NATURAL PRODUCT RADIANCE

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VOLUME 6

NUMBER 1

January-February 2007

 

 

CONTENTS

 

 

Readers Write                                                                                                           4

 

Editorial                                                                                                                      5

 

Research Articles/Articles

Preparation of value added products from dehydrated bathua leaves (Chenopodium album Linn.)

L Singh, N Yadav, A R Kumar, A K Gupta, J Chacko, K Parvin and U Tripathi

IPC code; Int. cl.8—A23B 7/02, A23L 1/20, A23L 3/00                                             6

Inhibition of CCl4–induced liver fibrosis by Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn.

Santh Rani Thaakur, G R Saraswathy, E Maheswari, N Sunil Kumar, T Hazarathiah, K Sowmya, P Dwarakanadha Reddy and B Ramesh Kumar

IPC code; Int. cl.8 A61K 36/00, A61K 36/48, A61P 1/16                                       11

 

Preliminary studies on the antivenin potential and phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts of Balanites aegyptiaca (Linn.) Delile on albino rats

B M Wufem, Harami M Adamu, Y A Cham and S L Kela             

IPC code; Int. cl.8 ¾ A61K 36/00, A61K 129/00                                                       18

Effect of modified eggs on metabolic syndrome-X induced stress in female wistar rats

S K Taneja and R Mandal

IPC code; Int. cl.8 ¾  A61K 33/00, A61K 35/54, G01N 33/08                                  22

 

Antibacterial activity of some ethnomedicinal plants from the Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu, India

J M Sasikumar, Tha. Thayumanavan, R Subashkumar, K Janardhanan and P Lakshmanaperumalsamy

IPC code; Int. cl.8— A61K 36/00, A61K 36/29, A61P 31/00, A61P 31/04                34

 

Bactericidal activity of kitchen spices and condiments on enteropathogens

Chetana Vaishnavi, Sukhminderjit Kaur and Manpreet Kaur

IPC code; Int. cl.8— A61K 36/00, A61P 31/00, A61P 31/04, A23L 1/22, A23L 1/221   40

 

Use of Natural Carotenoids For Pigmentation in Fishes

S.K.Gupta, Ak.K.Jha, A.K.Pal and G.Venkateshwarlu

IPC code; Int. cl.8— A01K 61/00, A23L 1/325, C07C 403/24                                   46

 

Green page: Research Articles/Articles

Characterization of Job’s tears germplasm in North-East India

D K Hore and R S Rathi

IPC code; Int. cl.8 ¾ A01G 1/00, A23L 1/10, A61K 36/00, A61K 36/8994               50

Ecological status of medicinal and other economically important plants in the Shola understories of Nilgiris, the Western Ghats

S Paulsamy, K K Vijayakumar, M Murugesan, S Padmavathy and P Senthilkumar

IPC code; Int. cl.8  ¾ A01G 7/00, A61K 36/00, A23L 1/00                                       55

 

Morinda citrifolia Linn. ¾ An important fruit tree of Andaman and Nicobar Islands

D R Singh and R B Rai

IPC code; Int. cl.8 ¾ A01G 17/00, A23L 1/00, A61K 36/00                          62

Explorer: Research Articles/Article

A study on ethno-medicinal usage of plants among the folklore herbalists and Tripuri medical practioners, Part-II

Koushik Majumdar and B K Datta

IPC code; Int. cl.8 ¾ A61K 36/00, A23L 1/00                                                            66

 

Wild edible plants traditionally used by the tribes in the Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala, India

K Yesodharan and K A Sujana

IPC code; Int. cl.8— A61K 36/00, A23L 1/00                                                 74

 

Review Articles

A review on lipid lowering activities of Ayurvedic and other herbs

Aashish S Phadke

IPC code; Int. cl.8 ¾ A61K 36/00, A61P 3/06, A61P 9/00                                         81

 

Forthcoming Conferences                                                                                         90

Guidelines to authors                                                                                                91

Index                                                                                                                           93

Renewal notice                                                                                                           99

 

 

 

 

 

Readers Write

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.6, Jan.-Feb.2007, 4

 

Readers Write

 

Sattu making process                                   

 

            For some time I was science teacher at Faizabad, Uttar Pradesh where some children used to bring sattu in their Tiffin. I collected information on its ingredients then found that though it is poor mans’ recipe it is rich source of nutrition. After long gap of time I read news on optimization of sattu in Nov.– Dec.2006 issue of your journal which I picked from a shelf in a library for being attractive colourful cover and contents. Thanks for bringing out such type of research reports to the common person who can use it for domestic as well as for commercial making.

Ritu Goswami

Ghaziabad

Wound healing honey

 

            Dear Editor, I am regular reader of your journal and very happy to see that you have started giving short notes on innovative achievements of people which can be taken up for further research. Based on scientific literature as well as on my own experiences here I would like to share following information on wound healing property of honey.

 

1.      Dressing the wound with honey is an ancient remedy. It reduces inflammation, swelling and pain quickly. Fowl smell disappears and healing occurs with a minimal scar. Honey creates a moist environment that prevents growth of microorganisms and sticking of bandage. Honey is more effective than Sulphadiazine, generally used for the treatment of burn wound.

 

2.      Spreading of honey on the dressing pad rather than on the wound is much easier to do and is less painful to the patients.

 

3.      There is no need to change the dressing frequently.

 

4.      Honey possesses stimulatory effect on tissue regeneration hence hastens wound healing.

 

5.      Local application of honey on Fournier’s gangrene has been found to be effective.

 

6.      Sometimes honey contains spores of clostridia which poses a small risk of wound botulism. So it should be used after sterilization.

 

7.      Honey is effective against antibiotic resistant bacterial strains.

 

8.      It contains large amount of vitamin C which is essential for collagen synthesis.

 

9.      The osmotically induced out flow of honey assists in lifting dirt and debris from the wound bed.

 

10.  There are economical advantages with honey dressing.

Dr Hemanta Panigrahi

Research Officer (Ay.)

Central Research Institute for Ayurveda

New Delhi

Research Articles/Articles

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.6, Jan.-Feb.2007, 6-10

 

Preparation of value added products from dehydrated bathua leaves (Chenopodium album Linn.)

 

L Singh1, N Yadav1, A R Kumar1*, A K Gupta2, J Chacko3, K Parvin1 and U Tripathi1

            Green leafy vegetables form an important part of daily diet. Since these are produced in surplus and have short shelf-life, preservation of vegetables can prevent wastage and increase availability in the diet during off-season. Bathua (Chenopodium album Linn.) leaves, rich in micronutrients were selected for dehydration. Leaves were tray dried at 50-60oC for three to four hours till the moisture reached to 6-7 per cent. These dehydrated leaves were incorporated at 3-15 per cent levels in two conventional foods namely green gram dal and paratha. Organoleptic properties of products were judged by nine point hedonic scale. Proximate composition, iron content and carotene content of leaves and products were analyzed. Results showed that dehydrated leaves were rich sources of protein, carbohydrate and ash. Iron and carotene contents of dehydrated bathua leaves (27.48mg/100g and 14826µg/100g, respectively) were 6-8 times higher than fresh leaves. Green gram dal and paratha incorporated with 7 and 5 per cent dehydrated bathua leaves were liked most. Iron content of green gram dal (8.8mg/100g) and paratha incorporated with dehydrated bathua leaves was higher than their respective control. In comparison to control enriched paratha (4255.66±0.6µg/100g) and Green gram dal (984 ±1.8µg/100g) had many fold greater carotene content. Therefore, it can be concluded that incorporation of dehydrated bathua leaves in various conventional food items can improve the nutritional quality of the products as well as add variety in the diet.

Keywords: Food products, Dehydrated Bathua leaves, Leafy vegetable, Chenopodium album

IPC code; Int. cl.8A23B 7/02, A23L 1/20, A23L 3/00.

 

 

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.6, Jan.-Feb.2007, 11-17

Inhibition of CCl4 – induced liver fibrosis by Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn.

 

Santh Rani Thaakur1*, GR Saraswathy2, E Maheswari2, N Sunil Kumar2, T Hazarathiah2, K Sowmya2, P Dwarakanadha Reddy2 and B Ramesh Kumar2

 

Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn. (Fenugreek) belonging to the family Fabaceae, is a well known plant in Unani and Ayurvedic medicine. In the present study an attempt was made to explore the antifibrotic effect of ethanolic extract of this plant. Liver fibrosis was induced in rats by CCl4 (carbon tetrachloride) orally 1 ml/kg for 28 days. The extent of liver fibrosis was assessed by measuring the level of liver hydroxyproline (HP), serum enzymes and total bilirubin (TBL) levels due to deposition of collagen. The liver weight of the animals was increased following CCl4 administration. The administration of ethanolic extract reduced the liver weight of CCl4 treated animals and treatment with ethanolic extract of the plant reduced significantly the HP, serum enzyme and TBL level and inhibited liver fibrosis induced by CCl4.

 

Keywords: Liver fibrosis, CCl4, Antifibrotic effect, Hepatoprotective, Fenugreek, Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn.

 

IPC code; Int. cl.8A61K 36/00, A61K 36/48, A61P 1/16

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.6, Jan.-Feb.2007, 18-21

 

Preliminary studies on the antivenin potential and phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts of Balanites aegyptiaca (Linn.) Delile on albino rats

B M Wufem1, Harami M Adamu1*, Y A Cham1 and S L Kela2

 

            The stem bark of Balanites aegyptiaca (Linn.) Delile which is known as Desert Date was sequentially extracted with hexane, toluene, chloroform, acetone and methanol at room temperature. The effectiveness of acetone and methanol extracts was tested against Saw-scaled (Echis carinatus) viper venom concentration at lethal dose (0.194mg/ml) which was administered intramuscularly into Wistar rats. Both extracts were found to be effective at 75mg/ml and 100mg/ml concentrations. Phytochemical screening of the acetone and the methanol extracts revealed the presence of saponins, tannins and volatile oils.

Keywords: Venom, Saw-scaled viper, Echis carinatus, Snake bite, Balanites aegyptiaca, Desert date, Phytochemical screening, Stem bark, Wistar rats.

 

IPC Code; Int. cl.8 ¾  A61K 36/00, A61K 129/00

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.6, Jan.-Feb.2007, 22-33

Effect of modified eggs on metabolic syndrome-X induced stress in female wistar rats

S K Taneja* and R Mandal

Metabolic syndrome-X induced stress is prevalent world over and is being managed through pharmacological treatment. There are some dietary components such as Zn, Cu, Mg, Mn, vitamin-E, C and omega-3 fatty acids which have been shown to reduce the severity of stress associated with metabolic syndrome-X. But in the Indian staple diet, there is a big gap between requirement of these dietary components and their availability in food particularly in the patients of metabolic syndrome-X. Keeping this in mind, modified eggs were designed (Patent Application No.2264 Del-2005) and their efficacy on metabolic syndrome-X was studied in female wistar rats. The results of this study revealed that feeding on these eggs mixed diets to metabolic syndrome-X induced rats, a considerable reduction in stress hormone cortisol, total lipids, LDL-c and VLDL-c in the blood, improvement in the sensitivity of insulin leading to reduction in blood glucose and rise in HDL-c and improvement in the mineral status in blood serum and tissues were observed.  This data suggests that these modified eggs are effective in reducing the metabolic syndrome-X induced stress.

 

Keywords: Blood lipid profile, Zn, Cu, Mg, Modified egg, NIDDM, Obesity, Omega-3 fatty acids, TEM of adrenal gland, Vitamin E, Metabolic syndrome-X.

 

IPC code; Int. cl.8 ¾  A61K 33/00, A61K 35/54, G01N 33/08

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.6, Jan.-Feb.2007, 34-39

Antibacterial activity of some ethnomedicinal plants from the Nilgiris,

Tamil Nadu, India

J M Sasikumar1, Tha. Thayumanavan2, R Subashkumar3, K Janardhanan4 and P Lakshmanaperumalsamy5*

 

The present investigation encompasses antibacterial potential of three medicinal plants used by the tribals of Nilgiris for the treatment of various skin ailments. About 18 extracts at three concentrations (10, 5, 2.5 mg/ml) of different plant parts of Siegesbeckia orientalis Linn., Berberis tinctoria Lesch. and Justicia betonica Linn. were tested against pathogenic bacteria, viz. Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella sp., Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae and V. parahemolyticus. All the extracts exhibited broader antibacterial activity against the tested pathogens.

 

Keywords: Ethnomedicinal plants, Antibacterial activity, Siegesbeckia orientalis, Berberis tinctoria, Justicia betonica, Nilgiris.

 

IPC code; Int. cl.8A61K 36/00, A61K 36/29, A61P 31/00, A61P 31/04

 

 

 

 Natural Product Radiance

Vol.6, Jan.-Feb.2007, 40-45

 

Bactericidal activity of kitchen spices and condiments on enteropathogens

Chetana Vaishnavi*, Sukhminderjit Kaur, Manpreet Kaur

The medicinal value of many of the spices and condiments used in Indian cooking has been known for centuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bactericidal activity of spices and condiments used in the Indian kitchen on enteropathogens endemic to our country. Aqueous extracts of onion (Allium cepa Linn.), garlic (Allium sativum Linn.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.), black pepper (Piper nigrum Linn.), clove [Syzygium aromaticum (Linn.) Merrill & Perry], asafoetida (Ferula assafoetida Linn.), omum (Bishop’s weeds) [Trachyspermum ammi (Linn.) Sprague syn. Carum copticum Hiern.], mint (Mentha spicata Linn. emend. Nathh. syn. M. viridis Linn.), cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum Linn.) and turmeric (Curcuma domestica Valeton), were used in the study. Their antimicrobial activity against various diarrhoeagenic bacteria, viz. Salmonella typhi, S. typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, Sh. dysenteriae, Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica and Campylobacter jejuni were investigated by the disc diffusion and growth inhibition methods. Extracts of clove showed maximal antimicrobial activity against all the enteropathogens investigated. Black pepper showed antimicrobial effect on Sh. dysenteriae, C. jejuni, E. coli 0157 and E. coli 0102. Ginger and mint showed the least bactericidal effect on the enteropathogens studied. The remaining spices and condiments showed different degree of activity with different microbes. Spices and condiments, thus not only add flavour to the Indian cooking, but they may also protect us from various gastrointestinal endemic diseases.

 

Keywords: Antibacterial activity, Spices and Condiments, Enteropathogens

 

IPC code; Int. cl.8A61K 36/00, A61P 31/00, A61P 31/04, A23L 1/22, A23L 1/221

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.6, Jan.-Feb.2007, 46-49

Use of natural carotenoids for pigmentation in fishes

 

            Pigmentation is one of the important quality attributes of the fish for consumer acceptability. Carotenoids are responsible for pigmentation of muscle in food fish and skin color in ornamental fish. As fish is not capable of synthesizing carotenoids de novo there is a need to incorporate carotenoids in the diet of cultured species. Since synthetic carotenoids are known to have deteriorating effects on the environment, there is a great demand for inclusion of natural carotenoids in aqua feed to achieve bright coloration in fish. The possible use of naturally available carotenoid rich ingredients such as microalgal pigments (Chlorella vulgaris Beijer, Haematococcus pluvialis, Dunaliella salina (Dun.) Teodor), yeast extract (Phafia rhodozyma, Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous), marigold, capsicum, etc. has been discussed in this article.

 

Keywords: Carotenoids, Pigmentation, Fish, Astaxanthin, Haematococcus pluvialis, Dunaliella salina, Chlorella vulgaris, Marigold, Capsicum, Yeast extract

 

IPC code; Int. cl.8A01K 61/00, A23L 1/325, C 07C 403/24

 

Green Page: Research Articles/Articles

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.6, Jan.-Feb.2007, 50-54

 

Characterization of Job’s tears germplasm in North-East India

D K Hore* and R S Rathi

 

Job’s tears (Coix lacryma-jobi Linn.) is an underutilized crop widely distributed in South-East Asia. The seeds of this crop are used as pseudocereal, poultry feed and beer brewing; while leaves are used as fodder. The North-eastern India is considered as one of the major centres of diversity for the crop. There are four well-marked forms of Job’s tears met within India, which differ in their shape, size, colour and degree of hardiness of the involucres. Till 2004, NBPGR Regional Station, Shillong, Meghalaya has collected a total of 54 accessions of Job’s tears germplasm. The germplasm characterization and protein and phosphorus contents of 29 accessions have been presented in this paper. Potentiality for systematic large scale cultivation of genotypes has also been emphasized.

Keywords : Job’s tears, Coix lacryma-jobi, Under utilized Crop, Pseudocereal, Diversity, Germplasm, Chemical analysis.

 

IPC code; Int. cl.8 ¾  A01G 1/00, A23L 1/10, A61K 36/00, A61K 36/8994

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.6, Jan.-Feb.2007, 55-61

 

Ecological status of medicinal and other economically important plants in the Shola understories of Nilgiris, the Western Ghats

 

S Paulsamy1*, K K Vijayakumar1, M Murugesan1, S Padmavathy2 and P Senthilkumar1

Sholas being a high species rich forests of Nilgiris, harbour many plant species of economic importance also. Documentation of flora with their economic uses and the identification of ecological status are the most essential part in the conservation programmes. For this purpose in the present study, the understories of 11 sholas namely, Ebbenadu, Governor shola, Honnathalai, Kammand, Kolacombi, Kodappamand, Korakunndah, Kothagiri terrace, Longwood shola, Thiashola and Wenlockdown were selected in Nilgiris, the Western Ghats. The results of the study revealed that out of 131 species enumerated, 88 have been recognized as economically important. Among them the species such as Achyranthes bidentata Blume, Acmella calva (DC.) R.K. Janesan, Arisaema leschenaultii Blume, A. tortuosum (Wall.) Schott, Asparagus fysoni Macbr., Centella asiatica Urban and Gaultheria fragrantissima Wall. are suggested for cultivation and conservation so as to reduce the pressure upon wild population.

 

Keywords: Sholas, Nilgiris, Economically important plants, Medicinal plants, Conservation.  

 

IPC Code; Int. cl.8  ¾ A01G 7/00, A61K 36/00, A23L 1/00

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.6, Jan.-Feb.2007, 62-65

 

Morinda citrifolia Linn. ¾ An important fruit tree of Andaman and Nicobar Islands

D R Singh* and R B Rai

            Morinda citrifolia Linn. is a hardy plant which can grow on wasteland and tolerate salinity. Its fruit is used in traditional medicine and contain many vitamins and minerals.  In this paper an attempt has been made to provide its cultivation aspects and economic value.

 

Keywords : Noni, Indian Mulberry, Morinda citrifolia, Nutrient composition, Cultivation.

IPC code; Int. cl.8 ¾ A01G 17/00, A23L 1/00, A61K 36/00

Explorer: Research Articles/Articles

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.6, Jan.-Feb.2007, 66-73

 

A study on ethnomedicinal usage of plants among the folklore herbalists and Tripuri medical practitioners: Part-II

 

Koushik Majumdar* and B K Datta

 

The paper deals with the ethnomedicinal applications of 50 plants by Tripuri tribes inhabiting hamlets on different hilly terrain and interior dense forest of South and West district of Tripura. These 50 plant species belong to 46 genera of 31 families. The species are enumerated in alphabetical order in tabular form. The ethnomedicinal information on the plants presented below is on the basis of folklore herbalists and Tripuri medical practitioners (Ochai) who are very familiar with different ailments, symptoms and the mode of treatment of these crude drugs. The local tribal people still believe and express their respect and honour to the knowledge of Ochai as it is essential for survival of those people who live in remote hilly terrain and can not afford costly allopathic drugs.

Key words: Ethnomedicinal plants, Tripuri tribes, Folklore, Ochai, Tripura state, India.

 

IPC code; Int. cl.8 ¾ A61K 36/00, A23L 1/00         

 

 

  

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.6, Jan.-Feb.2007, 74-80

 

Wild edible plants traditionally used by the tribes in the Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala, India

 

K Yesodharan* and K A Sujana

 

This paper reports an ethnobotanical investigation performed during 2003 and 2005 to collect, identify and document information on the wild food plants traditionally used by the tribes in the Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary in Palakkad district of Kerala state, India. Eighty three species are used by the tribes as vegetables, wild fruits, beverages or in other preparations. Wild vegetables formed the largest group which included roots, tubers, young leaves and buds, inflorescence, unripe/ripe fruits and seeds. Analysis of the information revealed that out of 83 species, 82 belongs to Angiosperms (63 dicot and 19 monocot) and one species belongs to Gymnosperm. Among them 30 species are used as leafy vegetables, 31 species for fruits, 16 species for seeds and 10 species as food in the form of rhizomes/tubers/corms and 6 plants as food from stem/shoot. Amaranthus spinosus Linn., Centella asiatica (Linn.)Urban, Euphorbia hirta Linn., Oxalis corniculata Linn. and Mollugo pentaphylla Linn. are used by tribals more extensively. Among the wild fruits, consumption of jackfruit and mango is more common. Vigna vexillata (A. Rich.) Linn. and Ensete superbum (Roxb.) Cheesm. are used for suppressing hunger. Many wild food plants are also used for medicinal purposes, e.g. Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicol., Boerhaavia chinensis (Linn.) Asch. & Schweinf. and Ensete superbum .

Keywords: Wild edible plants, Vegetables, Fruits, Ethnobotany, Parambikulam, Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala, India.

IPC code; Int. cl.8A61K 36/00, A23L 1/00.

 

Review Article

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.6, Jan.-Feb.2007, 81-89

 

A review on lipid lowering activities of Ayurvedic and other herbs

           

            There is a great awareness regarding association between CAD (Coronary Artery Diseases) and mortality, CAD and Obesity, and CAD and Hyperlipidaemia. Thus, there is a need of knowing more about agents working on hyperlipidaemia. Apart from such agents of synthetic origin, there is an increasing search for the lipid lowering agents from natural origin. In this paper an attempt has been made to give an overview of certain commonly used Ayurvedic herbs along with some other herbs which have been studied for their lipid lowering activity.

 

Keywords: Coronary Artery Diseases, CAD, Mortality, Obesity, Lipid lowering drugs, Ayurvedic drugs, Medicinal Plants.

 

IPC code; Int. cl.8 ¾ A61K 36/00, A61P 3/06, A61P 9/00