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Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

 

VOLUME 3

NUMBER 2

APRIL 2004

 

CONTENTS

 
Editorial Board
 

 

 

Papers

 

Credibility of traditional knowledge—The criterion of multilocational and multiethnic use

137

S K Jain

 

[*IPC Int. Cl.7 :A61P 15/00; A61P 5/48; A61P 5/50; A61P 1/16; A61P 17/00; A61P 31/08; A61P 33/06]

 

 

 

Spectral analysis of the Vedic mantra Omkara

154

Heisnam Jina Devi, N V C Swamy and H R Nagendra

 

[IPC Int. Cl.7 :G10K/15/02]

 

 

 

Effects of yoga asanas and pranayama in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus

162

V Malhotra, S Singh, K P Singh, S B Sharma, S V Madhu, P Gupta and  O P Tandon

 

 [IPC Int. Cl.7 :A61P5/48; A61P/50]

 

 

 

“Amuri” ─ an elixir from Musa paradisiaca L.

168

R Sudha, S Ayyasamy and M Jegadeesan

 

[IPC Int. Cl.7 :A61K 35/78]

 

 

 

Role of uttarbasti in management of mutra marga sankoch (urethral stricture)

177

Rajendra H Amilkanthawar

 

[IPC Int. Cl.7 :A61K 35/78; A61K 25/00; A61P 13/02; A61P 13/00]

 

 

 

Impact of Cordyceps sinensis in the rural economy of interior villages of Dharchula sub-division of Kumaon Himalayas and its implications in the society

182

S S Garbyal, K K Aggarwal and C R Babu

 

[IPC Int. Cl.7 :A61K 35/70; A61P 39/00; A61P 15/00]

 

 

 

In-vitro antioxidant properties of Indian traditional paan and its ingredients

187

Shrishailappa Badami, Sujay R Rai and Suresh B

 

[IPC Int. Cl.7 :A61K 35/78; A61P 39/06; A61P 1/14; A61P 15/00; A61P 25/00]

 

 

 

Indigenous technical knowledge on pond construction and maintenance, fish seed transportation, and fish health management in Assam hills

192

Bhagaban Kalita, M Choudhury and S N Ojha

 

 [IPC Int. Cl.7 :A01K 61/00; A61K 35/78]

 

 

 

Traditional therapeutic uses of animals among tribal population of Tamil Nadu

198

Solavan A , Paulmurugan R, Wilsanand V and Ranjith Sing A J A

 

 [IPC Int. Cl.7 :A61K 35/78; A61K 35/12; A61K 35/56]

 

 

 

Seed fume of Solanum surattense : A traditional panacea for teeth and gums

206

Hari Prakash Pandey

 

[IPC Int. Cl.7 :A61K 35/78; A61P 11/04]

 

 

 

Indigenous moulting practices: Tradititional knowledge with Indian rural poultry farmers

208

G R K Sharma and K V H Sastry

 

 [IPC Int. Cl.7 :A01K 31/16; A01K 31/22]

 

 

 

“Sowa - Rigpa” : Himalayan art of healing

212

Padma Gurmet

 

 [IPC Int. Cl.7 :A61K 35/78; A61K 35/12; A61K 35/56]

 

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 3(2), April 2004, pp137-153

 

Credibility of traditional knowledge—The criterion of multilocational and multiethnic use

 S K Jain

 

Traditional knowledge often includes practices based on observations over time, but not substantiated by any technical experiments or statistics. Ethnomedicine or folk medical claims are an important component of this knowledge. The multilocational or multiethnic use, i.e. application of same traditional herbal cures in several distant regions, and among distinct tribal ethnic groups is suggested as a good criterion for credibility of folk claims and practices. Over 400 publications on ethnomedicinal plants were checked and over 100 recipes related to six health conditions namely fertility or conception, diabetes, leprosy, jaundice, malaria and skin diseases were found to be employed in more than one locality or ethnic group. On the basis of frequency of such reports, the plants were given a credibility rank on a scale of 1-5. About half of these recipes, which mostly had high ranking between 3-5 are already employed in codified Ayurvedic system. It is suggested that: 1. high credibility ranking based on frequency of reports of use seems directly related to their utility in health care systems, 2. the remaining recipes with high credibility ranking be given priority for laboratory and clinical research, and 3. more such analyses of frequency of particular medicinal use be undertaken for more plants, more diseases, and in more regions and ethnic groups in India.

 

Keywords: Folkmedicine, Ethnobotany, Ayurveda, Antifertility, Diabetes, Leprosy, Jaundice, Malaria, Skin diseases.

*IPC Int. Cl.7: A61P 15/00; A61P 5/48; A61P 5/50; A61P 1/16; A61P 17/00; A61P 31/08; A61P 33/06.


 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

 Vol. 3(2), April 2004, pp. 154-161

 

Spectral analysis of the Vedic mantra Omkara

Heisnam Jina Devi, N V C Swamy and H R Nagendra

 

It has been recognised for quite some time that Mantras or sacred words have beneficial effects on human beings and even plants. In a previous study, the authors have demonstrated the effect of Agnihotra mantra chanting at sunrise and sunset on the germination of rice seeds. Scriptures also mention that mantras like Om, Gayatri and Mrityunjaya have benefited humanity quite a lot.

 

This paper is an attempt to identify quantitatively the signal characteristics of mantra sound patterns. It is a pilot study and appears to be one of the first of its kind in the world. The study has confined itself to the identification of the predominant frequencies and their subharmonics of A-kara, U-kara, Ma-kara and Om-kara.

 

Keywords: Spectral analysis, Vedic mantra, Omkara.

IPC Int. Cl.7: G10K/15/02.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

 Vol.3(2), April 2004, pp. 162-167

 

Effects of yoga asanas and pranayama in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus

V Malhotra, S Singh, K P Singh, S B Sharma, S V Madhu, P Gupta and O P Tandon

 

Twenty Type 2 diabetic subjects between the age group of 30-60 years were studied to see the effect of 40 days of Yoga asanas on biochemical profile. The duration of diabetes ranged from 0 to 10 years. Subjects suffering from cardiac, renal and proliferative retinal complications were excluded from the study. Yoga asanas included Surya Namaskar, Tadasan, Konasan, Padmasan, Pranayama, Paschimottanasan, Ardhmatsyendrasan, Shavasan, Pavanmuktasan, Sarpasan and Shavasan. Subjects were called to the cardio-respiratory laboratory in the morning time and were given training by the Yoga expert. The Yogic exercises were performed for 30 - 40 minutes every day for 40 days in the above sequence. The subjects were prescribed medicines and diet. The basal blood glucose, lipid profile and glycosylated haemoglobin was measured and repeated after 40 days of yoga asanas. There was a statistically significant decrease in fasting blood glucose (from baseline 208.3 ± 20.0 to 171.7 ± 19.5 mg/dl) and decrease in Postprandial blood glucose (from 295.3 ± 22.0 to 269.7± 19.9 mg/dl). The decreases in values of serum cholesterol were also statistically significant (from 222.8 ± 10.2 to 207.9 ± 8.6 mg/dl). The triglyceride decreased (from 168.5 ± 15.5 to 146.3 ±13.5 mg/dl), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low-density lipoprotein improved (from 144.8 ± 8.6 to 140.70 ± 7.9 mg/dl and from 37.4 ± 4.6 to 32.1 ± 3.4 mg/dl). The glycosylated haemoglobin decreased from 10.27 ±0.5 to 8.68 ± 0.4 %. These findings suggest that yoga asanas have a beneficial effect on glycaemic control and lipid profile in mild to moderate Type 2 diabetes.

 

Keywords: Yoga asanas, Pranayama, Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

IPC Int. Cl.7: A61P5/48; A61P/50.

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

 Vol. 3(2), April 2004, pp. 168-176

 

“Amuri”—an elixir from Musa paradisiaca L.

R Sudha, S Ayyasamy and M Jegadeesan

 

Indian traditional systems of medicine like Ayurveda and Siddha offer medicines called Kayakalpa drugs for rejuvenation and for treating refractive diseases. Amuri is one such drug described in many Siddha texts and manuscripts. An unpublished Siddha palm leaf manuscript Kandarnadi Vakkiyam describes preparation of Amuri from Banana tree. An attempt has been made in this work to extract Amuri from Musa paradisiaca L., standardize its yield and characterize the liquid using physico-chemical parameters.

 

Keywords: Siddha, Kayakalpa, Amuri, Musa paradisiaca L.

IPC Int. Cl.7: A61K 35/78.

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

 Vol. 3(2), April 2004, pp. 177-181

 

Role of uttarbasti in management of mutra marga sankoch (urethral stricture)

Rajendra H Amilkanthawar

 

Mutra marga sankoch (Urethral stricture) is one of the common disorders of urinary tract. So far in modern surgery effective therapy has not been established for the condition. Though gradual urethral dilatation is practised, it shows very low cure rate and recurrences are common.

 

Thousands of years ago Acharya Sushruta had recommended Uttarbasti for the management of such type of urinary tract disorders. This therapy has been reestablished after a thorough and scientific clinical study. The study was carried out in the Dept. of Shalya Tantra, Govt. Ayurvedic College and Hostpital, Nanded (Maharashtra).

 

Thirty patients of urethral stricture were selected randomly for the study. After completion of Uttarbasti at the interval of 7 days, the cases were reviewed and the results were compared with conventional surgical procedure and finally it was concluded that Uttarbasti is an excellent therapy for urethral stricture.

 

Keywords: Mutra marg sankoch, Urethral stricture, Ayurvedic treatment, Uttarbasti.

IPC Int. Cl.7: A61K 35/78; A61K 25/00; A61P 13/02; A61P 13/00.

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

 Vol. 3(2), April 2004, pp. 182-186

 

Impact of Cordyceps sinensis in the rural economy of interior villages of Dharchula sub-division of Kumaon Himalayas and its implications in the society

S S Garbyal, K K Aggarwal and C R Babu

 

Cordyceps sinensis belonging to family Clavicipitaceae is a parasitic fungus on Lepidopteran larvae. It occurs at an altitude over 4,000 m and is known to be found in Chipla, Malpa top, Njyang top, Karschila, Budhi Galja, Chal, Baling, Bon, Dugtu, Panchachuli, Nampa and Api in Dharchula Himalayas. Cordyceps is known to be used for many centuries as tonic, medicine, and aphrodisiac and in religious ceremonies in China, Indonesia and upper Himalayas. Since last 4-5 years Cordyceps has been traded very extensively in Dharchula area of Pithoragarh District in Uttaranchal. It has had tremendous impact on the rural economy of the villages in Dharchula area. Local people have been getting about Rs. 55,000-65,000 per kg, thereby improving the living conditions of many poor villagers.

 

Keywords:   Cordyceps sinensis, parasitic fungus, caterpillar fungus, mummified insect, Dharchula Himalayas, Tibetan medicine, Chinese medicine, anti-biotic properties, rural economy.

IPC Int. Cl.7: A61K 35/70; A61P 39/00; A61P 15/00.


 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

 Vol. 3(2), April 2004, pp. 187-191

 

In-vitro antioxidant properties of
Indian traditional paan and its ingredients

Shrishailappa Badami, Sujay R Rai and Suresh B

 

Indian traditional Paan is being used as a post meal digestive stimulant, astringent, aphrodisiac, nerve tonic, intoxicating agent and for several other purposes in India and is recommended in ancient scriptures of Ayurveda for normal well being. These properties might be due to the antioxidant nature of Paan. Hence, 50% methanol extracts of Paan and its ingredients were screened for antioxidant activity using DPPH method. Catechu, rose powder, betel nut and clove extracts exhibited potent antioxidant properties. Extracts of Paan, betel leaves and fennel showed moderate antioxidant activity. These results confirm the common beliefs and traditional uses of Paan in Indian tradition.

 

Keywords: Paan, Antioxidant activity, DPPH, Ayurveda.

IPC Int. Cl.7: A61K 35/78; A61P 39/06; A61P 1/14; A61P 15/00; A61P 25/00.

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

 Vol. 3(2), April 2004, pp. 192-197

 

Indigenous technical knowledge on pond construction and maintenance, fish seed transportation, and fish health management in Assam hills

Bhagaban Kalita, M Choudhury and S N Ojha

 

Most of the inhabitants of the Hills Zone of Assam survive on their traditional knowledge base. These people are bound by traditions and are relatively untouched by modern scientific knowledge on aquaculture and allied sector. An attempt has been made in present study to document Indigenous Technical Knowledge (ITK) related to aquaculture in the Hills Zone of Assam. Data was collected after interviewing 80 fishers in one of such areas with the help of an interview schedule. In Pond construction/maintenance, seed transport and fish health management, nine ITKs were documented in this study. Under pond construction and maintenance, ITKs on traditional spillway, and protection of pond dyke were documented and under fish health management ITKs on control of dissolved oxygen deficiency, turbidity control, control of Argulus, leach control and control of Epizootic Ulceratic Disease Syndrome were documented.

 

Keywords: Indigenous technical knowledge, Pond construction, Fish seed transportation, Fish health management, Inland fisheries.

IPC  Int. Cl.7: A01K 61/00; A61K 35/78.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

 Vol. 3(2), April 2004, pp. 198-205

 

Traditional therapeutic uses of animals among tribal
population of Tamil Nadu

Solavan A, Paulmurugan R, Wilsanand V and Ranjith Sing A J A

 

Studies on the therapeutic use of animals and animal parts have been neglected compared to plants. This paper presents the findings of an ethno-zoological study carried out among nine tribes spread over four districts of Tamil Nadu, India. Detailed information was obtained on the traditional therapeutic uses of sixteen different animal species, consisting of mammals (6), birds (5), reptiles (2), arthropods (2) and annelid (1), for the treatment of over 17 kinds of diseases or ailments, including asthma, arthritis, epilepsy, paralysis, hydrocele and leprosy. Community research to confirm the medicinal value of these traditional remedies would go a long way leading to the discovery of novel drugs from bugs.

 

Keywords: Animals, Archaeozoology, Ethnozoology, Tribals, Tamil Nadu, Zootherapy, Zooarchaeology.

IPC Int. Cl.7: A61K 35/78; A61K 35/12; A61K 35/56.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

 Vol. 3(2), April 2004, pp. 206-207

 

Seed fume of Solanum surattense : A traditional panacea for teeth and gums

Hari Prakash Pandey

 

This communication provides a brief account of a time-tested remedy from seed fume of Solanum surattense Burm. f. against tooth and gum disorders. The practice is quite popular among the aborigines of Gonda, Bahraich and Balrampur districts of Uttar Pradesh, India. The text deals with method of treatment and results of clinical trial conducted by author himself.

 

Keywords: Ethno-botany, seed fume, Solanum surattense, teeth and gums, traditional panacea.

IPC Int. Cl.7: A61K 35/78; A61P 11/04.

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

 Vol. 3(2), April 2004, pp. 208-211

 

Indigenous moulting practices: Tradititional knowledge with Indian rural poultry farmers

G R K Sharma and K V H Sastry

 

This paper outlines the salient features of cultural sustainability by emphasizing the traditional knowledge of poultry farmers of southern India. Two southern states of India namely Karnataka and Kerala were included in the study with an objective to explore the traditionally induced moulting practices. The study revealed five different traditional moulting practices namely dipping in water, applying mud, applying ash, quarantine of birds to dark locations and fixing the feathers on to the beak. This study has shown that the existence of traditional practices seems to make sense in areas without veterinary services and empowers local farmers to try to manage their flock’s problems in a cost effective way.

 

Key words: Natural moulting, Poultry.

IPC Int. Cl.7: A01K 31/16; A01K 31/22.

 

 


 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol.3(2), April 2004, pp. 212-218

 

“Sowa - Rigpa” : Himalayan art of healing

Padma Gurmet

 

Sowa-Rigpa commonly known as Tibetan or Amchi medicine is among the oldest surviving well-documented medical traditions of the world. With the living history of more than 2500 years it has been popularly practiced in Himalayan regions throughout central Asia. In India it has been popularly practiced in Ladakh, Himachal Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Darjeeling and now in Tibetan settlements all over India. Originated from India Sowa-Rigpa is based on Jung-wa-lna (Panch Mahabhuta /five elements) and Nespa gSum (Tri-dosh/ three humours) theories. According to these all animate and inanimate phenomena of this universe are composed of Jung-wa-lna (five elements). It is on the theory of five basic elements that the science of physiology, pathology and pharmacology is established. This paper gives an introductory note on history, theory and practice of Sowa-Rigpa (Science of healing) in India.

 

Keywords: Sowa-Rigpa, Amchi, Tibetan medicine.

IPC Int. Cl.7 :A61K 35/78; A61K 35/12; A61K 35/56.