NATURAL PRODUCT RADIANCE

A Bimonthly Journal on Natural Products

Total visitors: 3,325  since 09-03-09

VOLUME 8

NUMBER 1

January-February 2009

 

 

C       O       N       T       E       N       T       S

Readers’ Write  
   

Litsea cubeba Pers.-An untapped economic plant species of Meghalaya

H Kayang, B Kharbuli and D Syiem 

5
   
Research Papers  
   

Wound-healing activity of aqueous and methanolic bark extracts of Vernonia arborea Buch.-Ham. in Wistar rats

D Pradhan, P K Panda and G Tripathy

IPC code; Int. cl.8A61K 36/00, A61P 17/02  

6
   

Effect of alcoholic extract of roots of Dichrostachys cinerea Wight & Arn. against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats

Sreedevi Adikay, Bharathi Koganti and KVSRG Prasad

IPC code; Int. cl.8A61K 36/00, A61P 39/06 

12
   

Lactic acid fermentation of Radish for shelf-stability and pickling

V K Joshi and Somesh Sharma

IPC code, Int. cl.8 ¾ A23B 7/00, A23L 1/218, A23L 3/00 

19
   

Viability during storage of two Bifidobacterium bifidum strains in set and stirred flavoured yoghurt containing whey protein concentrate

M D Christopher, Padmanabha Reddy V and K Venkateswarlu

IPC code, Int. cl.8 ¾ A23C 9/00, A23C 9/12, A23C 9/156, A23C 21/06 

25
   

Effect of ethanolic extract of Feronia elephantum Correa fruits on blood glucose levels in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

Rahul Gupta, Samta Johri and A M Saxena

IPC code, Int. cl.8 ¾ A61K 36/75, A61P 3/10  

32
   

Evaluation of the immunomodulatory activity of the methanolic extract of Couroupita guianensis Aubl. flowers in rats

D Pradhan, P K Panda and G Tripathy

IPC code; Int. cl.8— A61K 36/00, A61P 37/02  

37
   

Antilithiatic activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. on ethylene glycol induced lithiasis in rats

Kalyan S Betanabhatla, AJM Christina, B Syama Sundar, S Selvakumar and K Sundara Saravanan

IPC code; Int. cl.8—A61K 36/00, A61P 13/04 

43
   

Changes in some biochemical parameters in the liver and muscle of Colisa fasciatus due to toxicity of ethanolic extract of Nerium indicum Mill. (Lal Kaner) latex

Sudhanshu Tiwari and Ajay Singh

IPC code, Int. cl.8 ¾ A61K 36/24, A01N 65/00   

48
   
General Article  
   

Phytotherapy–Safety aspects

Annie Shirwaikar, Renu Verma, Richard Lobo  and Arun Shirwaikar

IPC code; Int. cl.8— A61K 36/00  

55
   
Green page: Research Paper  
   

Wild edible plants of Koch Bihar district, West Bengal

S Bandyopadhyay and Sobhan Kr Mukherjee

IPC code; Int. cl.8 ¾ A23L 1/00, A23L 1/052

64
   
Explorer: Research Paper  
   

Folk medicines used by the Moran of Brahmaputra valley, Tinsukia district, Assam , India

Dilip Kalita and Phukan Bonoranjan

IPC code; Int. cl.8 A61K 36/00, A61P 1/04, A61P 1/14, A61P 19/02, A61P 19/06, A61P 7/12

73
   
Review Papers  
   

Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn.–An overview

N Mahadevan , Shivali and Pradeep Kamboj

IPC code; Int. cl.8— A61K 36/00, A61P 3/06, A61P 9/12, A61P 39/06  

77
   

Ficus racemosa Linn.An overview

Padmaa M Paarakh

IPC code; Int. cl.8—A61K36/00, A61P1/04, A61P1/12, A61P1/16, A61P3/06, A61P7/12, A61P11/14,A61P17/02, A61P31/04, A61P33/10, A61P39/06                                                                                                                                                  

84
   
Book Review  
   

Recent Progress in Medicinal Plants, Vols. 23, 24 & 25,

V K Singh and J N Govil (Eds)   

91
   
Forthcoming Conferences, Seminars, Exhibitions and Trainings 92
   
Guidelines to authors 93
   
Index 95

     

 

Forthcoming Conferences, Seminars, Exhibitions and Trainings

 

1. 44th Annual Rice Research Group Meeting, 11-13 April 2009, Hyderabad, India, Dr BC Viraktamath, PD, Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad-500030; Phone: 040-24015120; E-mail: pdrice@drricar.org

 

2. Training Course on Seafood Quality Assurance, 13-25 April 2009, Cochin, India, Dr B Meenakumari, Central Institute of Fisheries Technology, Matsyapuri P.O. Cochin-682 029; Phone: 0484-2666845; Fax: 0484-2668212; E-mail: cift@ciftmail.org.

 

3. State level Workshop-cum-Training Programme on FLD on Oilseeds and Pulses for the KVKs of Bihar, 14-15 April 2009, Samastipur, Bihar, India, Zonal Coordinating Unit, Zone-II, Kolkata, West Bengal; Telefax: 033-23352355.

 

4. International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedical Technology (ICBBT 2009), 17-19 April 2009, Singapore; E-mail: icbbt2009@gmail.com; Website: http://www.icbbt.org.

 

5. Training Course on Production of Value Added Fish Products, 11-16 May 2009, Cochin, Kerala, India; Dr B Meenakumari, Central Institute of Fisheries Technology, Matsyapuri P.O. Cochin-682 029; Phone: 0484-2666845; Fax: 0484-2668212; E-mail: cift@ciftmail.org.

 

6. Training on Ginger, Garlic and Onion Powder Making Technology, 15-21 May 2009, Ludhiana, Punjab, India; Director or Head Transfer of Technology Division, CIPHET, Ludhiana-141004; Phone: 0161-2308669, 2313115; Fax: 0161-2308670; E-mail: ciphet@sify.com.

 

7. Workshop on Production of Quality Seeds and Planting Materials, 20-22 May 2009, Samastipur, Bihar, India, Rajendra Agricultural University, Pusa, Samastipur, Bihar and Zonal Coordinating Unit, Zone-II, Kolkata; Telefax: 033-23352355.

 

8. National Training Programme on Commercial Goat Farming, 21-30 May 2009, Mathura, UP, India, Dr RL Sagar, Central Institute of Research on Goat (CIRG), Makhdoom, Farah Mathura (UP); Phone: 0565-2763380; Fax: 0565-2763246.

 

9. Symposium on Application of Biotechnological tools in Genetic Improvement of Fish stock, 25-27 May 2009, Bhimtal, Uttarakhand, India, Director Direcorate of Coldwater Fisheries Research Anusandhan Bhawan Industrial Area Bhimtal-263136 Distt. Nainital (UK); Phone: 05942-247279, 247280; Fax: 05942-247693; E-mail: dcfrin@rediffmail.com, dcfrin@gmail.com.

 

10. Training Course on Fish Processing Innovations & Extension Methods, 08-20 June 2009, Cochin, Kerala, India, Dr B Meenakumari, Central Institute of Fisheries Technology, Matsyapuri P.O. Cochin-682 029; Phone: 0484-2666845; Fax: 0484-2668212; E-mail: cift@ciftmail.org.

 

11. Workshop on Vegetable Production and Management, 10-12 June 2009, Varanasi, India, Dr A K Singh, Zonal Coordinator, Indian Institute of Vegetables Research, Varanasi-221005 and Zonal Coordinating Unit, Zone-IV, Kanpur; Phone: 0512-2533560.

 

12. Training on Processing of Sunflower Seeds and its By-Products Utilization, 11-17 June 2009, Ludhiana, India, Director or Head Transfer of Technology Division CIPHET, Ludhiana-141004; Phone: 0161-2308669, 2313115; Fax: 0161-2308670; E-mail: ciphet@sify.com.

 

13. First Asian Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) Congress for Sustainable Agriculture, 21-24 June 2009, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India, Dr. Suseelendra Desai; Website: http://asiapgpr.freehostia.com

 

14. Sugarasia 2009, 2-4 July 2009, Pragati Maidan, New Delhi, India; Website: http://www.sugarasia.net/

 

15. International Conference on Algal Biomass–Resources and Utilization, 27-30 July 2009, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, Dr V Sivasubramanian, Krishnamurthy Institute of Algology;

Website: http://www.geocities.com/krishalg/icabru09.htm

 

16.  Indonesian Food Technology Exhibition (Indo Foodtec), 12-15 August 2009, Jakarta; Website: http://www.indofoodtec.com/

 

17. International Exhibition and Conference for the Food and Beverage Industry (Annapoorna-World Food India), 25-27 November 2009, Mumbai, India; Website: http://www.worldoffoodindia.com/

 

 

 

Readers Write

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.8, Jan.- Feb. 2009, pp.5                 

 

 

Litsea cubeba Pers.-An untapped economic plant species of Meghalaya

            Dear editor, through this column I would like to disseminate some information on a commonly found plant which can be used for income generating resource by rural people in Meghalaya. Litsea cubeba Pers. syn. L. citrata Blume (Lauraceae) is a common deciduous shrub or a small tree found in the Eastern Himalayas, Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, Nagaland and Mizoram up to an altitude of 2700m. Bark greenish; leaves lanceolate, membranous; flowers in umbels or corymbs; fruit globose. In the higher altitude of Meghalaya, at about 2000m, the tree flowers in the winter season starting from November and fruiting from the month of May onwards. The seed dispersal is by birds. It is fast growing and grows well in shades of larger trees. Berries mature in the months of June to August in the higher altitudes of the Shillong plateau and in the months of July to September in the lower altitudes.

            The best method for propagation is through seeds, which are treated and easily raised in nurseries and coppicing during winter. Transplantation of saplings is best achieved in the rainy season. Pollination is carried out by Hymenopteran species of bees and bumble bees. The insect Dorthulla hardwickii (Homoptera) is seen feeding on young stems and branches during the fruiting season. Although still abundant, the practice of jhum cultivation and the slash and burn method of cultivation prevalent in the hill areas pose a serious threat to this plant species. Random felling of trees for destructive distillation and charcoal production by villagers has greatly reduced the number of this species growing in the wild. In the past 20 years the number of this species has been reduced to approximately one third.

            Flowers and fruits are aromatic and yield volatile oils on distillation. The oil has gained importance in China as a source of citral and is reported to be suitable for the production of β-Ionone, an important intermediate for the synthesis of vitamin A. Citral and β-Ionone derived from the oil are known to possess a finer odour than those obtained from Citronella and other citral bearing plant species. The fruit is edible and acts as a carminative and is used for headache, dizziness, hysteria, paralysis and loss of memory. The oil is also used as insect repellent, in perfumery industries and as a basic ingredient in toiletries. Pat silkworms are reared on the leaves of this tree in Assam. It is also used for fever and spice, decoction or raw/dried fruit powder is taken for cholera, diarrhoea, constipation, headache, fever, vomiting, food poisoning and suppressing effects of alcohol. Fruit extract is used in treating dizziness, hysteria, hair oils, paralysis and amnesia. The juice extract of the seeds, bark and leaves is used as carminative, blisters, stomach trouble, expectorant and stimulant; paste used as poultice; the whole plant is used as insecticide (smoke kills caterpillars on thatched roofs).

            In Meghalaya the tree is found distributed over a wide region starting from Umsning area of Ri-Bhoi district at lower altitude (approx. 850-900 msl) upwards to the slopes of Shillong peak (approx. 2000-2500 msl) and spreading over to Mawryngkneng subdivision and most parts of Jaintia Hills District. The collection is best done between the month of June and July when the oil yield is optimum. The fruits are separated from the twigs by hand and charged into a laboratory scale steam distillation apparatus in 500g lots. Colorless oil is obtained which on analysis showed the presence of 95% citral.

            Most parts of the plant are aromatic and yield volatile oils. It has a pleasing aroma suggestive of rose and coriander. The matured fruits, flowers and seeds on distillation yield about 95, 37, and 20 % citral, respectively.  The leaves and bark also yields volatile oils and two alkaloids namely laurotetanine and methyl laurotetanine. A study done by NEBRC shown that fresh samples collected during May-June produced a higher yield of oil. The current market price of citral is approximately Rs. 6000/- per litre. In a good fruiting season, a matured tree can yield up to 30 kg of fruits. This will work out to approximately 500g of 95% citral yield per tree. On calculating harvesting and power charges, etc. the net profit from one tree is approximately Rs. 2775/-.

            If the extraction of L. cubeba is over in the summer of a given year, the economy of the growers can be replaced by Gaultheria fragrantissima Wall. which is another tree found growing in the same area and its oil yield is better if extracted during the winter season. The economic viability for exploring these two natural resources is sound; local entrepreneurs may be motivated for establishing small scale industry. Plantations can easily be raised for both species as an alternative to combat jhumming in the hills and to control rampant exploitation of other valuable forest resources. Both species are good coppicers and soil binders hence; they are also prescribed for watershed areas.

H Kayang, B Kharbuli and D Syiem

North Eastern Biodiversity Research Cell

Bijni Complex, North Eastern Hill University

Shillong-793 022, Meghalaya, India

E-mail: hkayang@nehu.ac.in; hkayang@hotmail.com

Research Papers

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol. 8, Jan.- Feb. 2009, pp.6-11           

 

 

Wound-healing activity of aqueous and methanolic bark extracts of

Vernonia arborea Buch.-Ham. in Wistar rats

D Pradhan*, P K Panda and G Tripathy

University Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences

Utkal University, Vanivihar, Bhubaneswar-751 004, Orissa, India

            Excision, incision and dead space wound models were used to evaluate the wound-healing activity of Vernonia arborea Buch.-Ham. on Wistar rats of either sex. In excision wound model, treatment was continued till the complete healing of the wound whereas in incision and dead space wound models the treatment was continued for 10 days. For topical application, 5% w/w ointment of aqueous and methanol barks extracts were prepared in 2% sodium alginate and for oral administration suspensions containing 30 mg/ml of each of the extracts in 1% gum tragacanth were prepared. In excision and incision wound models, the control group of animals was left untreated and in dead space wound models the animals were treated with 1 ml of 1% gum tragacanth/kg b.w. The healing of the wound was assessed by the rate of wound contraction, period of epithelialisation, skin breaking strength, granulation strength, dry granulation tissue weight, hydroxyproline estimation and histopathology of the granulation tissue. Aqueous and methanol barks extracts promoted the wound healing activity significantly in all the wound models studied. High rate of wound contraction, decrease in the period for epithelialisation, high skin breaking strength and granulation strength, increase in dry granulation tissue weight, elevated hydroxyproline content and increased collagenation in histopathological section were also observed when compared to the control group of animals. Methanol extract possesses better wound healing property than the aqueous extract.

 

Keywords: Vernonia arborea, Asteraceae, Wound healing, Bark extract.

IPC code; Int. cl.8A61K 36/00, A61P 17/02

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol. 8, Jan.- Feb. 2009, pp.12-18             

 

 

Effect of alcoholic extract of roots of Dichrostachys cinerea Wight & Arn. against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats

 

Sreedevi Adikay, Bharathi Koganti* and KVSRG Prasad

Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology

Sri Padmavathi Mahila Viswavidyalayam

Tirupati-517 502, Andhra Pradesh, India

 

            The alcoholic extract of roots of Dichrostachys cinerea Wight & Arn. (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) was studied for its protective effect against cisplatin-induced renal injury in rats. Cisplatin (6mg/kg, i.p.) significantly elevated serum markers level, increased urinary protein excretion, reduced urine to serum creatinine ratio and creatinine clearance. In curative regimen, the alcoholic extract exhibited dose dependent protection. Animals which received prophylactic treatment also showed partial protection against cisplatin-induced effects. Histopathological studies substantiated the above results. Further, the alcoholic extract showed marked nitric oxide scavenging effect and reducing power suggesting an antioxidant property. A triterpenoid, fatty acid and a steroid were isolated from the n-hexane, ethyl acetate fractions of alcoholic extract. The results suggested that the roots of D. cinerea showed protective effect against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity which may probably be mediated by its antioxidant property.

 

Keywords: Dichrostachys cinerea, Nephrotoxicity, Cisplatin, Antioxidant

IPC code; Int. cl.8A61K 36/00, A61P 39/06

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol. 8, Jan.- Feb. 2009, pp.19-24          

 

 

Lactic acid fermentation of Radish for shelf-stability and pickling

V K Joshi* and Somesh Sharma

Department of Postharvest Technology

Dr.Y.S.Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry

Nauni, Solan-173 230, Himachal Pradesh, India

Lactic acid fermentation of radish as one of the alternatives to preserve this vegetable besides providing consumers healthful product was examined and reported here. The physico-chemical characteristics of radish (TSS 6oB, total sugars 2.04% and ascorbic acid 12.8mg/100g) showed its suitability for lactic acid fermentation. The grated radish was fermented after addition of 2.5% salt at a temperature of 25±1oC. With the natural microflora, the fermentation was completed in 16-18 days, giving a titratable acidity of 1.80% as lactic acid. It was observed that the fermented radish could be stored up for a period of 15 days under refrigerated conditions without any spoilage. Consequently, study on preservation of fermented radish with permitted preservatives was undertaken. Differences in the amount of different volatiles produced in the lactic acid fermented radish were recorded during storage. Addition of sodium benzoate in combination with sorbic acid prevented degradation of sugars in the fermented radish with production of reduced quantity of methyl propanol. With the addition of sodium benzoate @ 500 ppm lowest total microbial count was recorded, whereas, fungal count was the lowest in radish treated with 500 ppm of sorbic acid. No yeast count was observed in the treatments where 500 ppm of sodium benzoate was added while the titratable acidity was the lowest in the shreds where no preservative was added correspondingly it had the highest pH. Higher TSS (oB) was retained in the shreds to which sorbic acid+sodium benzoate @ 250 ppm each was added and thus, had highest titrable acidity. It is concluded that combination of sodium benzoate and sorbic acid @250ppm each was found effective in preventing the spoilage of fermented radish and maintaining its better sensory appeal.

 

Keywords: Lactic acid fermentation, Pickling, Preservation, Radish, Shelf-stability, Vegetable.

IPC code, Int. cl.8 ¾ A23B 7/00, A23L 1/218, A23L 3/00

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol. 8, Jan.- Feb. 2009, pp.25-31

 

 

Viability during storage of two Bifidobacterium bifidum strains in set and stirred flavoured yoghurts containing whey protein concentrate

MD Christopher1, V Padmanabha Reddy2 and K Venkateswarlu1*

1Department of Microbiology, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur-515 003,

Andhra Pradesh, India

2Department of Dairy Microbiology, Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, Tirupati-517 502,

 

The viability of two strains of Bifidobacterium bifidum (NCDC 229/A and DSM 20456), during storage at refrigerated temperature, in flavoured set and stirred yoghurts prepared without or with whey protein concentrate (WPC), and the overall acceptability of these probiotic yoghurts for human consumption were assessed. Supplementation of either set or stirred probiotic yoghurts with 0.5 or 1.0% WPC followed by storage at 4°C improved the viability of B. bifidum strains. However, both the yoghurts supplemented with WPC, at 0.5% level, were acceptable up to four weeks of refrigerated storage.

 

Keywords: Bifidobacterium bifidum, Flavoured set yoghurt, Probiotic yoghurts, Viability, Whey protein concentrate.

IPC code, Int. cl.8 ¾ A23C 9/00, A23C 9/12, A23C 9/156, A23C 21/06

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol. 8, Jan.- Feb. 2009, pp.32-36

 

 

Effect of ethanolic extract of Feronia elephantum Correa fruits on blood glucose levels in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

Rahul Gupta1, Samta Johri2 and A M Saxena1*

1Department of Zoology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226 007, Uttar Pradesh, India

2Department of Zoology, Mahila Girls P.G. College, Lucknow

Feronia elephantum Correa (Family¾Rutaceae) commonly known as Wood apple has been widely used in Indian folk medicine for treatment of blood impurities, leucorrhoea, and as diuretic and liver tonic. It has not been studied experimentally for its blood glucose lowering potential earlier hence present study was conducted. Oral administration of 250mg/kg body weight of 95% ethanolic extract of unripe fruits significantly lowered the blood glucose levels of fasted, fed and streptozotocin-induced diabetic male albino rats. It also depressed the peak value in glucose loaded model. Further, study on histology of pancreatic β-cells granularity of normal rats was also done. Marked degranulation in β-cells of extract treated rats, associated with the blood glucose lowering was observed. Extract probably lowered the blood glucose concentrations by stimulating insulin secretogogue activity.

 

Keywords: Blood glucose lowering, β-cells, Ethanolic extract, Feronia elephantum, Streptozotocin-diabetes, Wood apple.

IPC code, Int. cl.8 ¾ A61K 36/75, A61P 3/10

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol. 8, Jan.- Feb. 2009, pp.37-42

 

 

Evaluation of the immunomodulatory activity of the methanolic extract of Couroupita guianensis Aubl. flowers in rats

D Pradhan* P K Panda and G Tripathy

University Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences

Utkal University, Vanivihar, Bhubaneswar-751 004, Orissa, India

Various extracts of the flowers of Couroupita guianensis Aubl. (Family-Lecythidaceae) were evaluated for potential immunomodulatory activity using the in-vitro polymorphonuclear leukocyte function test (human neutrophils). The methanol extract was evaluated for immunomodulatory activity in invivo studies, using rats as the animal model. The extracts were tested for hypersensitivity and hemagglutination reactions, using sheep red blood cells (SRBC) as the antigen. Distilled water served as a control in all the tests. The successive methanol and water extracts exhibited a significant increase in the percentage phagocytosis versus the control. In the in vivo studies, the successive methanol extract was found to exhibit a dose related increase in the hypersensitivity reaction, to the SRBC antigen, at concentration of 100 and 200 mg/kg in animal studies. The successive methanol extract was found to stimulate cell mediated and antibody mediated immune responses in rats. It also enhanced the phagocytic function of the human neutrophils, in vitro.

 

Keywords: Couroupita guianensis Allergic reaction, Hemagglutination, Immunostimulant, Lecythidaceae

IPC code; Int. cl.8A61K 36/00, A61P 37/02

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol. 8, Jan.- Feb. 2009, pp.43-47

 

 

Antilithiatic activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. on ethylene glycol-induced lithiasis in rats

Kalyan S Betanabhatla1*, AJM Christina1, B Syama Sundar2, S Selvakumar1 and K Sundara Saravanan3

1Division of Pharmacology, KM College of Pharmacy

Uthangudi, Melur Road, Madurai-625 107, Tamil Nadu, India

2Department of Chemistry, Acharya Nagarjuna University

Nagarjuna Nagar, Guntur-522 510, Andhra Pradesh, India

3 Department of Pharmacognosy, Madurai Medical College, Madurai-625 020

 

            The ethanolic extract of leaves of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. (EEHS) was evaluated for its antilithiatic activity in rats. Lithiasis was induced by oral administration of ethylene glycolated water (0.75 %) in adult male albino Wistar rats for 28 days. The ionic chemistry of urine was altered by ethylene glycol (EG), which elevated the urinary concentration of crucial ions, viz. calcium, phosphate, uric acid and oxalate thereby contributing to renal stone formation. The EEHS, however, significantly (P< 0.05) reduced the elevated level of these ions in urine. Also, it elevated concentration of urinary magnesium, which is considered as one of the inhibitors of crystallization. All these observations revealed that EEHS has curative effect on stone formation induced by ethylene glycol.

 

Keywords: Antilithiatic, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Roselle, Nephrolithiasis, Urolithiasis, Renal calculi, Ethylene glycol.

IPC code; Int. cl.8A61K 36/00, A61P 13/04

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol. 8, Jan.- Feb. 2009, pp.48-54

 

 

Changes in some biochemical parameters in the liver and muscle of Colisa fasciatus due to toxicity of ethanolic extract of Nerium indicum Mill. (Lal Kaner) latex

Sudhanshu Tiwari*and Ajay Singh

Department of Zoology, D.D.U. Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur-273 009, Uttar Pradesh, India

 

Present study deals with piscicidal, toxicological and biochemical effects of ethanolic extract of Nerium indicum Mill. (Lal Kaner) latex against freshwater weed fish Colisa fasciatus. There was a significant (P<0.05) negative correlation between LC values and exposure periods i.e. LC50 values decreased from 14.05mg/l (24h) to 5.52mg/l (96h). Sub-lethal exposure of ethanolic latex extract for 24h and 96h caused significant (P<0.05) time and dose dependent alterations in the levels of total protein, total free amino acid, nucleic acid, glycogen, pyruvate, lactate and also in the activity of enzyme protease, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, acetylcholinesterase, lactic dehydrogenase, succinic dehydrogenase and cytochrome oxidase in liver and muscle tissues of fish. Withdrawal experiments shows, their biochemical effects are reversible in action. Thus, N. indicum latex extract mainly suppress energy production and shifts fish respiration towards the anaerobic segment.

 

Keywords: Biochemical changes, Colisa fasciatus, Freshwater weed fish, Lal Kaner, Latex, Nerium indicum, Piscicidal activity.

IPC code, Int. cl.8 ¾ A61K 36/24, A01N 65/00

 

 

General Article

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol. 8, Jan.- Feb. 2009, pp.55-63

 

 

Phytotherapy–Safety aspects

Annie Shirwaikar1*, Renu Verma1, Richard Lobo1  and Arun Shirwaikar2

1Department of Pharmacognosy, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences

Manipal University, Manipal-576 104, Karnataka, India

2Department of Pharmaceutics, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences

Manipal University, Manipal

            Plants have been used since ancient times as medicines for the treatment of a range of diseases. In spite of the great advances observed in modern medicine in recent decades, plants still make an important contribution to health care. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), because of poverty and lack of access to modern medicine, about 65-80% of the world’s population that are living in developing countries depend essentially on plants for primary health care. Phytotherapeutic agents are herbal preparations consisting of complex mixtures of one or more plants which contain active ingredients, plant parts or plant material in the crude or processed state. The data existing for most plants to guarantee their quality, efficacy and safety is insufficient. The concept that herbal drugs are safe and free from side effects is not always. Plants contain hundreds of constituents, some of which are very toxic namely the most cytotoxic anti-cancer plant-derived drugs is pyrrolizidine alkaloids, etc. However, the adverse effects of phytotherapeutic agents are less as compared with synthetic drugs. Several regulatory models for herbal medicines are currently available including prescription drugs, over-the-counter substances, traditional medicines and dietary supplements. Harmonization and improvement in the processes of regulation is needed for safety aspects related to phytotherapy.

 

Keywords: Herbs, Phytotherapy, Herbal safety, Toxic constituents.

IPC code; Int. cl.8A61K 36/00

 

 

Green Page: Research Paper

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.8, Jan.- Feb. 2009, pp.64-72

 

 

Wild edible plants of Koch Bihar district, West Bengal

S Bandyopadhyay1 and Sobhan Kr Mukherjee2*

1Department of Botany, K.N. College, Berhampore, Murshidabad- 742 101, West Bengal, India

2Department of Botany, University of Kalyani, Kalyani, Nadia – 741 235, West Bengal

 

Koch Bihar, a district of North-eastern part of the state of West Bengal, is inhabited by Rajbanshi or Koch tribe which constitutes about 40% of total population of the district. The other tribal communities are Kheria, Oraon, Rabha and Santhal. Most of them are village dwellers and depend on plant or plant products to maintain their livelihood. Ethnobotanical field studies reveals that the ethnic people as well as the other inhabitants of the district have considerable traditional knowledge of wild edible plants and their utilization. During the field study 125 plant species belonging to 102 genera under 54 families have been recorded which are commonly used by the ethnic communities and other inhabitants as wild edible.

 

Keywords: Koch Bihar district, West Bengal, Wild edible plants.

IPC code; Int. cl.8 ¾ A23L 1/00, A23L 1/052

 

 

Explorer: Research Paper

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.8, Jan.- Feb. 2009, pp.73-76

 

 

Folk medicines used by the Moran of Brahmaputra valley, Tinsukia district, Assam, India

Dilip Kalita1* and Phukan Bonoranjan2

1Botany Department, Dibru College, Dibrugarh-786 003, Assam, India

2Institute of Pharmacy, Assam Medical College, Dibrugarh-786 002

*Correspondent author address: NEER, Sishu Kalyan Kendra Path,

Lachit Nagar, Dibrugarh–786 001

 

            It is well known that from the time immemorial large numbers of plant species are used by the mankind for the treatment of different kinds of diseases. The herbal folklore of the Moran of Tinsukia District of Assam is very rich hence, an attempt has been made to study and document uses and methods of applications of various plants for different diseases. During present study treatment of 10 diseases namely acidity, anemia, blood poisoning, constipation, diabetes, gout, rheumatism, piles, stomach pain and tetanus were paid attention and noted medicines applied to cure them. A total number of 19 such medicinally important plant species are reported in this paper.

 

Keywords: Moran, Folk medicine, Brahmaputra valley, Barak valley, Tinsukia district, Assam.

IPC code; Int. cl.8A61K 36/00, A61P 1/04, A61P 1/14, A61P 19/02, A61P 19/06, A61P 7/12.

 

 

Review Papers

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.8, Jan.- Feb. 2009, pp.77-83

 

 

 

Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn.An overview

 

N Mahadevan*, Shivali and Pradeep Kamboj

Department of Pharmacognosy

ISF College of Pharmacy

Moga-142001, Punjab, India

            Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. is an annual herbaceous shrub, cultivated for its flowers although leaves and seeds have also been used in traditional medicine. The calyces of the plant are used as a refrigerant in the form of tea, to make jellies and jams. The plant is reported to contain proteins, fats, carbohydrates, flavonoids, acids, minerals and vitamins. The plant has been reported to have antihypertensive, hepatoprotective, antihyperlipidemic, anticancer and antioxidant properties. The present paper is an overview on its phytochemical and pharmacological properties reported in the literature.

 

Keywords: Hibiscus sabdariffa, Lal-ambari, Patwa, Red sorrel, Herbal tea, Herbal medicine.

IPC code; Int. cl.8A61K 36/00, A61P 3/06, A61P 9/12, A61P 39/06

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.8, Jan.- Feb. 2009, pp.84-90

 

 

 

Ficus racemosa Linn.An overview

Padmaa M Paarakh

Department of Pharmacognosy

The Oxford College of Pharmacy

J P Nagar, I Phase

Bangalore-560 078, Karnataka, India

            Ficus racemosa Linn. is a moderate-sized avenue tree found throughout India either wild or cultivated for its fruits eaten by villagers. It is popular in Indigenous System of Medicine like Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Homoeopathy. In the Traditional System of Medicine, various plant parts such as bark, root, leaves, fruits and latex are used in dysentery, diarrhoea, diabetes, bilious affections, stomachache, menorrhage, haemoptysis, piles and as carminative and astringent. The present review is therefore, an effort to give a detailed survey of the literature on its pharmacognosy, phytochemistry, traditional and pharmacological uses.

 

Keywords: Ficus racemosa, Cluster Fig, Gular Fig, Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Traditional medicine.

 

IPC code; Int. cl.8A61K36/00, A61P1/04, A61P1/12, A61P1/16, A61P3/06, A61P7/12, A61P11/14, A61P17/02, A61P31/04, A61P33/10, A61P39/06.

   

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.8, Jan.- Feb. 2009, pp.91

 

 

Book Review

 

Recent Progress in Medicinal Plants, Vols. 23, 24 & 25, V. K. Singh and J. N. Govil (Eds), Studium Press, LLC, USA (Researchco Book Centre, 4735/22, 2nd Floor, Prakash Deep Building, Daryaganj, New Delhi-110 002, India), 2009, Hardbound, Series ISBN: 0-965 6038-5-7.

 

            Vol. 23: Phytopharmacology and Therapeutic Values V, V. K. Singh and J. N. Govil (Eds), ISBN: 1-933699-13-2, pp. xvii + 389.

            Vol. 24: Standardization of Herbal/Ayurvedic Formulations, J. N. Govil and V. K. Singh (Eds), ISBN: 1-933699-14-0, pp. xvii + 457.

            Vol. 25: Chemistry and Medicinal Value, V. K. Singh and J. N. Govil (Eds), ISBN: 1-933699-15-9, pp. xvii + 403.

            The chemical constituents of plants add value to medicinal properties hence, researchers at pharmacological, pharmaceutical, phytochemical, biochemical or biotechnological labs have done significant progress in validating scientifically the efficacy of herbs, trees or shrubs known in indigenous medicines. Several single and combinations of drugs are being prescribed by practioners to patients of major or minor health problems. However, there is need to standardize herbal and Ayurvedic formulations and to disseminate this information among professionals and entrepreneurs for wider visibility. With the increased world wide demand for information on useful plants in general and on medicinal plants in particular, the attention has been focused on several aspects.

            The volume 23 contains 27, volume 24 contains 27 and volume 25 presents 23 research and review papers with relevant drawings, figures and coloured photographs contributed by group of international eminent authors. Volume 23, entitled Phytopharmacology and Therapeutic Values V has compilation of information on some interesting studies like, therapeutic efficacy of Bidens pilosa Linn. var. radiata and Galinsoga parviflora Cav. in diarrhoea shall be useful to herbal drug manufacturers as both the plants are weeds. Pharmacological properties of several plants have been documented in this volume for the purpose of value addition.

            Volume 24 entitled Standardization of Herbal/Ayurvedic Formulations presents information on different aspects of medicinal found in India and foreign countries. Papers on quality control and standardization of commonly used crude drugs and formulations by modern techniques will provide scientific basis to manufacturers in checking adulteration and toxicity of drugs.

            Chemistry and medicinal value of medicinal plants has been projected in Volume 25 which is the last volume of the series. The chemical structures and detailed compositions given in relevant papers will prove to be useful for further research towards development of new drugs of natural origin not only in India but other countries like USA, Turkey, Nigeria, South Africa, Mexico and Canada also. The contents are reflecting medicinal values, chemical constituents and pharmacognosy of various parts of plants found in different regions. Though all the papers in this volume are very informative and useful for pharmaceutical industry, two papers entitled, Antisickling activity of anthocyanins extracts of Vigna unguiculata and Jatropha curcas by a team of researchers at Congo deserve special attention.

            A very welcome feature which is generally lacking in books of this type, is a comprehensive index that includes the names of almost all of the plant species and important keywords mentioned in the text. It is hoped that these volumes will open new vistas of knowledge and lead to research in new drugs of natural origin and serve as good source of material for further work.

            The editors deserve appreciation for their efforts to contact experts of topics from various fields of life sciences and providing a wealth of information on medicinal plants to scientific and pharmaceutical community. Overall, these volumes are valuable and interesting reference source and will especially be of use to those with an interest in Indian medicinal and other plants.

Dr (Mrs) Sunita Garg