Total visitors:3,462 since 01-07-04

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

 

 

VOLUME 3

NUMBER 3

JULY 2004

 

 

CONTENTS

 

Editorial Board

225

 

Explanatory note on IPC Int. Cl.7

230

 

 

Papers

 

Effect of Agnihotra on the germination of rice seeds

231

Heisnam Jina Devi, N V C Swamy and H R Nagendra

 

[IPC Int. Cl.7: A01C1/02].

 

 

 

Pharmaceutical, physico-chemical and clinical study on“Shuddha Manahshila” with special reference to Kasa Roga

240

Atul Kumar

 

[IPC Int Cl.7: A61K 33/36; A61K 33/04; A61K 35/78; A61K 35/12; A61P 11/00; A61P 11/14; A61P 11/08; A61P 11/06; A61P 29/00; A61P 37/08].

 

 

 

Investigation on the wound healing activity of Tilvadi ghrita: a herbal formulation

247

M S Charde, A T Hemke, S V Fulzele, P M Satturwar, A V Kasture and A K Dorle

 

[IPC Int Cl.7: A61K 35/78, A61K 35/20, A61P 29/00, A61P 17/02, A61P 31/02].

 

 

 

Indigenous practice on protection of Areca catechu Linn. seedlings – a case study in Meghalaya

253

M Umdor

 

[IPC Int.Cl.7: A01G13/10, A01M27/00].

 

 

 

Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi), a reservoir plant for therapeutic applications: A Review

257

Kirti Sinha, N P Mishra, J Singh and S P S Khanuja

 

[IPC Int. Cl.7: A61K35/78, A61P25/20, A61P1/16, A61P35/00, A61P1/04, A61P25/00, A61P3/10, A61P3/06, A61P1/14, A61P13/04, A61P29/02, A61P37/00].

 

 

Medicinal plants used as antipyretic agents by the traditional healers of Darjeeling Himalayas

271

D R Chhetri

 

[IPC Int Cl7.: A61K 35/78, A61P 33/06, A61P 29/00].

 

 

 

Farming proverbs: analysis of its dynamics and farmers’ knowledge

276

Ranjay K Singh and A Dorjey

 

[IPC Int. Cl.7: A01C5/00, A01C7/00].

 

 

 

Indigenous knowledge on some medicinal plants among the Nicobari Tribe of Car Nicobar Island

287

Stutee Gupta, M C Porwal and P S Roy

 

[IPC Int. Cl.7: A61K35/78, A61P25/20, A61P1/06, A61P1/16, A61P19/00, A61P17/00, A61P1/12].

 

 

 

Indigenous means of communication amongst social dignitaries of Hill Karbis of Assam

294

Robindra Teron and Padmeswar Gogoi

 

[IPC Int. Cl.7: G09B19/24].

 

 

 

Ethnomedicinal survey of lower Palni Hills of Tamil Nadu

299

S Ganesan, N Suresh and L Kesaven

 

[IPC Int. Cl.7: A61K35/78, A61P1/12, A61P39/02, A61P15/02, A61P17/02, A61P17/10, A61P1/02, A61P1/04, A61P29/00, A61P13/02, A61P15/06, A61P11/10].

 

 

 

Common wild vegetables of Aka tribe of Arunachal Pradesh

305

A Kar

 

[IPC Int. Cl.7: A23L1/20, A23L1/01].

 

 

 

Traditional wisdom of rural people about primary healthcare of children

314

Hema Tripathi, M K Mandape and O N Kunzru

 

[IPC Int. Cl.7: A61K35/78, A61P1/10, A61P1/12, A61P11/02, A61P17/02, A61P11/10].

 

 

 

Characterization of some traditional fermented foods and beverages of Himachal Pradesh

325

Navdeep Thakur, Savitri and Tek Chand Bhalla

 

[IPC Int. Cl.7: A23L1/052, A23L1/105, A23L1/185, A23L1/187, A23L1/202].

 

 

 

EXPLANATORY NOTE ON IPC Int. Cl.7

 

The issues of traditional knowledge, genetic resources, folklore and benefit sharing have attracted considerable attention in recent years. In this connection, patents, their classification, access to patent databases, prior art, etc. have assumed great significance.

In order to cater to these needs, Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge has started to assign IPC codes to each article (wherever possible) from this issue. It is our expectation that this will create more awareness and interest on these issues among the readers. This topic is briefly explained below.

 

The International Patent Classification, which is commonly referred to as the IPC, is based on an international multi-lateral treaty administered by World Intellectual Property Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

 

The Classification is indispensable for the retrieval of patent documents in the search for "prior art". Such retrieval is needed by patent-issuing authorities, potential inventors, research and development units, and others concerned with the application or development of technology.

 

In order to keep the IPC up to date, it is continuously revised and a new edition is published every five years. The current (seventh) edition has entered into force on January 1, 2000.

 

The IPC is a hierarchical classification system comprising sections, classes, subclasses and groups (main groups and subgroups). The seventh edition of the IPC consists of 8 sections, 120 classes, 628 subclasses and approximately 69,000 groups.

 

Every subdivision of the IPC is indicated by a symbol and has a title. The IPC divides all technological fields into eight sections designated by one of the capital letters A through H. Each section is subdivided into classes. In turn, each class contains one or several subclasses, for example, A01B.

 

Each subclass is broken down into subdivisions referred to as "groups", which are either main groups or subgroups. Main group symbols consist of the subclass symbol followed by a one- to three-digit number, the oblique stroke and the number 00, for example, A01B1/00. Subgroups form subdivisions under the main groups. Each subgroup symbol includes the subclass symbol followed by the one- to three-digit number of its main group, the oblique stroke and a number of at least two digits other than 00, for example, A01B1/02.

 

For further information, please refer to: www.wipo.int

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

 Vol. 3(3), July 2004, pp. 231-239

 

Effect of Agnihotra on the germination of rice seeds

Heisnam Jina Devi, N V C Swamy and H R Nagendra

 

Vedic ritualistic sacrifices have been in vogue in India since time immemorial. Recently they have become very popular around the globe because of their therapeutic values. An important component of these sacrifices are the mantras, which are sound forms reputed to contain mystic energy. The most common sacrifice still being practiced in India is the Agnihotra, which involves ritual offerings to the fire at sunrise and sunset to the accompaniment of specific mantras.

 

This practice was revived in Akkalkot, Maharashtra, and is being popularized throughout the country. In the current investigation, rice seeds were germinated in four rooms in petridishes for a period of 15 days. One room was used as the control with germination under normal conditions. A fire was lit in a second room for a specified period at sunrise and sunset. In a third room, Agnihotra mantras were chanted at the same time of the day, but no fire was lit. The last room was the experimental room, in which the full Agnihotra ritual, with fire and mantra, was conducted at sunrise and sunset.

 

Three sets of data were collected for three seasons, autumn, winter and summer for a period of 15 days each. Four parameters, viz. Root length, shoot length, fresh weight and dry weight were measured. An analysis of the data showed that the Agnihotra sacrifice with mantra was overwhelmingly more effective in the germination process than the other three cases. Statistical analysis of the data using the standard SPSS package corroborated this conclusion.

 

Keywords: Agnihotra mantra, Germination, Rice seedlings, Vedas.

IPC Int. Cl.7 : A01C1/02.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

 Vol. 3(3), July 2004, pp. 240-246

 

Pharmaceutical, physico-chemical and
clinical study on “Shuddha Manahshila” with special reference to Kasa Roga

Atul Kumar

 

Manahshila (Realgar; Arsenic disulphide- As2S2), a bright red-orange coloured mineral, is a compound of arsenic and sulphur in 2:2 ratio, which has been described under Uprasa Varga in Rasa Shastra of Ayurveda. It is found in ore form in nature and can also be made artificially. Manahshila is one of the mineral drugs that has history of usage as old as Vedic period. In Rigveda, its usage has been mentioned for environmental purification; whereas, in Athrvaveda and Purana Granthas, its externo-internal usage is mentioned. Manahshila can therapeutically be used only after Shodhana (purification & detoxification). In the present study, the drug was prepared by processing (Bhavita) from approved ore of Manahshila with Adraka Svarasa (ginger juice) for 7 days to make the drug more potent for Kasa Roga (cough/bronchitis). The physico-chemical parameters of the prepared drug were also established for the first time by comparing them with the crude drug, which was novel from pharmaceutical point of view. The clinical study of the drug was performed in 25 patients, at a dose of 10-25 mg, three times a day, for one month, with the adjuvant of Madhu (honey). The drug gave good results, particularly in Vataja Kasa (eosinophilia).

 

Keywords:   Ayurvedic drugs, Shuddha Manahshila, Standardization, Kasa roga, Cough, Bronchitis.

 

IPC Int Cl.7: A61K 33/36; A61K 33/04; A61K 35/78; A61K 35/12; A61P 11/00; A61P 11/14; A61P 11/08; A61P 11/06; A61P 29/00;A61P 37/08.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

 Vol. 3(3), July 2004, pp. 247-252

 

Investigation on the wound healing activity of
Tilvadi ghrita : a herbal formulation

 

M S Charde, A T Hemke, S V Fulzele, P M Satturwar, A V Kasture and A K Dorle

 

Tilvadi ghrita (TG) is a ghee-based herbal formulation claimed to promote wound healing in traditional practices. However no systematic studies are reported in modern scientific literature with regard to the verification of the traditional medicinal claims of TG. The present study was undertaken to investigate and rationalize the wound healing activity of TG in experimental rats. Tilvadi ghrita increased the tensile strength which is significantly improved over the untreated wounds. Promotion of tensile strength demonstrates wound healing potential of TG in incision wound which may probably be due to promotion of collagenation. This data is further supported by observation of histopathological response in healed tissues which reveal that TG promotes keratinization, epithelization, collagenation and fibrosis. TG also demonstrates its healing potential in excision wound model with significant reduction in wound contraction area with faster healing.

 

Keywords: Tilvadi ghrita, Wound healing activity, Herbal formulation.

IPC Int Cl.7:A61K 35/78, A61K 35/20, A61P 29/00, A61P 17/02, A61P 31/02.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

 Vol. 3(3), July 2004, pp. 253-256

 

Indigenous practice on protection of Areca catechu Linn. seedlings – A case study in Meghalaya

M Umdor

 

The present study was conducted in the southern part of East Khasi Hills District of Meghalaya dominated by tribe Khasi Wars where maximum land is under Areca nut plantation. Areca nut seedlings are seriously damaged by the grubs of a red palm weevil which kill the whole seedling. However, the Wars farmers with their traditional wisdom easily detect the infested seedlings and with their indigenous practices of “checking the grubs in nuts” locally known as “peit ksain kwai” control the damage of the young plants. Khasi Wars farmers’ knowledge for identifying and protecting Areca nuts damage in the young stage developed by indigenous initiative, inherited over generations, is very effective and still in practice.

 

Keywords: Indigenous practices, Khasi Wars, Areca nut seedlings, Red palm weevil, Pest control.

IPC Int.Cl.7: A01G13/10, A01M27/00.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

 Vol. 3(3), July 2004, pp. 257-270

 

Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi), a reservoir plant for
therapeutic applications: A Review

Kirti Sinha, N P Mishra, J Singh and S P S Khanuja

 

Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi or Amrita) is an important drug of Ayurvedic System of Medicine and found mention in various classical texts for the treatment of diseases such as jaundice, fever, diabetes and skin disease etc. In present times, this drug has been subjected for numerous chemicals, pharmacological, pre-clinical and clinical investigations and many new therapeutic applications have been indicated. This paper presents a critical review in areas of chemical constituents, proved pre-clinical and clinical trials along with its medicinal uses in different streams of medical sciences.

 

Keywords: Tinospora cordifolia, Guduchi, Tinosporosides, Immunomodulator.

IPC Int. Cl.7: A61K35/78, A61P25/20, A61P1/16, A61P35/00, A61P1/04, A61P25/00, A61P3/10, A61P3/06, A61P1/14, A61P13/04, A61P29/02, A61P37/00.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 3(3), July 2004, pp. 271-275

 

Medicinal plants used as antipyretic agents by the traditional healers of Darjeeling Himalayas

D R Chhetri

 

Darjeeling Himalayan region is characterized by a rich floral diversity. Since most of the hilly terrain is devoid of modern medical facilities, the people here are dependent on Traditional Medicine Systems for their health-care. During the course of the study, it was found that 37 species of plants belonging to 29 families are utilized as antipyretic agents in the different ethnic medicine practices prevalent in the region.

 

Keywords: Antipyretic activity, Folk medicine, Herbal medicine, Ethnomedicine, Traditional medicine.

IPC Int Cl7.: A61K 35/78, A61P 33/06, A61P 29/00.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

 Vol. 3(3), July 2004,pp. 276-286

 

Farming proverbs: analysis of their dynamics
and farmers’ knowledge

Ranjay K Singh and A Dorjey

 

Proverbs are backed with profound wisdom and ideas of great practical utility. The present study was designed to explore and document different farming proverbs, used by Yadav community for their agricultural use. The study was conducted in three villages of Jahanaganj Developmental block of Azamgarh district of eastern Uttar Pradesh. Using the focus group discussions with the farmers, data were collected and inference has been drawn with the help of descriptive statistics.

 

Proverbs are most popular source of indigenous communication method in vogue among the Yadav community, which plays vital role in the exchanging the agricultural technological knowledge and to combat the particular problem. Of total 28 proverbs, 50 per cent were related with the rainfall prediction, within which 64 per cent fell under commonly used, followed by often used (21.42%) and rarely used (14.29%). Out of 25 per cent proverbs related to field operations, 57.14 per cent were found to be under the category of commonly used, followed by often used (28.57%) and rarely used (14.29%). Regarding the seed and transplantation, commonly used and often used were observed to be equal (50.0%). The major ways and centers of agricultural proverbs transmission were Choupal, Charagah and Kantiya Samuh, from where proverbs effectively diffused among the social system. Though the usefulness of farming proverbs validated by the group of farmers was found to be >80 per cent, usefulness of proverbs related to rainfall, field operations, seeds and transplanting was found to be > 40 per cent.

 

Keywords: Farming proverbs, Proverb validation.

IPC Int. Cl.7: A01C5/00, A01C7/00.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

 Vol. 3(3), July 2004, pp. 287-293

 

Indigenous knowledge on some medicinal plants among the Nicobari Tribe of Car Nicobar Island

Stutee Gupta, M C Porwal and P S Roy

 

The Nicobari tribe of Car Nicobar Island is endowed with vast knowledge of medicinal plants. They cultivate some of these plants for the treatment of various diseases. An attempt has been made to document some of the medicinal plants commonly used by these tribes. A note on the exact usage along with the local name and photographs are also provided.

 

Keywords: Nicobarese, Car Nicobar, Medicinal Plants, Nicobari Tribe, Ethnomedicine.

IPC Int. Cl.7 : A61K35/78, A61P25/20, A61P1/06, A61P1/16, A61P19/00, A61P17/00, A61P1/12.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

 Vol. 3(3), July 2004, pp. 294-298

 

Indigenous means of communication amongst
social dignitaries of Hill Karbis of Assam

Robindra Teron and Padmeswar Gogoi

 

Communication is the lifeline of modern civilization. There exist an indigenous means of communication amongst social dignitaries of the Hill Karbis, Assam, India using a symbol called Lam Kido – made out of bamboo splits. In this study an attempt has been made to trace the origin of Kido and its significance in the social life of the Karbis. The study area covers the western part of Karbi Anglong district, where Lam kido had its origin and its uses still practiced. Lam Kido, often referred as only Kido, is the official means of communication between a Karbi traditional chief Lindokpo, and his subordinate Habe, who looks after the customs and traditions of a designated area called Longri. Only the Lindokpos enjoy the privilege of sanctioning the making of Kido which of course is preceded by a discussion in the traditional council. The Kido or Royal letter is carried by lower level dignitaries Borsinot and Bormiji. The content of the letter is coded in the form of knots in the tail part of the letter i.e. Kido. The study further revealed that though the message for the Habe is verbally passed through the messenger, the message will be considered authentic only if it is accompanied by the Kido from the sender, Lindokpo.

 

Keywords : Kido, Lindokpo, Habe, Pinpo, Rongbong, Longri, Traditional Communication Method, Bamboo splits, Hill Karbis, Mikirs.

IPC Int. Cl.7 : G09B19/24.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 3(3), July 2004, pp. 299-304

 

Ethnomedicinal survey of lower Palni Hills of
Tamil Nadu

S Ganesan, N Suresh and L Kesaven

 

Tribals are a distinct ethnic group who are usually confined to definite geographical areas, mainly in forests. Their life is woven around forest ecology and forest resources. Information on some very useful medicines known to the tribal communities through experience of ages is usually passed on from generation to generation. Ethnomedicinal surveys and fieldwork are important for systematic documentation. In the present attempt, the ethnomedicinal aspects of 45 species of plants used by the Paliyan and Pulayan tribes of lower Palni Hills (both northern and southern slopes) Tamil Nadu have been enumerated.

 

Keywords: Ethnomedicinal plants, Paliyans, Pulayans, Lower Palni Hills, Tamil Nadu.

IPC Int. Cl.7 : A61K35/78, A61P1/12, A61P39/02, A61P15/02, A61P17/02, A61P17/10, A61P1/02, A61P1/04, A61P29/00, A61P13/02, A61P15/06, A61P11/10.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 3(3), July 2004, pp. 305-313

 

Common wild vegetables of Aka tribe of
Arunachal Pradesh

A Kar

 

Arunachal Pradesh is considered as one of the biodiversity “hot spots” in the world. The Aka (Hrusso) tribe in Arunachal Pradesh utilizes many wild plants as food, fodder, medicine, etc. The present paper deals with some of the common wild vegetables used by the tribe. 25 plant species are listed here giving their scientific name, family, local name, diagnostic description, habitat, parts used and uses.

 

Keywords: Aka tribe, wild vegetables, Arunachal Pradesh.

IPC Int. Cl.7: A23L1/20, A23L1/01.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

 Vol. 3(3), July 2004, pp. 314-324

 
Traditional wisdom of rural people about
primary healthcare of children

Hema Tripathi, M K Mandape and O N Kunzru

 

An attempt has been made to document the indigenous methods of treatment followed by rural families for curing/treating common ailments among children. Data were generated from 300 rural families covering 60 villages of Bareilly district in Uttar Pradesh. A total of 124 indigenous practices were identified and documented under 27 different common ailments found among children. It was observed that 50% respondents were practicing as many as 4-6 different indigenous treatments followed by 42% respondents practicing 7-9 practices. Diarrhea followed by burn and cold was the most common ailment treated by 73, 62 and 60% respondents, respectively. More than 30% of the respondents had the local technical knowledge about fever, dysentery, vomiting, boils, measles, wounds, cough, conjunctivitis and worm infestations separately. About 29% of the respondents were following indigenous treatments of stomachache followed by constipation (25%), stomatitis (22.33%), pneumonia (18.66%), trachoma (13.0 %) and fractures (5.0%). Less then 5% rural families were found to have the knowledge about indigenous treatments regarding, dislocation, chicken pox, scorpion bite, snake bite, removal of thorn and sunstroke, etc.

 

Keywords : Traditional medicine, Primary healthcare of children, Bareilly district.

IPC Int. Cl.7: A61K35/78, A61P1/10, A61P1/12, A61P11/02, A61P17/02, A61P11/10.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

 Vol. 3(3), July 2004, pp. 325-335

 

Characterization of some traditional fermented foods and beverages of Himachal Pradesh

Navdeep Thakur, Savitri and Tek Chand Bhalla

 

Traditional fermented foods and beverages are very popular in the tribal and rural areas of Himachal Pradesh. A number of fermented foods and beverages were identified and the traditional fermentation processes were studied. Some of the popular fermented foods and beverages were analysed for their microbiological characteristics. The fermented products that are unique to the tribal and rural belts of Himachal are Bhaturu, Siddu, Chilra, Manna, Marchu, Bagpinni, Seera, Dosha, Sepubari, Sura, Chhang, Lugri, Daru, Angoori and Behmi. Besides source of nutrition, these fermented foods e.g. Bhaturu, constitute staple food in larger part of rural areas of Kullu, Kangra, Mandi and Lahaul & Spiti districts of the state while others are consumed during local festivals, marriages and special occasions. Traditional starter cultures like ‘Phab’ (dehydrated yeast formulations), ‘Treh’ (previously fermented wheat flour slurry) and ‘Malera’ (previously fermented wheat flour dough) are the inocula used in preparing fermented products. Microbiological studies revealed that species of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a dominant microorganism in fermentation along with species of Candida, Leuconostoc and Lactobacillus. The ethanol content of some of the fermented beverages was also analysed.

 

Keywords: Traditional Foods, Traditional Beverages, Fermented Foods, Fermented Beverages, Tribals, Himachal Pradesh.

IPC Int. Cl.7: A23L1/052, A23L1/105, A23L1/185, A23L1/187, A23L1/202