. cl.8 ¾ A61K 36/00, A61K 31/00, A61P 25/24                                                                          293

 


Physico-chemical characteristics of seed oils of some Litsea species found in

North-East India

Rumi Kotoky, M G Pathak and P B Kanjilal            

IPC code; Int. cl.8— A61K 36/54, A23 D7/00, C11B 1/04, C11B 1/10                                                           297

 


Screening of plants for their potential antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus and Salmonella spp.

Yogesh Mahida and JSS Mohan

IPC code; Int. cl.8 ¾ A61K 36/00, A61P 31/04                                                                                                301

 

 


Effect of mordants on printing with marigold flowers dye

Radhika Agarwal, Neelam Pruthi and Saroj Jeet S Singh

IPC code; Int. Cl.8C09B 61/00, D06P 1/34                                                                                     306

 

 


Protection from oxidative damage using Emblica officinalis Gaertn. extracts in case of ochratoxin-induced toxicity in normal human RBC

R J Verma and Devjani Chakraborty

IPC code; Int. cl.8 ¾ A61K 36/00, A61P 7/00, A61P 39/06                                                                            310

 

 


Processed products of Tamarind

Dheeraj Singh, Lobsang Wangchu and Surendra Kumar Moond

IPC code; Int. cl.8 ¾ A23L 1/00, A23L 1/06, A23L 1/22, A23L 2/00, A23L 2/02, A61K 36/00   315

 

 


Green page: Research Articles/Articles

Flowering performance of Polianthes tuberosa Linn. cv. ‘Calcutta Double’ as influenced by thermal regime

Arpita Khan, Abhijit Saha and P Pal

IPC code; Int. cl.8 ¾ A01G 9/00                                                                                                                         322

 


Comparative chemical study of two varieties of attractive medicinal plant Kaempferia galanga Linn.

A K Indrayan, Alice Kurian, P K Tyagi, Ajat Shatru and Anuj K Rathi

IPC code; Int. cl.8 ¾ A01G 7/00, A61K 36/00, C11B 9/00                                                                              327

 

 


Explorer: Research Articles/Article

Anti-inflammatory plants used by the Khamti tribe of Lohit district in eastern Arunachal Pradesh India

Hui Tag, A K Das and Hari Loyi

IPC code; Int. cl.8—A61K 36/00, A61P 17/02, A61P 29/00                                                                            334

 


Ethnomedicinal uses of barks in Jalgaon district

Shubhangi Pawar and D A Patil

IPC code; Int. cl.8 ¾ A61K 36/00, A61K 129/00                                                                                              341

                 

Review Article

Phyto-pharmacology of Moringa oleifera Lam. ¾ An overview

Bhoomika R Goyal, Babita B Agrawal, Ramesh K Goyal and Anita A Mehta

IPC code; Int. cl.8 ¾ A61K 36/00, A61P 1/04, A61P 17/18, A61P 31/04                                                       347

 

Forthcoming Conferences                                                                                         354

Announcement                                                                                                            355

Guidelines to authors                                                                                                  356

Subscription Form                                                                                                       358

Index                                                                                                                            359

 

 

  

Readers Write

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.6, July-August 2007, 284

 

Clear doubts about effect of Homoeopathic drugs on cotton plants

Dear Editor, I am writing this with reference to Dr H. U. Gangar’s research paper entitled, "Effect of Homeopathic drugs on cotton plants", published in your journal, Natural Product Radiance, March-April 2007, pp.138-41. The findings are quite innovative and may find a lot of use in rain-fed cultivation of small seeded cereals and legumes. However, I have certain observations about this paper and they are:

1. The current has been measured in milivolt through a multimeter. Use of an E.C. meter or even a pH meter would have been more accurate to measure the current, using a single reference electrode.

2. For soaking of seeds, tap water has been used (whose current is not shown), whereas to prepare medicated water author used 'pure' water. What is this pure water? Is this single or double distilled water (DDW)? If single distilled water was used, it will show conductivity in an E.C. meter. The DDW, however, will not show any current (conductivity). Ideally seeds, used as control, should have been soaked in same type of water in which medicated water has been prepared.

3. Similarly in mature plants, author provided dose of medicated water to one set (experimental plants), whereas did not treat control plants with the same water, used to prepare the 'medicated dose'. There are several reports, where soaking of seeds with water or spraying plants with water has increased the response, may it be germination or yield. Thus, treating the control with plain water would have been an ideal step to rule out any positive effect of the water, which has been used as a medium to see the effect of Homoeopathic medicine. Also author did not mention that how did he provide 'medicated water’ dose to mature plants? Was it through irrigation or spray? In both the cases how much water was used for the treatment?

4. Which variety of the cotton was used? If some one wishes to verify this experiment, Is it necessary to use the same variety?

5. Similarly it is not mentioned the name of the manufacturer, whose medicines were used. In this case it is necessary even to mention the batch number of the medicine, although batch number does not matter much in Homoeopathic medicines, but on scientific grounds all details need be provided to repeat the experiment.

6. The term 'Inter-Molecular Electrical Charges' should have also been explained as this journal is not meant for physical sciences, such things be explained in material and methods.

            Nevertheless I commend this work, which, many of us, would like to repeat in other crops.

Dr Shekhar Bhargava

Biodiversity Centre

Rajasthan Agricultural University,

Bikaner (Rajasthan)- 334 006

Mobile: 09413143293 

 

 

 

 

Clarification by the author, Dear Dr. Shekhar, I feel extremely happy to find your keen interest in this subject. The clarification to your observations is as follows: (i) I have not measured voltage not the current and used single distilled water; (ii) injected 0.05 ml of medicated water into the plant; (iii) any variety of cotton can be used; (iv) name of drug and potency are important; (v) when the medium contains free ‘electrically charged‘particles, it loses the charge as soon as the medium is connected to earth. In present experiments, even connecting the electrodes to earth did not discharge it. It means that molecules of medium hold these subatomic charged particles by electromagnetic forces. Hence, I have used the term ‘inter-molecular charges’; (vi) for other crops, you have to use other medicines, H. U. Gangar).

 

 

Research Articles/Articles

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.6, July-August 2007, 286-289

Safety evaluation of a polyherbal formulation, Zuroor-E –Qula

M Paridhavi1* and S S Agrawal2

Zuroor-e-Qula, a powdered polyherbal Unani formulation, known to possess anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory properties is recommended in cases of stomatitis and gastric ulceration. The freshly prepared formulation was evaluated for its mineral contents, microbial count, aflatoxins and pesticide residues. The results revealed that this formulation is free from such contaminants and its use is safe.

Keywords: Zuroor-e-Qula, Polyherbal formulation, Unani medicine, Mineral content, Microbial count, Aflatoxins, Pesticide residues.

IPC code; Int. cl.8 ¾ A61K 36/00, A61P 1/00, A61P 29/00, A61P 31/04

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.6, July-August 2007, 290-292

 

Dechitinising property of Caesalpinia bonduc (Linn.) Roxb. against Culex quinquefasciatus

K Periyanayagam1*, K Sundara Saravanan1 and M Ismail2

 

            The fourth instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus were exposed to the petroleum ether and ethanolic extract of the leaves of Caesalpinia bonduc (Linn.) Roxb. emend. Dandy & Exell. The larvicidal activity was prominent and 100% mortality was observed in 1% concentration of both the extracts. Moreover, both the extracts caused thinning of chitin of the larvae exposed, which may be the reason for mortality of the larvae. The chitin thickness in the treated larvae was measured at various parts like head, thorax, abdomen, siphon tube and compared with that of the control. Further work is in progress to isolate the active constituent responsible for the dechitinising property.

Keywords:      Caesalpinia bonduc, Caesalpiniaceae, Culex quinquefasciatus, Mosquito larvae, Larvicidal activity, Dechitinising property.

IPC code; Int. cl.8 A61K 36/48, A01P 7/04.

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.6, July-August 2007, 293-296

Process optimization for the extraction of hyperforin and hypericin from St. John’s Wort

V K Koul* and Suman Koul

 

St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum Linn.), native to Europe and South America, grows wild in temperate and central parts of India. It has been used as a medicinal plant since ancient times for ulceration of kidneys, jaundice, gout and rheumatism. The antidepressant activity of St. John’s Wort extract has sparked great interest in the chemistry and biochemistry of its constituents, hyperforin and hypericin. The process described in this paper outlines the extraction of hyperforin by solvent hexane and thereafter extraction of hypericin from marc by commercial ethanol. The process parameters optimized for both the extractions are: solvent/plant material ratio, temperature, number of extractions and time for each extraction. Optimization was carried out by performing different sets of experiments (on 15kg scale) and varying one parameter at a time for each set of experiment. Depending on quality of plant material, under optimum conditions (i) Hexane extraction yielded 4 to 5% residue containing up to 38% Hyperforin, and (ii) Ethanol extraction yielded 20 to 22% residue containing up to 2.5% hypericin.

Keywords: Hypericum perforatum, St. John’s Wort, Hyperforin, Hypericin, Extraction, Optimization.

IPC code; Int. cl.8 ¾ A61K 36/00, A61K 31/00, A61P 25/24

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.6, July-August 2007, 297-300

 

Physico-chemical characteristics of seed oils of some Litsea species found in North-East India

Rumi Kotoky1, M G Pathak2 and P B Kanjilal1*

            Seeds of six species of genusLitsea Lam.(Family- Lauraceae), viz. L. angustifolia Hook. f., L. cubeba (Lour.) Pers. syn. L. citrata Blume,L. confertiflora (Meissn.) Kost., L. glutinosa (Lour.)C.B. Robins., L. laeta Benth. & Hook. f. and L. lanuginosa Nees were collected from 7-10 years old trees and investigated fortheir oil content and physico-chemical properties. Fatty oil content of these species ranged between 19.1 to 58.6% (w/w). Gas chromatographic analysis of the oil indicated that lauric acid is dominant fatty acid; highest in L. laeta (92.0%) and lowest in L. confertifolia (53.0%). Besides lauric acid, seed oil also contain trace amount of myristic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid. Oleic acid (22.7%) was obtained in L. confertifolia. Lauric acid is a medium chain fatty acid which is considered responsible for many of its health benefits. Hence, the content of lauric acid in these species explores possibility to use these oils as an important source material for nutritional and health aspects.

Keywords: Litsea spp., Lauraceae, Seed oil, Lauric acid, Fatty oil.

IPC code; Int. cl.8 A61K 36/54, A23D 7/00, C11B 1/04, C11B 1/10.

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.6, July-August 2007, 301-305

 

Screening of plants for their potential antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus and Salmonella spp.

Yogesh Mahida and J.S.S. Mohan*

 

Methanol extracts of 23 plants were screened for their antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistant bacteria, viz. Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Salmonella typhi and S. paratyphi A to find out an alternative source of active principles/compounds. The extracts of Cryptolepis buchanani (Linn.) Roem. & Schult., Mangifera indica Linn., Manilkara hexandra (Roxb.) Dubard and Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Linn. exhibited significant antibacterial activity with MIC value of 1-8mg/ml.

Keywords: Medicinal plants, Methanol extracts, Antibacterial activity, Multi drug resistant bacteria, MIC value.

IPC code; Int. cl.8 ¾ A61K 36/00, A61P 31/04

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.6, July-August 2007, 306-309

Effect of mordants on printing with Marigold flowers dye

Radhika Agarwal, Neelam Pruthi* and Saroj Jeet S Singh

            In this study Marigold, Tagetes erecta Linn., petals were used to standardize the printing paste for cotton. Seven mordants used to study their effect on printing with said dye were: aluminium sulphate, copper sulphate, ferrous sulphate, lead acetate, potassium dichromate (chrome), stannous chloride and zinc chloride. Simultaneous mordanting technique was used. The mordants were added on the basis of total printing paste prepared under optimum conditions. Out of seven mordants, two mordants selected on the basis of visual assessment and washing fastness were chrome and copper sulphate. Fast colours were obtained when 3 per cent chrome or 5 per cent copper sulphate was used. The use of mordants produced various colours with marigold flower dye. Beige colour was obtained when dye was used without any mordant whereas it was mustard with chrome and olive green with copper sulphate.

Keywords: Marigold flower, Tagetes erecta, Natural dye, Mordants, Cotton, Chrome, Copper sulphate.

IPC code; Int. cl.8C09B 61/00, D06P 1/34

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.6, July-August 2007, 310-314

Protection from oxidative damage using Emblica officinalis Gaertn. extracts in case of ochratoxin induced toxicity in normal human RBC

R J Verma* and Devjani Chakraborty

Treatment of saline suspension of human RBC with crude ochratoxin, obtained from culture filtrate of Aspergillus ochraceus (ITCFF, IARI, NO-1456) for 4 hours at 37ºC, produced pronounced swelling and haemolysis. Haemolysis was more at higher concentration (4-5 µg/ml). The ambient suspension turned red due to release of haemoglobin from haemolysed corpuscles. The haemolysis was reduced significantly by the aqueous and alcoholic extract of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (Amla) when administered along with the ochratoxin. The retarding effect was increased with the increase in concentration of aqueous extract from 5-70 µg/ml and alcoholic extract from 5-60 µg/ml. The aqueous and alcoholic extract of amla has powerful retarding effect on ochratoxin-induced haemolysis on RBC. This may be because of the presence of vitamin-C, tannins and flavonoids, which are believed to be potent antioxidants found in amla. RBC has got the simplest structure and can be used as a very good model to detect the direct effect of a toxin on the cell membrane. Destabilization of the cell membrane in RBC can leads to lysis of the cell and release of haemoglobin in the medium. Extent of haemolysis can help to reveal the extent of toxicity.

Keywords: Indian gooseberry, Ochratoxin, Emblica officinalis, Amla, Human RBC, Haemolysis, Oxidative damage, Antioxidant. 

IPC code; Int. cl.8 ¾ A61K 36/00, A61P 7/00, A61P 39/06

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.6, July-August 2007, 315-321

Processed products of Tamarind

Dheeraj Singh1*, Lobsang Wangchu2 and Surendra Kumar Moond3

 

Tamarind a native plant of tropical Africa is best known for its fruits, which contain about 30 per cent, sticky, edible pulp. The acidic pulp is a common ingredient in culinary preparations such as curries, chutneys, sauces, ice cream and sherbet in countries where the tree grows naturally.Green tamarind is pickled in brine. In Asia sweetmeats or the sugared tamarind made by rolling the semi-dried pulp and seed in crystal sugar are very popular products of tamarind fruit. Tamarind fruit is full of acidity which combines well with sugar, chilli and other flavours, hence its pulp is used to prepare a variety of traditional refreshing and highly energetic drinks. Tamarind seed kernel powder (TKP) is a major industrial product, which is used in the sizing of textile, paper and jute. The seed and its extracts can be used in the food processing industry, as an adhesive in the plywood industry and in the tanning industry due to the high tannin content in the seed testa. Some processed products prepared from tamarind pulp and seeds are discussed in this paper.

Keywords: Tamarind, Tamarindus indica, Imli, Processed products, Pectin, Concentrate, Candy, Industry.

IPC code; Int. cl.8 ¾ A23L 1/00, A23L 1/06, A23 L 1/22, A23L 2/00, A23 L 2/02, A61K 36/00

Green Page: Research Articles/Articles

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.6, July-August 2007, 322-326

 

Flowering performance of Polianthes tuberosa Linn. cv. ‘Calcutta Double’ as influenced by thermal regime

Arpita Khan1, Abhijit Saha2 and P Pal1*

In order to study the role of climatic parameters on different performance indicators of tuberose, Polianthes tuberosa Linn. (Double type), an experiment was carried out at Horticulture Research Farm, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya (BCKV), Mohanpur, District Nadia (West Bengal) during 2002. The crop was planted on 28th March 2002 with standard cultural practices. Dates corresponding to emergence (E), appearance of first (FFO) as well as last floret (LFO) corresponding to each tagged spike (27th October to 29th December 2002) were noted. Maximum and minimum temperature regime enjoyed by each spike during E-FFO and FFO-LFO stage were utilized to derive different thermal indices to study the rate of phenological development as well as status of different performance indicators. Correlation studies showed that all the thermal indices pertaining to E-FFO stage and CHU (Cumulative heat units) during FFO-LFO stage were highly associated with different performance indicators. Regression studies showed that value of these indices during E-FFO stage could explain 55-82% variability of different indicators. Rate of reproductive development during E-FFO has been found to be a quadratic function of mean temperature (R2=0.74) where 21-22oC mean air temperature showed maximum rate. Relationship developed in this study can be useful for predicting the performance of tuberose ahead of the harvest and assessing its worthiness in the market. A mean air temperature around 22oC during E-FFO is useful in early harvesting as well as obtaining higher rachis length and thereby the market value of this crop.

Keywords: Tuberose, Polianthes tuberosa, Tuberose cv. ‘Calcutta Double’, Air temperature, Flowering performance, Performance indicators.

IPC code; Int. cl.8 ¾ A01G 9/00

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.6, July-August 2007, 327-333

Comparative chemical study of two varieties of attractive medicinal plant Kaempferia galanga Linn.

A K Indrayan 1*, Alice Kurian2, P K Tyagi1, Ajat Shatru1 and Anuj K Rathi1

‘Kasthuri’ and ‘Rajani’ varieties of medicinal and ornamental plant Kaempferia galanga Linn. differ morphologically. The essential oils from their rhizomes have remarkably different specific gravities, refractive indices, saponification and iodine values. These oils also differ sufficiently in their chemical compositions. A total no. of 58 and 56 compounds have been identified in ‘Kasthuri’ and ‘Rajani’, respectively. Thirteen compounds are identified in the rhizome oil of ‘Kasthuri’ that are not present in the rhizome oil of ‘Rajani’ and another 11 compounds identified in ‘Rajani’ oil are not present in ‘Kasthuri’ oil. Forty-five compounds have been found common in both oils but their percentages differ in the two varieties. Similarly major component, ethyl-trans- p-methoxycinnamate is present in both the varieties, its percentage varies (39 and 35%, respectively).

Keywords: Kaempferia galanga, Zingiberaceae, Essential oil composition, ‘Kasthuri’, ‘Rajani’, Ethyl-trans-p-methoxycinnamate.

IPC code; Int. cl.8 ¾ A01G 7/00, A61K 36/00, C11B 9/00

Explorer: Research Articles/Articles

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.6, July-August 2007, 334-340

Anti-inflammatory plants used by the Khamti tribe of Lohit district in eastern Arunachal Pradesh India

Hui Tag*, A K Das and Hari Loyi

            The pristine forest of Lohit valley, about 500 km journey towards east from Arunachal’s capital city Itanagar fall within Indo-Burma Biodiversity Hotspot is mainly characterized by its rich wealth of medicinal plant diversity. This valuable medicinal plant wealth in wilderness is mostly guarded by the traditional wisdom of four ethnic communities inhabited in the valley such as Tai Kamti, Singpho, Mishmi and Chakma. The Tai Khamtis are originally belonging to the Royal Tai family of Southeast Asia and have acquired a high degree of knowledge on herbal medicines in comparison to rest of areas in the valley. The present paper contains 26 species of plants exclusively based on first hand ethnobotanical field reports and have been critically screened out as anti-inflammatory and wound healing agents.

Keywords: Anti-inflammatory plants, wound healing agents, Arunachal Pradesh, Biodiversity, Tai Kamti, Singpho, Mishmi and Chakma tribe.

IPC code; Int. cl.8A61K 36/00, A61P 17/02, A61P 29/00

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.6, July-August 2007, 341-346

Ethnomedicinal uses of barks in Jalgaon district

Shubhangi Pawar 1* and D A Patil2

 

The ethnobotanical surveys were conducted during June 1997 to 2004 in Jalgaon district of Maharashtra. The tribes such as Bhil, Pawara, Tadvi and Vanjara inhabit in the district, apart from other rural people.  Information on 37 angiospermic species belonging to 31 genera of 22 families was gathered on ethnomedicinal uses of barks.  This paper reports their botanical identity, family, local names, parts used, preparations and doses, if any. It was observed that tribal people use barks of various trees in the form of decoction, infusion, extract, paste, poultice, powder, etc. Various human diseases treated were verified from the local tribal medicine men, elder ladies, head of hamlets and other rural informants. Further research on scientific line is, however, desirable to improvise their authenticity which would lead to discovery of new molecules and potential sources of drugs.

Keywords: Bark, Medicinal plants, Ethnomedicine, Bhil, Pawara, Tadvi, Vanjara, Jalgaon District, Maharashtra.

IPC code; Int. cl.8 ¾ A61K 36/00, A61K 129/00

 

Review Articles

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.6, July-August 2007, 347-353

Phyto-pharmacology of Moringa oleifera Lam. ¾ An overview

Bhoomika R Goyal1, Babita B Agrawal2, Ramesh K Goyal2 and Anita A Mehta2*

 

Moringa oleifera Lam. is a small or medium-sized tree, about 10 m high, cultivated throughout India. It is a multipurpose tree, used as vegetable, spice, a source of cooking and cosmetic oil and as a medicinal plant. It is reported to contain alkaloids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins and cinnamates. It possesses anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antihyperlipidaemic, antifertility, anticancer, antihepatotoxic and antiulcer activities. Further, activity guided phytochemical and phytoanalytical studies may lead to development of novel agents to be used in various disorders. An overview of chemical constituents present in the plant and their pharmacological actions are given in the present paper.

Keywords: Moringa oleifera, Drumstick tree, Medicinal plant, Multipurpose tree, Chemical constituents, Pharmacological properties.

IPC code; Int. cl.8 ¾ A61K 36/00, A61P 1/04, A61P 17/18, A61P 31/04