NATURAL PRODUCT RADIANCE

A Bimonthly Journal on Natural Products

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VOLUME 8

NUMBER 4

July-August 2009

Special Issue

On

Production of Wine from Non-Grape Fruits

 

 

C       O       N       T       E       N       T       S

 

Guest editor’s Note   313
   
Review Papers  

 

 

Can fruit wines be considered as functional foods? -An overview

Gargi Dey, Bharti Negi and Akanksha Gandhi

IPC code; Int. cl.8C12G 1/00, A61P 17/18

 

314

   

High cell density reactors in production of fruits wine with special reference to cider – An overview

R S Singh and B S Sooch                                                                                            

IPC code; Int. cl.8—C12G 1/00

 

323

   
   

Vermouth Production Technology –An overview

Parmjit S Panesar, Narender Kumar, Satwinder S Marwaha and Vinod K Joshi

IPC code; Int. cl.8—C12G 1/00 

 

334

   

Production technology and quality characteristics of mead and fruit-honey wines: A review

J K Gupta and Rajesh Sharma

IPC code; Int. cl.8—C12G 1/00   

 

345

   

An overview on Strawberry [Fragaria × ananassa (Weston) Duchesne ex Rozier] wine production technology, composition, maturation and quality evaluation

Somesh Sharma, V K Joshi and Ghanshyam Abrol

IPC code; Int. cl.8—C12G 1/00

 

356

   
Research Papers  
   

Application of response surface methodology in the optimization of process parameters for the production of Kinnow wine

Parmjit S Panesar, Reeba Panesar and Bahadur Singh

IPC code; Int. cl.8—C12G 1/00 

 

366

   

Effect of initial sugar concentration on the physico-chemical characteristics and sensory qualities of cashew apple wine

B L Attri

IPC code; Int. cl.8—C12G 1/00

 

374

   

Enzymatic treatment for juice extraction and preparation and preliminary evaluation of Kiwifruits wine

Devina Vaidya , Manoj Vaidya , Surabhi Sharma and Ghanshayam

IPC code; Int. cl.8—C12G 1/00

 

380

   

Evaluation of litchi juice concentrate for the production of wine

R S Singh and Preetinder Kaur

IPC code; Int. cl.8—C12G 1/00

 

386

   

Evaluation of preservation methods of low alcoholic plum wine

Amandeep Gill, V K Joshi and Neerja Rana

IPC code; Int. cl.8—C12G 1/00

 

392

   

Effect of location of cultivar, fermentation temperature and additives on the physico-chemical and sensory qualities on Mahua (Madhuca indica J. F. Gmel.) wine preparation

Preeti Yadav, Neelima Garg and Deepa H Diwedi

IPC code; Int. cl.8—C12G 1/00      

 

 

406

   

Flavour profiling of apple vermouth using descriptive analysis technique

V K Joshi and D K Sandhu

IPC code; Int. cl.8—C12G 1/00

 

419

   

Production, optimization and characterization of wine from Mango (Mangifera indica Linn.)

L Veeranjaneya Reddy and O Vijaya Sarathi Reddy

IPC code; Int. cl.8—C12G 1/00

 

426

   

Standardization of conditions for fermentation and maturation of wine from Amla, Emblica officinalis Gaertn.

S K Soni, Namita Bansal and Raman Soni

IPC code; Int. cl.8—C12G 1/00

 

436

   

Influence of different yeast strains on fermentation behaviour, physico-chemical and sensory qualities of plum wine

VK Joshi, Somesh Sharma and Mutum Preema Devi

IPC code; Int. cl.8—C12G 1/00

 

445

   

Effect of cultivar, addition of yeast type, extract and form of yeast culture on foaming characteristics, secondary fermentation and quality of sparkling plum wine

J C Bhardwaj and V K Joshi

IPC code; Int. cl.8—C12G 1/00

 

 

452

   
Book review  
  465
Guidelines to authors   465
   
Subscription Form 468
   
Index 469

 

 

 

Guest Editor’s Note

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.8, July-August 2009, pp. 313

 

Wines are known to be prepared by Assyrians by 3500 B.C. and have been a part of food of man ever since his settlement in Tigris Euphrates basins besides being a therapeutic agent, an adjunct to the diet and a medicine. The Codex Alimentarius Commission defines food as any substance, whether processed, semi-processed or raw, which is intended for human consumption, and includes drink”. Wine is considered “living” by poets and winemakers alike. Throughout millennia, it has captured the imaginations of poets and philosophers especially scientists and various agri-food industries.

Wine is made from complete or partial alcoholic fermentation of grape or any other fruit. The non-grape fruits including apple, mango, peach, plum, pear, kiwifruit, strawberry, citrus fruits etc. constitute a considerable chunk (76%) of all the fruits grown all over the world compared to the grape (24%). Being highly perishable commodities they have to be either consumed fresh or processed into various products. A large quantity of wine is also produced and consumed throughout the world. But both the quantum of research work and the production of wines from non-grape fruits on industrial scale have been quite low rather it is like a drop in the ocean. There is lack of information available on standardization of technology of wines preparation (especially vermouth, sparkling wine, sherry type, etc.), medicinal value of wine, bioreactor technology, maturation of wine, etc. The major problems in wine production, however, arise from the difficulty to extract the sugar from the pulp of some of the fruits, the juices obtained lack in the requisite sugar contents or have higher acidity, more anthocyanins or have poor fermentability. Application of enzymes in juice extraction, bioreactor technology, biological deacidification (MLF bacteria or deacidifying yeast like Schizosaccharomyces  pombe), etc. in the wine production from non-grape fruits needs a serious consideration. It could certainly be a fruitful area of research and development especially in those countries and regions where non-grape fruits are grown in large quantities. It is in this context that NISCAIR, CSIR decided to bring out a special issue of its journal, Natural Product Radiance, on the ‘Production of wines from non-grape fruits’ and the responses from the contributors has been overwhelming.

This issue contains a treasure of exciting information in the form of reviews and research papers. It comprises 5 reviews and 11 research papers on medicinal values, quality production, bioreactor technology, optimization, standardization, preservation and evaluation of wines, vermouth and mead. It is strongly felt that the topics covered in this special issue would stimulate further research and development on production and evaluation of non-grape wines. I take this opportunity to express my thanks to all the authors for their contributions. I would also like to convey my deep appreciation of the meticulous work done by Dr Sunita Garg, Editor and her team and express my gratitude to them.

 

V. K. Joshi

Professor and Head

Deptt. of Postharvest Technology,

Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry,

Nauni, Solan (HP), India

           

 

 

 

 

 

 

Review Papers

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.8, July-August 2009, pp. 314-322

Can fruit wines be considered as functional food?-An overview

Gargi Dey*, Bharti Negi and Akanksha Gandhi

Department of Biotechnology & Bioinformatics

Jaypee University of Information Technology

Waknaghat, Solan-173 215, Himachal Pradesh, India

*Correspondent author, E-mail: gargi.dey@juit.ac.in, drgargi.dey@gmail.com

 

We are in midst of antioxidant superfood revolution. Nutritional studies on examining the foods for their protective and disease preventing potential have established that apart from grapes, fruits like cranberry, sweet cherry, blueberry are equal or sometimes better sources of flavonoids and phenolics. These facts have given a new dimension to the non-grape wines or fruit wines. A lot of efforts have been directed towards potential use of these fruits for production of wines which are rich in phenolics and flavonoids. This paper presents an overview on the phenolic and flavonoid contents of the non-grape wines or fruit wines and their antioxidant potency. It has also been tried to answer the question, whether fruit wines can also be considered as functional food.

Keywords: Fruit wines, Phenolics, Flavonoid, Antioxidant activity, Berry wines, Functional food.

IPC code; Int. cl.8C12G 1/00, A61P 17/18.

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.8, July-August 2009, pp. 323-333

High cell density reactors in production of fruits wine with special reference to Cider – An overview

R S Singh* and B S Sooch

Carbohydrate and Protein Biotechnology Laboratory

Department of Biotechnology, Punjabi University, Patiala-147 002, Punjab, India

*Correspondent author, E-mail: rssingh11@lycos.com; Phone: +91 175 3046262

            Bioreactor technology has a considerable diversity in the production of fruit wines. During the past 20 years, immobilized cells have been explored for making high cell density reactors to simplify time-consuming procedures and to reduce labour requirements as well as cost. Amongst the immobilization techniques used, entrapment of yeast cells in alginate beads seem to be most simple and effective. The packed bed reactor is the most frequently used type of immobilized cell bioreactors. The use of immobilized/co-immobilized bioreactors in cider making will be a real improvement of the industrial process reducing process time and cost. The present article focuses on the applications of high cell density reactors in wine making with special emphasis on cider.

Keywords: High cell density reactors, Immobilization, Wine, Cider

IPC code; Int. cl.8C12G 1/00

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.8, July-August 2009, pp. 334-344

Vermouth Production Technology –An overview

Parmjit S Panesar1*, Narender Kumar2, Satwinder S Marwaha3 and Vinod K Joshi4

1, 2Biotechnology Research Laboratory

Department of Food Engineering and Technology

Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology, Longowal-48 106, Punjab, India

3Punjab Biotechnology Incubator, SAS Nagar, Mohali-160 059, Punjab

4*Department of Post-Harvest Technology

Dr YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry,

Nauni, Solan-173 230, Himachal Pradesh, India

*Correspondent author, E-mail: pspanesarrr@yahoo.com

Phone: +91-9417494849 (M); +91-1672-305252 (O)

 

Aperitif wine known as ‘Vermouth’ is prepared from base wine by adding mixture of herbs and spices or their extract. Different parts of various plants (herbs and spices) such as the seeds, woods, leaves, barks or roots in dry form are used. These additives are infused, macerated or distilled in a base white wine and are added at the various stages of fermentation. The liquid is filtered, pasteurized, and fortified, i.e. additional alcohol is added. Some vermouths are sweetened; however, unsweetened, or dry vermouth tends to be bitter and both have different alcohol levels. It is known as aromatized liquor and it can be considered as a fortified wine. Vermouth prepared from grape fruits is the most common, although vermouths made from mango, plum, apple and sand pear have acceptable physico-chemical and sensory qualities. This review gives comprehensive information on the technology of vermouth production, various spices and herbs used and the commercial potential of non-grape fruits such as, mango, apple, sand pear, plum and tamarind for vermouth production.

Keywords: Vermouth, Ethanol, Apple, Mango, Sand pear, Plum, Tamarind.

IPC code; Int. cl.8C12G 1/00

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.8, July-August 2009, pp. 345-355

Production technology and quality characteristics of mead and fruit-honey wines: A review

J K Gupta* and Rajesh Sharma

Department of Entomology and Apiculture

Dr. Y S Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry

Nauni, Solan – 173 230, Himachal Pradesh, India

*Correspondent author, E-mail: jkg393@gmail.com

            Mead is perhaps the oldest fermented drink in the world, yet it is difficult to find it commercially. A brief review of the history of mead, its value as a health tonic and technology of mead production has been given in the present paper. Fermentation of honey can be used to produce different varieties of mead, sherry, sparkling wine and fruit-honey wines and it may have different flavours depending upon floral source of honey, additives and type of yeast used in the fermentation. Honey which is the raw material to produce mead shows lot of variations in colour and composition which are likely to affect the end product (mead) produced. Composition of honey from different floral sources has also been described. One of the unique characters of honey is that it contains many minor constituents which are responsible for antioxidant activity of mead. Information on physical, chemical, microbiological and sensory evaluation of mead and honey wines prepared by using fruit juices has also been summarised.

Keywords: Mead, Honey fermentation, Fruit-honey wine, Sensory evaluation, Yeasts, Additives

IPC code; Int. cl.8C12G 1/00

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.8, July-August 2009, pp. 356-365

An overview on Strawberry [Fragaria × ananassa (Weston) Duchesne ex Rozier] wine production technology, composition, maturation and quality evaluation

Somesh Sharma*, V K Joshi and Ghanshyam Abrol

Department of Postharvest Technology

Dr. Y S Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry

Nauni, Solan – 173 230, Himachal Pradesh, India

*Correspondent author, E-mail: sharmawine@gmail.com

 

Strawberry, Fragaria × ananassa (Weston) Duchesne ex Rozier is an important fruit of family Rosaceae, occupies an important place among the small fruit plants and is grown throughout the world. Deep red in colour with a unique shape, highly perishable fruit has a pleasant flavour. It is rich in vitamin C, sugar, organic acids, anthocyanin, phosphorus, iron, other minerals, vitamins, etc. and its flavour is characterized as fruity, sweet and tart. It is utilized for the production of purees, juice concentrate, juice, jams, preserves and rose red wine. Different methods used to make wine are carbonic maceration, on the skin fermentation and thermovinification. Thermovinification method produces the wine of better quality than the others. The cultivars evaluated for wine production are: ‘Chandler’, ‘Doughlas’, ‘Camarosa’, ‘Elsanta’, ‘Polka’ and ‘Tenira’. Wines from ‘Camarosa’ cultivar are found to have many desirable characteristics such as esters, optimum acidity, redder colour units, alcohol and total phenols, while ‘Chandler’ cultivar had higher amount of ethyl alcohol, more phenols, anthocyanin than other cultivars. The method of vinification has influenced the phenolic content. Different phenolic compounds identified by TLC in wines from all the strawberry cultivars are catechin, epicatechin, quercitin and ellagic acid which are known to play a key role of antioxidants. During maturation various changes took place including increase in esters, a decrease in phenol content whereas ethanol content, TSS and acid remained unchanged. In flavour profiling, out of 14 descriptors attempted, 6 had very high intensity like, alcoholic, phenolic, higher alcoholic, astringency and bitterness and the vegetative, yeasty and earthy were found to have lower intensity. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) has also been applied to the wine. The present paper is presenting an overview on production technology, composition, maturation and quality evaluation of strawberry wine.

Keywords: Fragaria × ananassa, Strawberry wine, Carbonic maceration, Fermentation on the skin, Thermovinification, Flavour profiling, Principal Component Analysis, Descriptors, Phenolic compounds.

IPC code; Int. cl.8C12G 1/00

Research Papers

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.8, July-August 2009, pp. 366-373

Application of response surface methodology in the optimization of process parameters for the production of Kinnow wine

 

Parmjit S Panesar*, Reeba Panesar and Bahadur Singh

Department of Food Engineering & Technology

Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering & Technology

Longowal-148 106, Punjab, India

*Correspondent author, E-mail: pspanesarrr@yahoo.com

Phone:  +91-1672-305252; FAX: +91-1672-280057

            Kinnow mandarin is one of the major citrus fruit crops of India which suffers from post-harvest losses during glut period. The fermentation of this juice to wine can be attractive alternatives to explore its potential in alcoholic beverage industry. The present investigation was carried to find out the optimal conditions for the efficient conversion of kinnow juice into wine using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Numerical optimization technique was applied to achieve the maximum possible ethanol production. The optimum process conditions for this fermentation process were 26°Brix total soluble solids concentration, 5.4 pH, 29°C temperature and inoculum size of 7.5% (v/v) and 5 days of incubation period. Corresponding to these optimum conditions, the predicted value of ethanol production was found to be 11%, which was experimentally verified.

Keywords: Kinnow, Citrus reticulata, Fermentation, Ethanol, Wine, Response Surface Methodology.

IPC code; Int. cl.8C12G 1/00, A23L 2/06

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.8, July-August 2009, pp. 374-379

 

Effect of initial sugar concentration on the physico-chemical characteristics and sensory qualities of cashew apple wine

B L Attri

Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture, Regional Station

Mukteshwar- 263 138, Uttarakhand, India

E-mail: attribl_nrcwa@rediffmail.com

            The technique for the production of wine from nutritious cashew apple has been standardized. The extracted cashew apple juice was treated with 0.5% food grade gelatin during heating for reducing the tannin contents. The TSS of the treated juice was ameliorated with sugar syrup and 0.1% diammonium hydrogen phosphate (as nitrogen source) to prepare the must. The fermentation rate of the must was found better for a week and reduced thereafter due to higher concentration of alcohol and low fermentation efficiency of the yeast. The fermentation carried out by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. ellipsoideus was completed in 15 days. After storing the base wine for six months the physico-chemical characteristics and sensory quality of the product was assessed. The retention of ascorbic acid was better in wine with higher initial sugar concentration (ISC) whereas the titrable acidity, volatile acidity, total esters and total phenols increased and aldehydes decreased with higher initial sugar concentration. The sensory quality of the cashew apple wine revealed that the product having 8.25% alcohol had an edge over other treatments. Flow diagram for wine production as well as cost of production of the product has also been described in the paper.

Keywords: Cashew, Anacardium occidentale, Cashew apple, Wine, Physico-chemical characteristics, Initial Sugar Concentration, Fermentation, Sensory quality.

IPC code; Int. cl.8C12G 1/00

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.8, July-August 2009, pp. 380-385

Enzymatic treatment for juice extraction and preparation and preliminary evaluation of Kiwifruits wine

 

Devina Vaidya*1, Manoj Vaidya 2, Surabhi Sharma3and Ghanshayam4

1, 3, 4Department of Post harvest Technology

2Department of Social Sciences

Dr Y S Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry

Nauni, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India

*Correspondent author, E-mail: devinavaidya@yahoo.com

Kiwifruit [Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev.)C. F. Liang & A. R. Ferguson] is nutritionally rich fruit with high ascorbic acid content (193mg/100g) but the extraction of its juice is difficult due to slimy pulp. To overcome this problem a combination of enzymes (pectinase 0.025g/kg + amylase 0.025g/kg + mash enzyme 0.05g/kg) were used to macerate pulp (2h at 50oC) and thus, facilitating the extraction of juice. The treatment enhanced the juice recovery (78.46%) compared to the control (58.44%) and the treatment did not affect the TSS, titrable acidity, pH, reducing and total sugars of the clarified juice. A comparison of physico-chemical characteristics of unclarified juice with that of enzymatically clarified showed a drastic decrease in pectin content and consequently, decrease in the viscosity of the juice. The outstanding feature of the juice was its high acidity and high concentration of ascorbic acid which however, decreased by 21 % after clarification. The recovered juice was ameliorated with sugar (22 + 1oB), 100 ppm SO2 and 0.1% DAHP, and was fermented by pure culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 22+1oC. After fermentation, a wine of 9.7% alcohol and 7-8oB residual total soluble solids was obtained. Blending with sucrose syrup made the wine palatable. Since, in present study the enzymes combinations were used for a period of 2h, high yield and clarity of juice were recorded. The sensory panel adjudged the wine with good ranking for colour, aroma, body and overall acceptability.

Keywords: Kiwifruit, Actinidia deliciosa, Enzymatic clarification, Clarified juice, Wine.

IPC code; Int. cl.8C12G 1/00

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.8, July-August 2009, pp. 386-391

Evaluation of litchi juice concentrate for the production of wine

R S Singh* and Preetinder Kaur

Carbohydrate and Protein Biotechnology Laboratory

Department of Biotechnology

Punjabi University, Patiala-147 002, Punjab, India

*Correspondent author, E-mail: rssingh11@lycos.com

Phone: +91 175 3046263(O)

            The suitability of litchi [Litchi chinensis (Gaertn.) Sonn.] juice concentrate was investigated for the production of litchi wine. The large amount of fermentable sugars (85.20%) and acid content (4.25%) present in litchi juice concentrate were found suitable for its use in wine making. Amongst the four yeast strains screened for alcoholic fermentation of reconstituted litchi juice, Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 178 was found the most potent strain. The optimal alcoholic fermentation of reconstituted litchi juice by S. cerevisiae MTCC 178 was recorded at 25°C, initial pH of must 5.0 and total soluble solids of 24°B with an inoculum level of 10% (v/v). The litchi wine produced from reconstituted litchi juice concentrate under the optimized conditions contained 11.60% (v/v) ethanol, 92 (mg/l) total esters, 124 (mg/l) total aldehydes and 0.78% (v/v) titratable acidity. The sensory evaluation revealed a clean, light amber colour of litchi wine, an attractive aroma of natural litchi fruit and a harmonious wine taste. The quality of wine as shown by the total score was rated as superior.

Keywords: Litchi chinensis, Litchi juice concentrate, Alcoholic fermentation, Wine, Ethanol.

IPC code; Int. cl.8C12G 1/00

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.8, July-August 2009, pp. 392-405

Evaluation of preservation methods of low alcoholic plum wine

Amandeep Gill, V K Joshi* and Neerja Rana1

Department of Postharvest Technology

1Department of Vegetable Science

Dr YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry

Nauni, Solan -173230, Himachal Pradesh, India

*Correspondent author, E-mail: vkjoshipht@rediffmail.com; winevkj@yahoo.com

 

Natural wine from Plums, Prunus salicina Linn. (cv.‘Santa Rosa’)was prepared and standardized the preservation technique of low alcoholic wine. The wine was blended with sand pear juice at the rate of 20 and 30%. The blends were preserved with heat treatments i.e. by pasteurizing the wine at different temperatures for different intervals of time and by chemical preservatives using sodium benzoate (NaB) and sulphur dioxide @100 ppm each. In all the treatments, there was no change in TSS, acidity and alcohol concentration whereas when heating either at 70 or 80oC for 10 or 2 min., respectively was carried out in comparison to the control (without heating or any preservative), highest reduction in TSS, increase in alcohol concentration and acidity took place. The heat treatment given to the wine showed complete elimination of microorganisms hence can be used for preservation of low alcohol wine.

Keywords: Low alcoholic wine, Plum wine, Prunus salicina, Preservation of wine, Fermentation, Preservatives.

IPC code; Int. cl.8C12G 1/00.

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.8, July-August 2009, pp. 406-418

Effect of location of cultivar, fermentation temperature and additives on the physico-chemical and sensory qualities on Mahua

(Madhuca indica J. F. Gmel.) wine preparation

 

Preeti Yadav1, Neelima Garg1* and Deepa H Diwedi2

1Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture

Rehmankhera, P.O. Kakori, Lucknow-227107, Uttar Pradesh, India

2Baba Saheb Bhim Rao Ambedkar University, Lucknow-226025

*Correspondent author, E-mail: neelimagargg@rediffmail.com

 

            Mahua (Madhuca indica J. F. Gmel.) has been used for liquor production, for centuries, by the tribals and local people. However, wine from mahua flower is not common. Wine made from different mahua germplasm showed no significant difference in terms of biochemical and sensory quality. Wine fermented at 16°C had higher content of alcohol (9.9%) and ascorbic acid (0.9 mg) compared to that at 20 and 25°C. Nutrients in the form of yeast extract, added to the must, improved wine quality while tannin addition lowered its sensory quality. Sweetened wines scored better than dry wines. Lemon peel addition improved aroma and acceptability of these wines. HPLC analysis reflected the presence of phenolics, viz. gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, catechin, epicatechin, caffeic acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, ascorbic acid and tannic acids in mahua wines.

Keywords: Mahua, Madhuca indica, Wine, Phenolic compounds, Alcohol, Sensory quality.

IPC code: Int. cl.8 C12G 1/00

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.8, July-August 2009, pp. 419-425

 

Flavour profiling of apple vermouth using descriptive analysis technique

V K Joshi and D K Sandhu1*

Department of Postharvest Technology

Dr. Y S Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry

Nauni, Solan – 173 230, Himachal Pradesh, India

1Department of Microbiology, Guru Nanak Dev University of Amritsar, Punjab, India

*Correspondent author, E-mail: sharmawine@gmail.com

Flavour profiling of apple vermouth of different treatments has been evaluated by descriptive analysis. A set of 45 different attributes were used in the experiment. The list of descriptors, concentration of standards and the details of technique has also been described. Based on the flavour profiling, the principal component analysis (PCA) separated the vermouths into groups having vermouths with less than or more than 15% alcohol. PCA was applied to the means of flavour scores generated from flavour profiling. All attributes analyzed across 12 vermouths and the eigen analysis showed that the data were three dimensional. The Ist 3 PCs accounted for the highest variation, with 62.5, 16.5 and 5.6% out of total of 84.5% variation. The PCA has successfully separated the vermouths with 18% alcohol from 12 or 15% alcohol showing the differences in flavour profile of these products due to ethanol content. The Ist PC was defined by astringency, ethyl alcohol, phenolic, amyl alcohol, like plum, grape, apple, apricot, cucumbers, black currant, berry, rose, acetic acid, synthetic, green/unripe, salty, lactic, sulphury and spicy while ethyl acetate, SO2, allspice, musty, cabbage, earthy, sweaty, vinegary, citrus and raisin defined weakly this component. The 2nd PC was defined by acetaldehyde, caramel, sour, fatty acid, rubbery and bitter while metallic taste, sharp, mushroom and yeasty flavours contributed weakly to the 2nd PC. The vermouth of group 1 and 3-9 have been separated from others, based on their richness in apple like, plum like, amyl alcohol, apricot like, ethyl acetate, astringency and phenolic descriptors while these wines were not intense for citrus like, grape like, lactic, cucumbers, black currant, berry like, green/unripe, salty, soapy, sulphury and vinegary descriptors. Vermouth of 10-12 defined by 2nd PC with flavour tones of acetaldehyde and caramel correlated highly with this PC while these were related weakly with sour, fatty acid, bitter, rubbery and these attributes have been highly related with vermouth of treatment 12. The sugar concentration must have affected other parameters important in sensory qualities such as bitterness. It is concluded that the descriptors described here can characterize apple vermouth of different quality attribute. Descriptive analysis along with PCA could be used for characterizing the product with respect to flavour and as a tool for further improvement in the quality of the product.

Keywords: Flavour profiling, Descriptive analysis, Sensory analysis, Apple vermouth, Principal component analysis.

IPC code; Int. cl.8C12G 1/00

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.8, July-August 2009, pp. 426-435

Production, optimization and characterization of wine from Mango

(Mangifera indica Linn.)

L Veeranjaneya Reddy1* and O Vijaya Sarathi Reddy2

1Department of Microbiology

Yogi Vemana University, Kadapa-516 003, Andhra Pradesh, India

2Department of Biochemistry

Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati-517502, Andhra Pradesh

*Correspondent author, E-mail: lvereddy@yahoo.com

Ten mango cultivars which are commonly found in the region were selected for the study. Optimization of fermentation conditions (like yeast strain, pectinase enzyme, pH and temperature) and production of higher alcohols and other volatile compounds during wine fermentation were investigated. To prepare wine, the fruits were peeled and juice (must) was extracted immediately after crushing (control) and also after 10h of pectinase treatment. The cv. ‘Raspuri’ gave the highest juice yield (600 ml/kg) followed by cv. ‘Banganpalli’ (570 ml/kg). The sugar content of must ranged from 15 to 18% (w/v). The recovered juice was fermented at 15 and 20oC and the ethanol concentration of mango wine ranged from 6.3 to 8.5per cent. Fermentation efficacy of three yeast strains, viz. Saccharomyces cerevisiae CFTRI 101, Palm Wine Isolate and Baker’s Yeast was done and highest score was obtained for ‘Banganpalli’ wines with yeast strain S. cerevisiae CFTRI 101 followed by ‘Alphonso’ and ‘Totapuri’. Pectinase enzyme treatment increased the yield of juice and ethanol production also. Total volatile composition of mango wine was evaluated using GCMS and identified 33 compounds having fruity aroma characters. More volatiles were observed in wine produced from ‘Banganpalli’ cultivar (343 mg/l) than wine from ‘Totapuri’ cultivar (320 mg/l).

Keywords: Mango juice, Pectinase treatment, Wine production, Volatile composition, Sensory evaluation.

IPC code; Int. cl.8C12G 1/00

 

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.8, July-August 2009, pp. 436-444

 

Standardization of conditions for fermentation and maturation of wine from Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.

S K Soni1*, Namita Bansal1 and Raman Soni2

1Department of Microbiology, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014, India

2Department of Biotechnology, DAV College, Chandigarh-160011.

*Correspondent author

All the useful natural components of amla, Indian gooseberry, Emblica officinalis Gaertn., with therapeutic value can be easily extracted in water after dispensing the berries in hot water. Ameliorating the extract with the sugar made it a good medium for the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and fermenting the sugar into ethanol to make wine. The wine was found similar to any other wine in terms of its composition, taste and aroma. The conditions for achieving the highest alcohol content and improving the sensory qualities have been standardized by evaluating the effect of addition of various exogenous nutrients, environmental conditions, fermentation technology and by maturing the wine. The supplementation of ammonium sulphate, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, proline and biotin to the hot water extract of amla proved to be best nutritional factors for highest alcohol production (12%) during the fermentation of the amla based medium with a new strain of S. cerevisiae in a batch fermentation. The alcohol content was further improved to 16.1% in a fed batch fermentation involving the repeated feeding of sugar for 2 cycles after an interval of 3 days each in a batch where the initial TSS was maintained at 20% and the feeding was done when the original TSS fell to 10% at each of two stages. Further, the storage of wine in oak wood barrel for a month improved its quality and led to the reduction in undesirable components such as n-propanol, n-butanol, iso-butanol, isoamyl alcohols and an increase in desirable components including ethyl acetate, phenolics, etc.

Keywords: Amla, Indian gooseberry, Emblica officinalis, Wine, Fermentation conditions, Maturation.

IPC code; Int. cl.8C12G 1/00

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.8, July-August 2009, pp. 445-451

Influence of different yeast strains on fermentation behaviour, physico-chemical and sensory qualities of plum wine

VK Joshi*, Somesh Sharma and Mutum Preema Devi

Department of Postharvest Technology

Dr. Y S Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry

Nauni, Solan – 173 230, Himachal Pradesh, India

*Correspondent author, E-mail: vkjoshipht@rediffmail.com;winevkj@yahoo.com

 

Effect of different yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. ellipsoides, viz. UCD 505, UCD 595, UCD 522, W and Tablet Strains on the enological and sensory characteristics of plum wines was determined. Different yeast strains influenced the physico-chemical characteristics of the wines produced to a variable extent. All the yeasts fermented plum musts to dryness (sugar content of 0.5% or low). The higher rate of fermentation was shown by 595, tablet and W yeast strain compared to 505 and 522. Out of various strains, UCD 595 gave the highest efficiency along with higher ethanol yield. The Tablet strain produced lowest ethanol in wine.  The wine made with UCD 595 had higher titratable acidity and lower yields of aldehyde compared to other yeasts. The highest methanol content was found in wine fermented with the yeast strain Tablet while the lowest content of methanol was produced by strain W. The principal component analysis (PCA) of the physico-chemical characteristics showed that the parameters like aldehyde, methanol and tannins separated the yeasts into two groups, viz. one group had W and Tablet strain while the second had UCD 505, UCD 595 and UCD 522 ; TSS, acidity, pH, total sugar, ethanol and colour did not contribute to separation of yeasts. Sensory evaluation scores of different wines revealed that the must fermented with the yeast strain UCD 595 and W had higher scores for colour, taste, flavour and overall acceptability. However, PCA of sensory analysis showed grouping of yeasts different than that of physico-chemical characteristics; W, Tablet and UCD 595 made one group while remaining second group. All the wines except that fermented by UCD 522 were of commercial acceptability. It is concluded that the use of appropriate yeast strain for the preparation of plum (Prunus salicina Linn.) wine is very important along with other vinification practices as it influenced the chemical and sensorial quality of wine.

Keywords: Plum, Prunus salicina, Alubukhara, Wine, Ethanol, Principal Component Analysis, Sensory evaluation, Yeast, Saccharomyces.

IPC code; Int. cl.8C12G 1/00

 

Natural Product Radiance

Vol.8, July-August 2009, pp. 452-464

 

Effect of cultivar, addition of yeast type, extract and form of yeast culture

on foaming characteristics, secondary fermentation and quality of sparkling plum wine

J C Bhardwaj1 and V K Joshi2*

1Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Shimla, Rohru–171 207, Himachal Pradesh, India

2Department of Postharvest Technology, Dr. Y S Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan – 173 230, Himachal Pradesh, India

*Correspondent author, E-mail: vkjoshipht@rediffmail.com

Received 11 April 2009; Accepted 22 June 2009

Abstract

            Combined effect of cultivars, yeast extract addition, type and form of yeast culture on the foam characteristics and physico-chemical and sensory quality characteristics of sparkling plum wine is reported here. The yeast used were Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Addition of 0.5 % yeast extract to the base wine at the beginning of secondary fermentation improved the foam stability, foam expansion, anthocyanin, total esters, phenols and soluble proteins in the sparkling wines. On yeast extract addition sparkling wines were found to be significantly superior in sensory qualities over the control. The sparkling wine made by liquid culture of both the yeasts had higher proteins, higher alcohols, better foam stability and foam expansion over the immobilized cultures. However, immobilized culture retained higher TSS, reducing sugars, esters and sensory quality in the wines. There was a mixed response to yeast type and its form on titratable acidity, pH, volatile acidity, acetaldehyde and phenolic compounds. Among the cultivars, ‘Santa Rosa’ had lowest phenols, soluble proteins, total esters, volatile acidity, anthocyanin contents whereas ‘Kanto-5’, cultivar wines were having higher in titratable acidity and lowest pH, lowest ethanol, highest fusel oil, highest esters and lowest foam stability. On the basis of sensory evaluation, the sparkling wines from ‘Meriposa’ base wine was adjudged the best followed by ‘Santa Rosa’, ‘Frontier’and other three cultivars. Use of yeast in the immobilized form proved advantageous as it could be removed easily.

Keywords: Sparkling plum wines, Yeast extract, Prunus salicina, Sacchromyces cerevisiae ,Schizosaccharomyces pombe, ‘Meriposa’, ‘Santa Rosa’, ‘Frontier’, Deacidification, Foam stability.

IPC code; Int. cl.8C12G 1/00