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Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik

Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)

(Half-yearly)

 

 

ISSN: 0771-7706    
Volume 11

Number 2

December 2003

 

CONTENTS

 

 

 

Hkkjrh; oSKkfud ,oa vkS|ksfxd vuqla/kku if=dk

okZ 11 vad 2 fnlEcj 2003 i`- 131&135

 

Effect of Tannery Effluent on Rat Gut Microflora

 Raj  Kupreti* & A Kannan

 

Biomembrane Lab, Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, P.O.Box No. 80, M.G.Road,  Lucknow 226 001Tannery effluent which contains various toxic chemicals is known to contaminate the natural water course and soil advertently or inadvertently. Grazing animals and human beings can very well be affected with this contamination. The prime site of interaction is the epithelium of intestine and the gut microflora. Gut microflora are known to play dynamic role in hydrolytic, reductive and degradative metabolism of xenobiotics. In the present study the effect of untreated and treated tannery effluent was carried out in two facultative rat gut microflora, E.coli and Lactobacillus sp. Effluents were collected from outlets before and after passing through the treatment plant of tannery unit located in Kanpur area. Rat caecal E.coli and Lactobacillus sp. were isolated and purified. Bacteria were grown in medium containing various concentrations of effluent (0-10% v/v). Growth was measured by turbidimetry at 610nm and specific growth rate, doubling time and number of generation were determined. The bacterial membrane functional enzymes and structural constituents were also analyzed. Results showed concentration dependent decline in growth parameters with untreated tannery effluent in both E.coli and Lactobacillus. Reduction in growth parameters in case of treated tannery effluent was significantly less as compared to the untreated effluent. Significant decline in Ca2+- Mg2+- ATPase and alkaline phosphatase were evident in both bacteria. However, the decline was significantly less in case of treated effluent. Alterations in membrane constituents viz. hexose and sialic acid also reveal similar pattern. Alterations in phospholipid content were found to be organism specific. These findings suggest that untreated effluent causes significant alterations in these bacteria, whereas, the alterations in case of lower concentrations of treated effluent were not significant and overall changes even with higher concentrations were also much less as compared to the untreated effluent.  

 

 

 

 

Hkkjrh; oSKkfud ,oa vkS|ksfxd vuqla/kku if=dk

okZ 11 vad 2 fnlEcj 2003 i`- 136&140

 

Determination of Critical Load: Protection of Ecosystem

Gur Sumiran Satsangi, Alfred J Lawrance, Anindita Bhattacharya,

Anita Lakhani*, Hemant Kulshreshta & Ajai Taneja

 

In the field of environment the focal point of research at national and international level is to reduce the unwanted effects of air pollution. It is well known that gaseous pollutants like SO2, NO2 and O3 do not only cause destruction of forests but also affect the animals. Indirectly these are responsible for causing acidic land thereby causing imbalancing of the soil. As a result of acid deposition terrestrial as well as aquatic ecosystem are substantially harmed. Therefore control on the release of acidic substances in the atmosphere is formost for acid deposition. Critical load is a process by means of which not only the present level of pollutants can be measured rather predictions can be made regarding the possible acid deposition by pollutants. Therefore critical load determination can play an important role in the protection of environment. Determination of critical load can be the base of environmental policies in the developing world at par with the developed nations. In the present paper details have been given regarding the process of critical load, its benefits and its calculation.

 

 

 

Hkkjrh; oSKkfud ,oa vkS|ksfxd vuqla/kku if=dk

okZ 11 vad 2 fnlEcj 2003 i`- 141&148

 

Global Warming, Little Ice Age & Vision of Climate

S M Singh  & H B Singh

 

The climate in different parts of the earth has been changing over the centuries. Though the revolution in science has given a new dimension in the studies of climate and environment, but the attention on climate change is restricted to the recent time only. The vision of past climate can reflect the result of present climate and forecast the model of future climate. The study of recent climate is easy, but the long-term climate changes measured in decades and centuries are difficult to quantify. On the basis of inferential data and records of the palaeoclimatologists have justified successfully the weather of the past. For the study of climate changes in Medieval and Modern History if we consider the mid-time of 11 to 19th and 19 to 20th century, then it clears that the climate of that time was characteristically different from the present day. The slice of time: 1100-1300 AD witnessed high temperature, 1450-1850 AD saw pulsatory glaciations and mid-time of 1900-2000 experienced the phenomenon of global warming. During the time of pulsatory glaciations there was extremely low temperature, much cooler weather and social and economical conditions were worst. The period of 1450-1850 AD has popularly coined as Little Ice Age. Though sufficient and important evidence of climate changes have been recorded but what factors were responsible for it, is not clear so far. Thus on this exciting issue there is a need of extensive study and research.

 

 

  

Hkkjrh; oSKkfud ,oa vkS|ksfxd vuqla/kku if=dk

okZ 11 vad 2 fnlEcj 2003 i`- 149&155

 

Connection, Plan and Policy of Rural Roads in India

Neelam Jain, Pradyumna Kumar Jain, B Kankdurai & Pramob Kumar Nanda

 

Countries like India where greater population resides in rural sectors and depend on the activities related to agriculture, rural roads play the role of a catalyst for the development and upliftment of the villages. It is for this very reason that the investment on the roads in rural sectors of relatively less developed pieces of land is foremost and wanted. Till recently the development of rural sectors was based on several parameters like village population, distance in connecting the villages with the all weather roads and other development related aspects. Even after several decades of forming these plans large number of villages have been left unnoticed and connecting them with the all weather roads has not been possible. Study of regional change is possible by means of several analysis. In this paper several indicators influencing road development and efforts for identification of their variabilities in the states has been done by Multiplication Analysis. The main objective of this technique is to identify such variabilities of different variables whose uniform quantity is found in all of them. This analysis reveals that all the approach of road and to understand the variabilities.


 

 

 

Hkkjrh; oSKkfud ,oa vkS|ksfxd vuqla/kku if=dk

okZ 11 vad 2 fnlEcj 2003 i`- 156&159

 

High Performance Flooring Tiles for Building Applications

KK Asthana, Rajni Lakhani & Rajesh Saxena

 

For the development of high performance flooring tiles, two types of interpolymer complexes have been developed. For the development of these complexes, epoxy resin alongwith low cost polymers were utilized. Out of these two complexes one is water dispersible which was used for the development of polycem tiles and other is solvent-based complex, which is used for the development of polytiles. Chemical resistance and physio-mechanical properties of the solvent based complex was determined by casting 5 mm thick sheet and have been compared with the epoxy resin system. Physico-mechanical properties of the polytiles and polycem tiles those were prepared by using the above mentioned polymeric systems have been determined. On the basis of the data collected during the studies, it has been observed that these tiles have much more improved mechanical strength, low permeability, high density and execllent durability etc.

 

 

 

Hkkjrh; oSKkfud ,oa vkS|ksfxd vuqla/kku if=dk

okZ 11 vad 2 fnlEcj 2003 i`- 160&164

 

Study on the Effect of Temperature, Humidity, and Light on the Food Efficiency of the larvae of Silk Worm (Bombax mori)

A  B  Mishra

 

Sericulture and production of cocoon are influenced by the environmental agents as a result of variations in the climate. The present study revealed that temperature and light influence the nutritional efficiency of silk worm, silk production and the movement of food substances in the intestine.

 


 

Hkkjrh; oSKkfud ,oa vkS|ksfxd vuqla/kku if=dk

okZ 11 vad 2 fnlEcj 2003 i`- 165&167

 

Inhibition of Urea-N with the Seeds of
Naturally Occurring Plants: A Green House Study

J P Sharma, Teekam Singh & Birendra Kumar*

 

Losses due to urea-N can be minimized by applying it with seeds of naturally occurring plants, having high carbon content, which are easily available near the farmer's field. In the present study, seeds of six plants i.e. Amaltash, Karanj, Jamun, Nagchampa, Ashoka and Neem were mixed with urea in the ratio of 1:5 and applied to the paddy crop. It was observed that these mixtures enhanced the production of dry matter, straw and grain by 21-30% and the residual nitrogen got immobilized. It was made available to the next crop through the microorganisms.

   

 

 

Hkkjrh; oSKkfud ,oa vkS|ksfxd vuqla/kku if=dk

okZ 11 vad 2 fnlEcj 2003 i`- 168&174

 

 Bryophytes: A Valuable Heritage

Virendra Nath, Ashish Kumar Asthana & Vinay Sahu

 

Bryophytes have special importance in the botanical world due to their useful characteristics. Bryophytes play an important role in the welfare of mankind. They are useful for horticulture purposes, medicinal purposes, in paper industry, as fuel, as bioindicators of pollution and as an agent in soil management. Besides, these plants also possess antifungal and antimicrobial substances and have role in Nitrogen fixation. In the present article a review of different uses of bryophytes is provided and a brief discussion on Antarctic bryophytes and conservation of rare and threatened plants has also been made.