NATURAL PRODUCT RADIANCE

A Bimonthly Journal on Natural Products

VOL 7, No.4                           July-August 2008

 

C       O       N       T       E       N       T       S

 

Readers’ Write                                                                                                                       308

Editorial                                                                                                                                   309

Research Papers

Operational feasibility of introducing Red Palm Oil into the supplementary feeding programme in urban ICDS centres,

Vijaya Khader and K Aruna

IPC code; Int. cl.8— A61K 36/00, A61P 3/02, A23D 7/00, A23D 9/00                                                                310

 

Toxicity of cypermethrin to the juveniles of freshwater fish Poecilia reticulata (Peters) in relation to selected environmental variables,

P P Gautam and A K Gupta

IPC code; Int. cl.8— A01K 61/00, A01K 63/04, A01N 25/00                                                                                314       

 

Free radical scavenging activity of antitumour polysaccharide fractions isolated from Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) P. Karst,

R Baskar, R Lavanya, S Mayilvizhi and P Rajasekaran

IPC code; Int. cl.8— A61K 36/00, A61K 36/074, A61K 49/20, A61P 39/06, A61P 17/18                                  320

 

Pharmacognostical studies on seeds of Centratherum anthelminticum Kuntze

Daksh Bhatia, M KGupta, Ankur Gupta, Mamta Singh and Gaurav Kaithwas

IPC code; Int. cl.8 ¾ A61K 36/00                                                                                                                            326

 

Application of Prickly Chaff (Achyranthes aspera Linn.) leaves as herbal antimicrobial finish for cotton fabric used in healthcare textiles

G Thilagavathi and T Kannaian

IPC code; Int. cl.8 ¾ A61K 36/00, A61P 31/00, D06B                                                                                          330

 

Physico-chemical studies of the Gum Acacia

Nasreen Jahan, S H Afaque, N A Khan, Ghufran Ahmad and Abid Ali Ansari

IPC code; Int. cl.8 ¾ A61K 36/00, A61K 9/34                                                                                                        335

 

 


Green page: Research Papers/General articles

In vitro clonal propagation of vulnerable medicinal plant, Saraca asoca (Roxb.) De Wilde

R Rama Subbu, A Chandraprabha  and R Sevugaperumal

IPC code; Int. cl.8 ¾ A01G 9/00, A61K 36/00                                                                                                        338

 

Small ornamental plants with tiny flowers for gardens

Shibabrata Pattanayak and Mihir Kumar Datta

IPC code; Int. cl.8¾ A01G 17/00                                                                                                                              342

 

Irrigation effect of Rairu distillery effluent on phosphorus content of Wheat crop

Rajesh Mittal and Avinash Tiwari

IPC code; Int. cl.8—A01C 2/00                                                                                                                                 344

 

Prioritization of sub-tropical fruit plants for the frost prone low hill region of Himachal Pradesh

Shashi K Sharma and S D Badiyala

IPC code; Int. cl.8— A01G 17/00                                                                                                                             347

 

Explorer: Research Papers

 

Folk remedies used against respiratory disorders in Jalgaon district, Maharashtra

Garima G Patil, Prashant Y Mali and Vijay V Bhadane

IPC code; Int. cl.8 ¾ A61K 36/00, A61P 11/00                                                                                                       354

 


Review Papers/General Articles

Bromelain: An Overview

Barun K Bhattacharyya

IPC code; Int. cl.8—A61K 38/43, A61K 135/00                                                                                                     359

 

Review on nutritional, medicinal and pharmacological properties of Papaya (Carica papaya Linn.)

K L Krishna, M Paridhavi and Jagruti A Patel

IPC code; Int. cl.8—A61K 36/00, A23L 1/00                                                                                                           364

 

Potential antifungal plants for controlling building fungi

Rajesh K Verma, Leena Chaurasia and Sadhana Katiyar

IPC code; Int. cl.8 ¾  A01H 15/00, A61K 36/00, A61P 31/10                                                      374

 


Forthcoming Conferences                                                                                                        388

Guidelines to authors                                                                                                                389

Subscription Form                                                                                                                    391

Index                                                                                                                                         392

 

 

 

 

Readers Write

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.7, July-August 2008, pp.308

 

 

Latjeera for bones

 

               Dear editor, I am a PG botany student and have keen interest in medicinal plants especially traditional and clinical uses. I used to read your journal with deep interest and wait for its arrival on library desk. Encouraged by reading small and useful notes in this column, I also would like to contribute some information on a commonly growing weed called Latjeera or Chirchitta (Achyranthes aspera Linn.). This is a herb and some times grows up to the height of 1m or more. It is found in waste places throughout the year and attains luxuriant growth in September-October. Perhaps because of its troublesome spiny, pointed (Jeera like) fruits it is known as latjeera. The base of plants is woody and strong. Local and poor people eat young leaves as pot-herb; they believe that the leaves are as nutritious as of Channa (Cicer arietinum Linn.) leaves. Moreover, it is a very good source of calcium and good for bones and dental problems.

 

               I observed that in case of bones fracture people collect its strong roots, wash them properly, wet grind and the extract obtained is mixed in milk and given to patients. It is said that this helps in setting the bones quickly with long lasting effects. It is important to note that this preparation is given once only during healing of bone fracture. For gum care and other dental problems people use hard branches of this herb for brushing their teeth. Some times dried roots are burnt and ash is used as tooth powder.

 

               Some research papers published in March-April 2008 issue of Natural Product Radiance are worth mentioning, viz. Medium density particle board from Khimp plant and Retention of colour intensity in henna paste during storage. Since henna paste is now-a-days commonly sold in the market and is a source of income for some ladies, the research findings given in this paper may be considered in preserving and maintaining staining power of henna paste in sealed cones. I also appreciate the publication of current researches in two issues of your journal. This helps people like me to select some topics for further reading and research project. In May-June 2008 issue it was interesting to know about the egg chips prepared by using different millet flours as binders; fibre-rich powder of unripe banana flour; antidiabetic property of Shoe flowers (Gurhal) and Dub ghas (Cynodon dactylon Pers.).

 

               I wish all success to the journal. However, I request you to bring the journal before time so that my waiting time will not be very long.

 

Manoj Tomar

Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh

Research Papers

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.7, July-August 2008, pp. 310-313

 

 

Operational feasibility of introducing Red Palm Oil into the supplementary feeding programme in urban ICDS centres

Vijaya Khader1 and K Aruna2*

               Vitamin A deficiency causes many health problems especially among children. A study was undertaken to screen the effect of supplementation of Red palm oil (RPO) obtained from the fruits of tree Elaeis guineensis Jacq. The oil is rich in b-carotene, a precursor of vitamin A. Supplementation of crude RPO to Anganwadi children increased the attendance of children and the intake of supplement. The anthropometric measurements revealed increase in heights and weight of children. In most of the centres, normal nutrition and grade-I increased with a simultaneous decrease in grade-II and III malnutrition, irrespective of sex. In general, girls were having better nutritional status than boys.

Keywords: Red Palm Oil, Elaeis guineensis Jacq., b-Carotene, Vitamin A, Anganwadi Centres, Xerophthalmia, Night blindness, Bitot spots, Corneal xerosis, Conjunctival xerosis

IPC code; Int. cl.8— A61K 36/00, A61P 3/02, A23D 7/00, A23D 9/00.

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.7, July-August 2008, pp. 314-319

 

 

Toxicity of cypermethrin to the juveniles of freshwater fish Poecilia reticulata (Peters) in relation to selected environmental variables

 

P P Gautam and A K Gupta*

 

               Toxicity of cypermethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, was evaluated for the juveniles (8.5± 1.5 mm) of a freshwater fish, Poecilia reticulata (Peters) in relation to selected environmental variables such as temperature, hardness, pH and salinity. The LC50’s were found to change significantly with the change in temperature, hardness, pH and salinity of water. The juveniles were found more susceptible to cypermethrin at low water hardness (270±1 mg/l) and low water pH (5.4) as compared to other variables. Based on LC50’s the order of toxicity of cypermethrin to juveniles of Poecilia was observed as: pH <salinity <hardness < temperature. The range of safe dischargeable concentrations of cypermethrin (1.04-1.09 ppb) was too low as compared to harmless or safe concentrations (45.18-75.25 ppb) for the juveniles at selected environmental variables.

Keywords: Toxicity, Cypermethrin, Fresh water fish, Poecilia reticulata, Environmental variables.

IPC code; Int. cl.8— A01K 61/00, A01K 63/04, A01N 25/00

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.7, July-August 2008, pp. 320-325

 

 

Free radical scavenging activity of antitumour polysaccharide fractions isolated from Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) P. Karst

R Baskar*, R Lavanya, S Mayilvizhi and P Rajasekaran

 

               The study was conducted to investigate the free radical scavenging activities of polysaccharide fractions extracted from the fruiting body of medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) P. Karst (Reishi) using different antioxidant capacity assays. Four intracellular polysaccharide fractions were obtained by the hot-water extraction and precipitation with ethanol, by ammonium oxalate extraction and by extraction with sodium hydroxide (NaOH), followed by precipitation with acetic acid and precipitation with ethanol. The results revealed that out of four fractions, acetic acid-NaOH fraction exhibited potent antioxidant activity and effectively scavenged free radicals in a dose dependent manner from 50 to 250µg/ml followed by hot water fraction and ammonium oxalate fraction. However, ethanol-NaOH fraction showed least inhibition in all in vitro models. Thus, the antitumour activities of Reishi may be due to the antioxidants present in its polysaccharide fractions.

Keywords: Ganoderma lucidum, Reishi, Antitumour polysaccharide, Oxidative stress, Free radical scavenging activity, Antioxidants.

IPC code; Int. cl.8— A61K 36/00, A61K 36/074, A61K 49/20, A61P 39/06, A61P 17/18

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.7, July-August 2008, pp. 326-329   

 

 

Pharmacognostical studies on seeds of Centratherum anthelminticum Kuntze

Daksh Bhatia*1, M KGupta2, Ankur Gupta3, Mamta Singh1 and Gaurav Kaithwas1

 

The present communication deals with the pharmacognostical and preliminary phytochemical studies on the seeds of Centratherum anthelminticum Kuntze. Less reports are available on microscopical and phytochemical studies, hence, the present study was undertaken to investigate the same. All the parameters were studied regarding the WHO and pharmacopoeial guidelines. The study revealed the presence of patches of rounded to polygonal stone cells, trachieds showing pittings, thick walled cells, abundant covering and glandular trichomes, alleurone grains and brown tannin content. In fluorescence analysis no specific fluorescence was observed. HPTLC profile was also established for successive extracts of the seed using Camag HPTLC system.

Keywords: Centratherum anthelminticum, Vernonia anthelmintica, Kaliziri, Somraj, Pharmacognosy, Phytochemical, Fluorescence analysis.

IPC code; Int. cl.8 ¾ A61K 36/00

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.7, July-August 2008, pp. 330-334

 

 

Application of Prickly Chaff (Achyranthes aspera Linn.) leaves as herbal antimicrobial finish for cotton fabric used in healthcare textiles

G Thilagavathi 1* and T Kannaian2

 

Prickly chaff (Achyranthes aspera Linn.) leaves are reported to have antimicrobial properties. An innovative approach was made to utilize this eco-friendly and renewable source for production of microbial resistant fabric. The chemical nature of the leaf extract was determined using HPLC and extraction of active substance from the leaves was done using methanol. The method of application of this herbal extract on cotton fabric using citric acid as cross-linking agent and the process variables have been standardized using Box and Behnken three level three variable experimental design. The antimicrobial activity of the finished fabric based on optimized process parameters was assessed against bacteria that normally exist in the textile environment like Gram positive, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538) and Gram negative, Escherichia coli (ATCC 11230) by both quantitative method (AATCC 100) and qualitative methods like Parallel Streak (AATCC 147) and Agar Diffusion method (SN 195 920). The finished cotton fabrics showed the bacterial reduction percentage of 92 and 50 against S. aureus and E. coli, respectively.

Keywords: Achyranthes aspera, Prickly chaff, Herbal antimicrobial finish, Bacterial reduction, Betaine, Microbial resistant textiles, Cotton fabric.

IPC code; Int. cl.8 ¾ A61K 36/00, A61P 31/00, D06B

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.7, July-August 2008, pp.335-337    

 

 

Physico-chemical studies of the Gum Acacia

Nasreen Jahan1*, S H Afaque2, N A Khan2, Ghufran Ahmad2 and Abid Ali Ansari3

Gum acacia is a potent drug having diverse pharmacological effects and wide therapeutic potential. It is used in diarrhoea and dysentery, irritations and ulcers of the stomach and intestine. It is also used in haemoptysis, bleeding piles, menorrhagia, leucorrhoea and spermatorrhoea. Keeping in view the high medicinal importance physico-chemical studies of the drug obtained from Dawakhana Tibbiya College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh has been done. The parameters applied for the present study include extractive value, ash value, moisture content, TLC, pH value, qualitative phytochemical studies and fluorescent analysis.

Keywords: Gum Arabic, Gum Acacia, Physico-chemical studies, TLC, Phytochemical studies.

IPC code; Int. cl.8 ¾ A61K 36/00, A61K 9/34

 
Green Page: Research Papers

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.7, July-August 2008, pp.338-341      

 

 

In vitro clonal propagation of vulnerable medicinal plant, Saraca asoca (Roxb.)De Wilde

R Rama Subbu1*, A Chandraprabha2 and R Sevugaperumal2

In vitro clonal propagation of Ashoka, Saraca asoca (Roxb.) De Wilde plant was achieved using shoot tip, nodal and internodal explants.  The explants were cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations (0.5-2.0mg/l) of Benzyl amino purine (BAP), Kinetin (Kn) and 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D). The synergetic effect of BAP (0.5mg/l) induced a mean of 11.71±0.53 adventitious shoots from the nodal explants. The frequency of shoot organogenesis was highest (82%) in nodal explants treated with 0.5mg/l of BAP and callus were formed more on 2, 4-D. The micro-shoots rooted well on MS medium supplemented with 4.0mg/l of IBA. Hardened regenerants (40%) were acclimatized to the soil.

Keywords: Saraca asoca, Ashoka, Clonal propagation, Nodal segments, Shoot tip explants, Growth regulators.

IPC code; Int. cl.8 ¾ A01G 9/00, A61K 36/00

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.7, July-August 2008, pp.342-343

 

                                                                  

Small ornamental plants with tiny flowers for gardens

Shibabrarta Pattanayak1* and Mihir Kumar Datta2

 

          Seven very small sized plants, viz. Hybanthus enneaspermus (Linn.) F. Muell., Evolvulus alsinoides Linn., E. nummularius Linn., Vernonia cinerea Less., Heliotropium supinum Linn., Desmodium triflorum DC. and Pilea microphylla  Liebm. collected from sandy soil have been identified for possible cultivation in gardens for ornamental purposes. Their small sized body, leaves and flowers are of different interesting conformation and colour which can attract many people.

Keywords: Small plant, Tiny flower, Ornamental gardening.

IPC code; Int. cl.8¾ A01G 17/00

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.7, July-August 2008, pp.344-346

 

                                                  

Irrigation effect of Rairu distillery effluent on phosphorus content of Wheat crop

Rajesh Mittal and Avinash Tiwari*

 

               Phosphorus is a very important constituent of nucleic acids, phospholipids and most important constituent of ATP and other high-energy compounds. Hence, an effort was made to use the Rairu distillery effluent on an artificial ecosystem and to study the impact of distillery effluent on the phosphorus content in wheat crop (Triticum aestivum Linn. cv. ‘HD-2285’) grown on adjoining plots. The experiment, which was organized at Nirawali village, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh agriculture land in a completely randomized design, had three replications with 25, 50 and 100% effluent concentration. Results showed that phosphorus content in leaves, stem, roots, inflorescence and grains of the wheat plants treated by 50% dilution value of effluent was enhanced.

Keywords: Triticum aestivum, Wheat crop, Rairu distillery effluent, Phosphorus, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh.

IPC code; Int. cl.8—A01C 2/00

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.7, July-August 2008, pp.347-353      

 

 

Prioritization of sub-tropical fruit plants for the frost prone low hill region of Himachal Pradesh

Shashi K Sharma* and S D Badiyala

 

Frost is a major limiting factor in the development of horticulture in the low hill and valley region of Himachal Pradesh. The average minimum temperature of the region remains below 10oC for about four months. Sub-zero temperature is also common during winters. Heavy intensities of the frost were observed in the closed basin areas, frost intensity decreased with the increase in elevation along the slope of the hills. There were defined six types of Agro Ecological Situations (AES) and for each situation separate order of priority for different sub-tropical fruit species have been discussed in this paper keeping in view the frost and economic considerations. The observations of this study may prove to be useful for Horticulture departments and Extension agencies in hilly regions of other states also.

Keywords: Sub-tropical fruits, Frost, Mango, Litchi, Papaya, Citrus, Aonla, Loquat, Guava, Himachal Pradesh.

IPC code; Int. cl.8— A01G 17/00

 
Explorer: Research Paper

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.7, July-August 2008, pp.354-358   

 

 

Folk remedies used against respiratory disorders in Jalgaon district, Maharashtra

Garima G Patil1, Prashant Y Mali2 and Vijay V Bhadane3*

Information on 56 plant species used especially for the treatment of respiratory diseases by rural and tribal communities of Jalgaon district, Maharashtra is given in this paper. The paper reveals utilization of 55 species of flowering plants belonging to 34 genera comprising of 34 families and one fern species. Of these, 32 families are of dicotyledons, 2 of monocotyledons and 1 of pteridophytes. Brief information about the plant parts used, botanical and local names, families and the mode of preparation of drugs and method of applications have been given. As the traditional herbal remedies are based on ancestral knowledge and empiric experiences, this type of ethno-medicinal survey appeared to be useful for the research on medicinal plants for the betterment of mankind.

Keywords: Medicinal plants, Folk remedies, Asthma, Respiratory diseases, Jalgaon district, Maharashtra.

IPC code; Int. cl.8 ¾ A61K 36/00, A61P 11/00

 

 

Review Paper/General Article

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.7, July-August 2008, pp. 359-363

 

 

Bromelain: An Overview

Barun K Bhattacharyya

               Bromelain is a crude extract from the fruit or stem of pineapple [Ananas comosus (Linn.) Merr.] plant. It consists of different closely related proteinases which are good anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic and fibrinolytic agents. The active fractions have been characterized biochemically and found to be effective after oral administration. It has earned universal acceptability as a phytotherapeutical drug because of its history of safe use and zero side effects. This communication deals with the biochemistry and applications of bromelain in therapeutic purposes.

Keywords: Bromelain, Pineapple plant, Ananas comosus, Proteinase, Phytotherapeutic

IPC code; Int. cl.8—A61K 38/43, A61K 135/00

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.7, July-August 2008, pp. 364-373

 

 

Review on nutritional, medicinal and pharmacological properties of Papaya (Carica papaya Linn.)

K L Krishna1*, M Paridhavi2 and Jagruti A Patel3
 

Papaya (Carica papaya Linn.) is commonly known for its food and nutritional values throughout the world. The medicinal properties of papaya fruit and other parts of the plant are also well known in traditional system of medicine. Since, each part of papaya tree possesses economic value, it is grown on commercial scale. During the last few decades considerable progress has been achieved regarding the biological activity and medicinal application of papaya and now it is considered as valuable nutraceutical fruit plant. It can be chosen as a source of papain for the development of various industrial and pharmaceutical products for various diseases. In the present review nutritional value of the fruit and medicinal properties of its various parts have been discussed to provide collective information on this multipurpose commercial fruit crop.

Keywords: Papaya, Carica papaya, Medicinal plant, Nutraceutical, Fruit, Papain.

IPC code; Int. cl.8—A61K 36/00, A23L 1/00

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.7, July-August 2008, pp. 374-387

 

 

Potential antifungal plants for controlling building fungi

Rajesh K Verma*, Leena Chaurasia and Sadhana Katiyar

The synthetic fungicides such as Pentachlorophenol, Tributyltin oxide, Zinc carboxylate, etc. have been removed from markets due to their harmful effects on the environment, residue problem and carcinogenic nature. However, the fungicides derived from plant products are safer alternatives for fungi control because they are richest source of bioactive phytochemicals such as alkaloids, terpenoides, polyacetylenes, unsaturated isobutylamides and phenolics. Plant products, traditionally used as biocides in indigenous culture are being re-evaluated for safer means of fungi control as compared to the synthetic. The present paper is an attempt to summarize antifungal potency of various plants along with their part (s) used, type of extracts and test fungi. In view of antifungal properties of some of these plants against some fungi found on buildings, it is hoped that detailed studies may yield many more effective natural fungicides for controlling various types of building fungi. Some fungi found commonly on buildings have also been discussed in this paper for ready reference and further studies on their possible control by plant extracts.

Keywords: Antifungal potency, Building fungi, Essential oil, Medicinal plants.

IPC code; Int. cl.8 ¾ A01H 15/00, A61K 36/00, A61P 31/10