Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

 

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VOLUME 6

NUMBER 1

JANUARY 2007

 

Special Issue on Traditional Foods and Beverages

CONTENTS

 

Editorial

 

 

 

Papers

 

Traditional technology in preparing legume-based fermented foods of Orissa

12

      Arindam Roy, Bijoy Moktan & Prabir K Sarkar

 

 

 

Traditional foods and beverages of Himachal Pradesh

17

      Savitri & Tek Chand Bhalla

 

 

 

Traditional Foods of Monpa tribe of West Kameng, Arunachal Pradesh

25

      Ranjay K Singh, Anamika Singh & Amish K Sureja

 

 

 

Traditional fermented foods of the Naga tribes of Northeastern, India

37

      Ashiho A Mao & N Odyuo

 

 

 

Traditional fermented foods of Lahaul and Spiti area of Himachal Pradesh

42

      SS Kanwar, MK Gupta, Chhaya Katoch, Rajeev Kumar & Promila Kanwar

 

 

 

Traditional knowledge on fruit pulp processing of Lapsi in Kavrepalanchowk district of Nepal

46

      RB Chhetri & DP Gauchan

 

 

 

Understanding aspects of Yoruba gastronomic culture

50

      Samuel Oluwole Ogundele

 

 

 

Traditional food systems, erosion and renewal in Northwestern North America

57

      Nancy J Turner & Katherine L Turner

 

 

 

Effect of pre-milling treatment on protein and carbohydrate content in tribal pulses

69

      B Rout, S Sahoo & PK Senapati

 

 

 

Chemical and spectroscopic investigation of Kolakhar and its commercial importance

72

      Dibakar C Deka  & Nripendra N Talukdar

 

 

 

Cultural significance and diversities of ethnic foods of Northeast India

79

      Anamika Singh, Ranjay K Singh & Amish K Sureja

 

 

 

Jaggery – A Traditional Indian Sweetener

95

      PVK Jagannadha Rao, Madhusweta Das  &  SK Das

 

Sustainable food habits of the hill-dwelling Kandha tribe in Kalahandi district of Orissa

103

      Tribhubana Panda & Rabindra N Padhy

 

 

 

Ethnological observations 788on fermented food products of certain tribes of
Arunachal Pradesh

106

      SC Tiwari   & Debajit Mahanta

 

 

 

Usage of traditional fermented products by Indian rural folks and IPR

111

      S Sekar & S Mariappan

 

 

 

Ethnobotany of Sujen -a local rice beer of Deori tribe of Assam

121

      Chaya Deori, Samim Sofika Begum & AA Mao

 

 

 

Ethnobotany of foods and beverages among the rural farmers of Tai Ahom of North Lakhimpur district, Asom

126

      Bhaskar Saikia, Hui Tag & AK Das

 

 

 

Kiad - a popular local liquor of Pnar tribe of Jaintia hills district, Meghalaya

133

      Hajal Samati & Samim Sofika Begum

 

 

 

Fermentation of traditional beverages prepared by Bhotiya community of Uttaranchal Himalaya

136

      Chandra Prakash Das & Anita Pandey

 

 

 

Some interesting indigenous beverages among the tribals of Central India

141

      Vivek Kumar & RR Rao

 

 

 

Traditional alcoholic beverages from Ayurveda and their role on human health

144

S Sekar

 

Hidden harvest or hidden revenue- A local resource use in a remote region of Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia

150

      Sarah Pilgrim, Leanne Cullen, David Smith & Jules Pretty

 

 

 

Ethnobotany of Finger millet among Muthuvan tribes of Idukki district, Kerala

160

      Johncy Manithottam & MS Francis

 

 

 

Wild edibles used by Palliyars of the western Ghats, Tamil Nadu

163

      V Arinathan, VR Mohan, A John De Britto & C Murugan

 

 

 

Wild vegetables sold in local markets of Karbi Anglong, Assam

169

      A Kar & SK Borthakur

 

 

 

Wild edible plants of the Anamalais, Coimbatore district, western Ghats, Tamil Nadu

173

      VS Ramachandran

 

 

 

Tribal knowledge on wild edible plants of Meghalaya, Northeast India

177

      H Kayang

 

 

 

Raw edible plants of cold desert Ladakh

182

      Basant Ballabh, OP Chaurasia, PC Pande & Z Ahmed

 

Edible plants of tropical forests among tribal communities of Madhya Pradesh

185

      RK Pandey & Satvant Kaur Saini

 

 

 

Wild edible plants of Majuli island and Darrang districts of Assam

191

      U Barua, DK Hore & R Sarma

 

 

 

Arenga wightii Griff.- a unique source of starch and beverage for Muthuvan tribe of Idukki district, Kerala

195

      Johncy Manithottam & MS Francis

 

 

 

Bamboo seeds as a means to sustenance of the indigenous community

199

      S Kiruba, S Jeeva, S Sam Manohar Das & D Kannan

 

 

 

Gendered knowledge and changing trends in utilization of wild edible greens in Western Ghats, India

204

      MK Ratheesh Narayanan & N Anil Kumar

 

 

 

Edible weeds of tribals of jharkhand, orissa and West Bengal

217

      Rekha Sinha & Valeria Lakra

 

 

 

Traditional knowledge on wild food plants in Andhra Pradesh

223

      KN Reddy, Chiranjibi Pattanaik, CS Reddy & VS Raju

 

 

 

Medicinal and food value of Capparis- a harsh terrain plant

230

      SN Mishra, PC Tomar & N Lakra

 

 

 

Prioritization of cultivated and wild edibles by local people in the Uttaranchal hills of
Indian Himalaya

239

      Chandra Prakash Kala

 

 

 

Author Index

244

 

 

Subject Index

244

 

 

Forthcoming Conferences / Seminars

246

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 6(1), January 2007, pp. 12-16  

Traditional technology in preparing legume-based fermented foods of Orissa

Arindam Roy, Bijoy Moktan & Prabir K Sarkar*

Microbiology laboratory, Department of Botany, University of North Bengal, Siliguri 734 013, West Bengal

E-mail: pksarkar@sancharnet.in

Received 9 May 2006; revised 10 October 2006

The people in Orissa, like many other States in India, have a tradition of relishing a variety of cakes, locally called pitha, specially prepared during various festivals and rituals. Some of these foods are produced from the fermentation of cereal-legume batters. These products include chakuli, chhuchipatra pitha, enduri pitha, munha pitha, podo pitha and chitou, which are unknown to the scientific community. All these foods are described with respect to the nature of the product, method of preparation, mode of consumption and ethnic value.

Keywords: Chakuli, Chhuchipatra pitha, Enduri pitha, Munha pitha, Podo pitha, Chitou, Cereal-legume fermentation, Fermented foods, Traditional foods, Orissa

IPC Int. Cl.8:                A61K36/00, A01G1/00, A01G17/00, A47G19/00, A23L1/00, A23L1/06

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 6(1), January 2007, pp. 17-24

 

Traditional foods and beverages of Himachal Pradesh

Savitri & Tek Chand Bhalla*

Department of Biotechnology, Himachal Pradesh University, Summerhill, Shimla-171005, Himachal Pradesh

E-mail: bhallatc@rediffmail.com

Received 3August 2006; revised 28 November 2006

Himachal Pradesh presents anthropological, cultural, environmental and topographical diversity. Its reflection is seen in the variations of architecture of houses, clothing styles, food and food habits. The variations in availability of raw materials, environmental conditions clubbed with the time tested traditional knowledge and wisdom have made the people of different regions of this hill state to formulate, develop and perpetuate the consumption of a wide range of traditional foods and beverages unique to its places since ages. Bhatooru, siddu, marchu, seera, chilra, manna, aenkadu, sepubari, patande, doo, baari, dosha, malpude, babroo, bedvin roti, madrah, tchati, churpa, sura, chhang, kinnauri, angoori, chulli, lugri, arak/ara, rak, chukh and pickles (e.g. brinjal, lingri, bidana, peach, pear, plum, tomato, bottle gourd, etc.) made from different fruits and vegetables, etc. are some popular traditional products that are unique to the tribal and rural belts of Himachal Pradesh. Some of these products, e.g. bhatooru, chilra and tchati constitute staple food in rural areas of the state while others are prepared and consumed during marriages, local festivals and special occasions, and form part of the sociocultural life of hill people. However, the production of these foods and beverages is largely limited to household level.

Keywords: Traditional foods, Traditional beverages, Himachal Pradesh

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A01G1/00, A01G17/00, A47G19/00, A23L1/00, A23L1/06

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 6(1), January 2007, pp. 25-36  

Traditional Foods of Monpa tribe of West Kameng, Arunachal Pradesh

Ranjay K Singh1*, Anamika Singh2 & Amish K Sureja3

1Department of Agriculture Extension
2Department of Food Science & Nutrition, Mahila Mahavidalaya, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh
3Department of Vegetable Science, College of Horticulture and Forestry, Central Agricultural University, Pasighat 791 102,
Arunachal Pradesh
E-mail: ranjay_jbp@rediffmail.com

Received 30 August 2006; revised 23 October 2006

Learning about edible plants, processing of foods and medicine using location specific wisdom and conservation of food related resources has been in the large part due to incremental and cumulative learning among the societies living in close connection with nature. Looking to the importance of location specific traditional knowledge in processing of foods, a study was conducted among Monpa tribe of Thembang and Dirang circle of West Kameng district of Arunachal Pradesh. Data were collected using the participatory and conventional tools. The study demonstrates that Monpa tribe prepares a range of alcoholic beverages from finger millet (Eleusine coracana Gaertn.), maize (Zea mays Linn.), barley (Hordeum vulgare Linn.) and rice (Oryza sativa Linn.). Traditional foods are mainly based on yak milk, soybean (Glycine max Merrill.), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench), Amaranthus, maize, barley, chilli and various indigenous of fruits and vegetables. The foods consumed by Monpa tribe are nutritionally rich and are compatible with their ethnicity. The variability in the altitude, diversities in the socio-cultural and ecological edges affect the preservation, selection and use pattern of ethnic foods. The types of foods used in daily diet also signify the knowledge and learning network of women, governed by many institutions like mila, lakpa & barter system and elders of society. Diversities in the culturally and nutritionally important foods have made possible the conservation of indigenous biodiversity. Social gathering and cultural occasions provide opportunity in sharing the foods and learning the related knowledge systems.

Keywords:           Arunachal Pradesh, Beverages, Biodiversity conservation, Ethnic foods, Fermentation, Monpa tribe,          Traditional Foods

IPC Int. Cl.8:          A61K36/00, A01G1/00, A01G17/00, A47G19/00, A23L1/00, A23L1/06, A23L2/02, C12G

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 6(1), January 2007, pp. 37-41

 

Traditional fermented foods of the Naga tribes of Northeastern, India

Ashiho A Mao* & N Odyuo

Botanical Survey of India, Eastern Circle, Laitumkhrah, Shillong 793 003, Meghalaya

Received 29 August 2006; revised 25 September 2006

The paper describes the various traditional fermented foods of Naga tribes, their method of preparation, uses and the potential for improving using modern biotechnological tools.

Keywords: Fermented food, Traditional fermented foods, Naga tribes, Northeast India

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A01G1/00, A01G17/00, A47G19/00, A23L1/00, A23L1/06, A23L2/02, C12G

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 6(1), January 2007, pp. 42-45

 

Traditional fermented foods of Lahaul and Spiti area of Himachal Pradesh

S S Kanwar, M K Gupta, Chhaya Katoch, Rajeev Kumar & Promila Kanwar*

Departments of Microbiology and *Home Science Extension Education,

CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidayalaya, Palampur 176062, Himachal Pradesh

Email: promilak@hillagric.ernet.in

sskanwar@hillagric.ernet.in

Received 24 July 2006; revised 10 November 2006

Some traditional fermented foods consumed by people of Lahaul and Spiti area of Himachal Pradesh were explored microbiologically and documented. Chilra, Jhan chang, Babru, Bhaturu and Seera were the main food products made from cereals. These products were prepared by using traditional / natural inoculum, i.e. khameer/ malera or phab as a starter culture. All the fermented foods were acidic in nature. Microbiological examination of these food products and their source of inoculum revealed the dominance of yeasts mainly from genera Saccharomyces, Debaromyces and Schizosaccharomyces. The bacteria were mainly from the genera Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, and Leuconostoc.

Key words:     Traditional foods, Fermentation, Cereals, Indigenous knowledge, Fermented foods, Lahaul, Spiti, Himachal                Pradesh

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A01G1/00, A01G17/00, A47G19/00, A23L1/00, A23L1/06, C12G

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 6(1), January 2007, pp. 46-49

 

Traditional knowledge on fruit pulp processing of Lapsi in

Kavrepalanchowk district of Nepal

 

RB Chhetri1* & DP Gauchan2

1Department of Natural Sciences and 2Department of Biotechnology, P B No 6250, KTM Dhulikhel, Kavre,
Kathmandu University, Nepal

E- mail: rbchhetri@ku.edu.np, gauchan@ku.edu.np

Received 10 November 2006; revised 20 December 2006

Indigenous technical knowledge (ITK) on the processing of fruit pulp of multipurpose tree Choerospondias axillaries (Roxb.) Burtt & Hill locally known as Lapsi has been communicated. It is a potential agro- forestry tree species for income generating and nutrient supplementation in the mid hills of Nepal. Farmers normally process the fruits for their household needs as pickles and chutney, etc. by crushing and boiling the fruits, whereas entrepreneurs purchase the fruits from growers and produce varieties of edible pulp cake indigenously called Titaura items for selling in the market of Nepal as well as neighbouring countries. It has been found instrumental to raise the socio- economic status of the rural people.

Keywords: Kavrepalanchowk, Choerospondias axillaris, Fruit pulp processing, Lapsi, Titaura, Nepal

 

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A01G1/00, A01G17/00, A47G19/00, A23L1/00, A23L1/06, A23L2/02

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 6(1), January 2007, pp. 50-56

 

Understanding aspects of Yoruba gastronomic culture

 

Samuel Oluwole Ogundele

Department of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

E-mail: oluwoleogundele@yahoo.com

Received 27 July 2006; revised 24 September 2006

The gastronomic behaviour of the Yoruba people of Southwestern Nigeria is very complex in character. It evolved as a result of the tangled web of several relationships involving such phenomena as the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade and Colonisation. The research findings show in a very refreshing manner the considerable antiquity of globalisation in Yorubaland. Thus for example, the Yoruba who were carted away as slaves from about the 15th century AD did transform the socio-cultural landscape of Brazil and Cuba among other parts of the New World. Crops like water yam (Discorea alata Linn.), cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta (Linn.) Schott), asian rice (Oryza sativa Linn.), maize (Zea mays Linn.) and cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) are of foreign origins (South-east Asia and the New World), but they have become a significant component of the Yoruba gastronomic delight. The people’s abilities to successfully adapt these foreign crops to the Nigerian environment, where such indigenous food plants as oil palm (Elaeis guineensis jacq.) and white yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir.) exist, are a testimony to the often neglected oneness of humanity even in the face of cultural diversity.

Keywords: Yorubaland, Gastronomic culture, Maize, Cassava flour, Yam, Oil palm, Maize, Cassava, Palm wine, Nigeria

 

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A01G1/00, A01G17/00, A47G19/00, A23L1/00, A23L1/06

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 6(1), January 2007, pp. 57-68

 

Traditional food systems, erosion and renewal in Northwestern North America

Nancy J Turner1* & Katherine L Turner2

1School of Environmental Studies, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC Canada V 8W 2Y2, 2International Development Program, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON, K 9J 7B8, Ontario, Canada

Email: nturner@uvic.ca

Received 4 October 2006; revised 28 November 2006

The paper describes the traditional food systems of indigenous peoples of western Canada (British Columbia) and documents how they have changed over the time, especially since European newcomers arrived in the region. The impacts of dietary change on the health of indigenous peoples, providing a case example of edible camas (Camassia spp.; Liliaceae) to illustrate how traditional food use has declined have been discussed. Ten major factors are identified as influencing dietary change:  loss of territory for accessing traditional food, loss of traditional management practices such as landscape burning, introduction of new foods, land degradation and transformation, barriers to intergenerational knowledge transfer, colonial policies privileging agriculture, regulations against indigenous cultural practices; and globalization and domination of mainstream food systems. Efforts to reclaim and recover food traditions are ongoing, and will hopefully be successful in improving the overall health and well being of indigenous people and the environment.

Key words:     Indigenous people, Traditional food systems, Dietary change, Ecocultural restoration, British Columbia,                Canada

IPC Int. Cl.8:          A61K36/00, A01G1/00, A01G17/00, A47G19/00, A23L1/00, A23L1/06

Indian Journal of Traditional KnowledgeVol. 6(1), January 2007, pp. 69-71

 

Effect of pre-milling treatment on protein and carbohydrate content in tribal pulses

B Rout*, S Sahoo & PK Senapati

Biomineral Processing and Environmental Management, Regional Research Laboratory, Bhubaneswar 751013, Orissa

E-mail: rout_birajlaxmi@yahoo.com

Received 22 September 2005; revised 19 July 2006

Non-traditional pulses (tribal pulses) namely Kandulo and Bailo treated with different pre-treatments like water soaking, oil treatment, and chemical treatment and the changes in nutritive value of protein content and carbohydrate content both in manually dehulled and finished product (dhal) were assessed over untreated manually dehulled sample. Dhal yield ranged from 68.34% to 80.76% in Kandulo and 66.90% to 81.89% in Bailo; maximum dhal yield was in chemical treatment and minimum in oil pre-treated sample. All the premilling treatments except sodium bicarbonate treatment caused significant loss in protein content in cotyledon over untreated sample. Oil treated finished product resulted maximum loss in protein content in both the samples over untreated manually dehulled sample. In manually dehulled sample, maximum carbohydrate loss was found in oil treated sample than untreated finished dhal sample.

Keywords: Non-traditional pulses, Pre-milling treatment, Milling, Protein content, Carbohydrate content, Tribals, Kandulo, Bailo

 

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A01G1/00, A01G17/00, A47G19/00, A23L1/00, A23L1/06, A23L2/02

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 6(1), January 2007, pp. 72-78  

Chemical and spectroscopic investigation of Kolakhar
and its commercial importance

Dibakar C Deka* & Nripendra N Talukdar

Department of Chemistry, Gauhati University, Guwahati 781 014, Assam

Received 27 February 2006; revised 1 November 2006

Kolakhar, a traditional food additive derived from banana plants and popular amongst the different communities in Assam, has been analyzed for its commercial importance. Chemical and spectroscopic investigation show that potassium, sodium, carbonate and chloride are the major constituents present in kolakhar along with a host of other trace elements. The analysis has been able to corroborate the traditionally known superior quality of kolakhar derived from Musa balbisiana Colla as compared to those derived from different varieties of Musa acuminata Colla and Musa paradisiaca Linn. kolakhar has been found to be an excellent renewable source of potassium carbonate for commercial exploitation.

Key words: Kolakhar, Musa balbisiana, Musa acuminata, Musa paradisiaca, Banana, Traditional food additive, Trace elements, Traditional antacid

IPC Int. Cl.8:      A61K36/00, A01G1/00, A01G17/00, A47G19/00, A23L1/00, A23L1/06, A23L2/02, C12G

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge  

Vol. 6(1), January 2007, pp. 79-94  

Cultural significance and diversities of ethnic foods of Northeast India

Anamika Singh1, Ranjay K Singh2* & Amish K Sureja3

1Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Mahila Mahavidyalaya, Banaras Hindu University (BHU), Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh

2Department of Agriculture Extension

3Department of Vegetable Science, College of Horticulture & Forestry, Central Agricultural University,
Pasighat 791 102, Arunachal Pradesh

E-mail: ranjay_jbp@rediffmail.com

Received 30 August 2006; revised 23 October 2006

The traditional foods processed and prepared by women of Northeastern region are intimately connected to their socio-cultural, ecological, spiritual life and health. The processing and preparation of ethnic foods not only demonstrate the creativity and treasure of food heritage of tribal women but also their incremental learning to sustain the life and ecosystem as a whole. Looking to the diversities in ethnic foods, an attempt has been made to explore the ethnic foods made of local soybean, bamboo shoot, tree bean, lai patta (leafy mustard) and rai (Brassica juncea (Linn.) Czern. & Coss.) from different selected tribes of Northeast India.

Tribal women of Northeastern region have a wide range of variability in the ethnic foods made of soybean, bamboo shoot, lai patta, tree bean and rai. In each state, the processing method of these foods is somewhat different based on the culture, variability in the materials used in the food, climate and overall knowledge of the processing and preparation. The foods used in the dietary system were found to be nutritionally rich and culturally important in various festivals and ceremonies. Ethnic foods prepared and consumed by women can not be seen in the isolated mode, instead it is a complex dynamics in which nutrition, health, food security, culture, ethics, subsistence economy and ecological sustainability are integral components. A policy framework with clear directives on recognition of traditional foods and associated knowledge systems is urgently needed.

Keywords: Cultural significance, Ethnic food, Traditional food, Fermentation, Indigenous knowledge, Tribal women, Women empowerment, Northeast India, Adi, Galo, Apatani, Sherdukpen, Ao, Sema, Mizo, Khasi, Bhutia, Gurung, Meitei, Barman

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A01G1/00, A01G17/00, A47G19/00, A23L1/00, A23L1/06, A23L2/02, A61P1/04, A61P15/00, A61P15/06, A61P15/14, A61P25/00

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 6(1), January 2007, pp. A 95-102  

Jaggery – A Traditional Indian Sweetener

PVK Jagannadha Rao, Madhusweta Das & SK Das*

Department of Agricultural and Food Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302, West Bengal

Email: pvkjrao@rediffmail.com

Email: madhu@agfe.iitkgp.ernet.in

Email: skd@agfe.iitkgp.ernet.in

Received 28 September 2005; revised 14 September 2006

Jaggery is the sugarcane based traditional Indian sweetener. At present, 24.5% of the cane produced in India is being utilized for producing jaggery. Jaggery is nutritious and easily available to the rural people. Compared to white sugar, it requires low capital requirement in production and is manufactured at the farmer’s individual units itself. Of the total world production, more than 70% of the jaggery is produced in India. To meet the future sweetener requirement, the scope of jaggery seems to be promising.

Keywords: Jaggery, Khandsari, Indian sweetener, Traditional sweetener, Traditional sweetening agent

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A01G1/00, A01G17/00, A47G19/00, A23L1/00, A23L1/06  

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 6(1), January 2007, pp. 103-105  

Sustainable food habits of the hill-dwelling Kandha tribe in Kalahandi
district of Orissa

Tribhubana Panda*1 & Rabindra N Padhy2

1Kalahandi Institute for Tribology and Ethnobiology, Jilingdar, Dedar 766014, Kalahandi, Orissa

 2Department of Botany, Government Autonomous College, Bhawanipatna 766001, Kalahandi, Orissa

E-mail: kite_kld@yahoo.co.in; rnpadhy54@yahoo.com

Received 6 September 2005; revised 30 January 2006

An ethnobotanical survey of food practices of an aboriginal, hill-dwelling Kandha tribe of Kalahandi district, revealed that in addition to their conventional foods, rice, finger millet and a few popular pulses, they use many types of naturally occurring unusual additional food items such as carnals of mango, several types of tubers of the genus Dioscorea, wild bean Mucuna utilis Wall. ex Wight, Madhuca indica J.F.Gmel. flowers, Caryota urens pith, Tamarindus indica seeds, younglings of bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus) and wild mushrooms. Detailed methods of processing of these items are unique and bitter tasting chemicals (alkaloids) of these food items are removed by repeated boiling and discarding the boiled water.

Key words: Ethnobotany, Kandha tribe, Food practice, Kalahandi, Orissa

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A01G1/00, A01G17/00, A47G19/00, A23L1/00, A23L1/06, A23L2/02

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 6(1), January 2007, pp. 106-110

 

Ethnological observations on fermented food products of certain tribes of Arunachal Pradesh

S C Tiwari1* & Debajit Mahanta2

1Department of Forestry, Wild Life & Environmental Sciences, Guru Ghasidas University, Bilaspur, 495009, Chhattisgarh 2Arunachal Pradesh State Council for Science & Technology

Vivek Vihar, Itanagar 791 113, Arunachal Pradesh

E-mail: sct_in@yahoo.com

Received 31 May 2006; revised 28 September 2006

The Northeastern region of India, with various ethnic groups, offers an excellent opportunity for ethnological studies. The paper deals with the observations of ethnological significance of traditional fermented food products prepared by some tribes of Arunachal Pradesh. Fermented foods are important and inseparable constituents of food consumed by these tribes and play a vital role in their indigenous traditional life style.

Keywords: Indigenous Knowledge System, Fermented foods, Tribes, Arunachal Pradesh, Monpas tribe, Adis tribe, Nyishis tribe, Apatanis tribe

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A01G1/00, A01G17/00, A47G19/00, A23L1/00, A23L1/06

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 6(1), January 2007, pp. 111-120  

Usage of traditional fermented products by Indian rural folks and IPR

S Sekar* & S Mariappan

Department of Biotechnology, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024, Tamil Nadu

E-mail: sekarbiotech@yahoo.com; sekarbiotech@bdu.ac.in

Received 18 July 2005; revised 29 September 2005

Documentation and utilization of traditional knowledge in the field of medicine, healing and biodiversity conservation has attained greater dimensions. Though rural folk of our country unknowingly use microorganisms for varied purposes, there is no major effort to document and protect them. The art of preservation and enrichment of vegetables by microbial systems, preserving microbial culture starter for beverage production and production of diverse traditional beverages from plant materials is commendable. Fish products, dye adhesives and dyes are obtained similarly. Traditional foods and beverages are also used therapeutically. Patent analysis of Indian traditional fermented products in Indian databases, viz. Ekaswa A, Ekaswa B and Patestate showed the presence of few patents in idli, kinema, and toddy. In the United States patent database, there are few patents in dahi, where the relevance knowledge from India is indicated. Search in the patent databases of Japan, Europe and global search of WIPO showed lack of patents in Indian traditional fermented products. There is ample scope for researching and protecting our traditional knowledge by the tools of Intellectual Property Rights and sharing of benefits with the indigenous people of our country.

Key words:          Traditional fermentation, Traditional foods, Traditional beverages, Culture starter, Patent analysis

IPC Int. Cl.8:          A61K36/00, A01G1/00, A01G17/00, A47G19/00, A23L1/00, A23L1/06

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 6(1), January 2007, pp. 121-125

 

Ethnobotany of Sujen¾A local rice beer of Deori tribe of Assam

Chaya Deori, Samim Sofika Begum & AA Mao*

Botanical Survey of India, Eastern Circle, Shillong 793003, Meghalaya

Received 19 September 2005; revised 3 March 2006

Sujen, a popular local rice beer has a very important role in the socio-cultural life of Deori tribe of Assam. Sujen is drunk in all their festive occasions and celebrations. The paper deals with the ethnobotanical observation on the preparation of Sujen by Deori tribes. The Plant species used in the preparation of Mod pitha (natural starter) for brewing Sujen are enumerated with their botanical names, families, vernacular names and plant parts used.

Key words: Sujen, Deori tribe, Rice beer, Mod pitha, Assam

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A01G1/00, A01G17/00, A47G19/00, A23L1/00, A23L1/06, C12G

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 6(1), January 2007, pp. 126-132  

Ethnobotany of foods and beverages among the rural farmers of Tai Ahom of North Lakhimpur district, Asom

Bhaskar Saikia, Hui Tag* & AK Das

Higher Plant Systematic and Ethnomedicine, Department of Botany, Rajiv Gandhi University, Rono Hills,
Itanagar 791112, Arunachal Pradesh

E-mail: huitag@yahoo.co.in

Received 24 August 2006; revised 11 October 2006

The Northeastern region of India including Asom is one of the core area widely recognized as the centre of origin of rice germplasm. It is the largest region exceptionally rich in the rice genetic diversity. The physiographic and agro-ecological conditions vary in Asom very widely. The physical features, geographical isolation and historical realities have made the state an area of unique ethnic diversity. All the people of this state from the time immemorial have been using rice as staple food and some of the ethnic group use rice for preparation of alcoholic beverage. The present paper emphasized on ethnobotany and taxonomy of traditional rice varieties cultivated among the Tai Ahom of North Lakhimpur district of Asom for food security. Emphasis is also given on beverage processing techniques using rice varieties and other plant material used during preparation of rice beer commonly known as Sajpani (Tai) &, Laopani (Ass.) by the Ahom caste of Asom.

Key words: Ethnobotany, Lakhimpur district, Asom, Traditional foods, Traditional beverage, Ahom, Sajpani, Laopani, Rice beer

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A01G1/00, A01G17/00, A47G19/00, A23L1/00, A23L1/06

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 6(1), January 2007, pp. 133-135  

Kiad¾A popular local liquor of Pnar tribe of Jaintia hills district, Meghalaya

Hajal Samati & Samim Sofika Begum*

Botanical Survey of India, Eastern Circle, Shillong 793003, Meghalaya

Email: samimbegum@rediffmail.com

Received 16 January 2006; revised 21 August 2006

Kiad, popular local liquor plays an important role associated with various socio-cultural life of the Pnar tribe of Jaintia hills district. The paper highlights the indigenous method of preparation of the popular local liquor.

Key words: Kiad, Local liquor, Pnar tribe, Meghalaya 

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A01G1/00, A01G17/00, A47G19/00, A23L1/00, A23L1/06, A23L2/02, C12G 

 

   

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 6(1), January 2007, pp. 136-140

 

Fermentation of traditional beverages prepared by Bhotiya community of Uttaranchal Himalaya

Chandra Prakash Das & Anita Pandey*

Environmental Physiology and Biotechnology Department, GB Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Kosi-Katarmal, Almora 263 643, Uttaranchal

E-mail: anita@gbpihed.nic.in

Received 25 November 2005; revised 17 May 2006

Balam, a wheat based starter culture, is used in several fermentation processes practiced by Bhotiya community of high altitude of Uttaranchal Himalaya. A total number of 32 microbial cultures were isolated from nine samples of Balam. Two species of Gram-positive spore forming bacteria (belonging to genus Bacillus) and three of yeasts (Saccharmycopsis fibuligera, Kluyveromyces maxianus, and Sacharomyces sp.) dominated the microflora of Balam. The fermentation causing microbes exhibited wide range of temperature, pH and alcohol tolerance.

Key words: Starter culture, Balam, Bhotiya tribe, Traditional beverages, Bacteria, Yeast

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A01G1/00, A01G17/00, A47G19/00, A23L1/00, A23L1/06, C12G

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 6(1), January 2007, pp. 141-143

 

Some interesting indigenous beverages among the tribals of Central India

Vivek Kumar1* & RR Rao2

1National Innovation Foundation, Bungalow No 1, Satellite Complex, Premchand Nagar Road, Ahmedabad 380 015, Gujarat; 2Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Bangalore, Karnataka

Email: drvivek_kumar@yahoo.co.in

Received 3 November 2006; revised 5 December 2006

Central India is rich in ethnic as well as floristic diversity. The tribal groups of this region mainly depend on the forests for food, medicine and shelter. Beverages play an important role in the life of these tribals. The paper presents the detailed account of two important beverages, Handia and Mahua consumed by the tribals of Central India.

Keywords: Handia, Mahua, Traditional beverages, Tribals, Central India

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A01G1/00, A01G17/00, A47G19/00, A23L1/00, A23L1/06

 

 

 

  Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge  

Vol. 6(1), January 2007, pp. 144-149  

Traditional alcoholic beverages from Ayurveda and their role on human health

S Sekar

Department of Biotechnology, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024, Tamil Nadu

E-mail: sekarbiotech@bdu.ac.in; sekarbiotech@yahoo.com

Received 29 August 2006; revised 10 November 2006

The traditional medical system of Indian Ayurveda indicates availability of a variety of alcoholic beverages named generally as Madya, which are hitherto unreported. The objective of this work was to compile and analyze such information obtained from traditional literature in order to document the impact of these beverages on human health. In this work, the Ayurvedic alcoholic beverages are grouped into seven major categories based on the nature of raw materials used and the nature of fermentation. Constituents and medicinal properties of diverse alcoholic beverages falling into each category are compiled. Novel information about the fractions of beverages, quality assessment and changes in properties as a result of storing are highlighted. The means for the application of modern scientific tools and vistas of scientific knowledge to hull out useful information as well as to document and validate the rich tradition of fermented therapeutics of Ayurveda is outlined.

Key words: Ayurveda, Madya, Alcoholic beverages, Traditional medicine, Biomedical fermentation

IPC Int. Cl.8:          A61K36/00, A61K36/00, A01G1/00, A01G17/00, A47G19/00, A23L1/00, A23L1/06, A23L2/02, C12G,           A61P1/14, A61P3/04, A61P3/06, A61P3/08, A61P3/10, A61P5/00, A61P5/50, A61P9/00, A61P9/04,           A61P9/14, A61P29/00, A61P31/00, A61P33/00, A61P33/10, A61P35/00

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 6(1), January 2007, pp. 150-159  

Hidden harvest or hidden revenue¾A local resource use in a remote region of Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia

Sarah Pilgrim*, Leanne Cullen, David Smith & Jules Pretty

Centre for Environment and Society, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester CO4 3SQ, United Kingdom

Email: sepilg@essex.ac.uk

Received 24 August 2006; revised 22 November 2006

In the 5-7 million years we spent as hunter-gatherers, our knowledge base evolved with the ecosystems within which it existed and has further developed as a result of historical continuity of local resource dependence. Knowing which wild animals and plants are palatable and have nutritious content has long been a survival strategy for the rural poor, indigenous peoples and tribal communities, particularly those living in harsh environmental conditions. This information is essential to supplementing diets when harvests fail due to insect blights, disease or adverse weather conditions, hence wild nutritional resources are often termed the hidden harvest. Earlier ethnobotanical and ethnozoological surveys were studied to assess the relationship between wealth and use of local resources in a remote region of Indonesia. Poorer households were found to use local resources to generate income than wealthier households, who are more likely to use local species for consumption and rely on other sources of income. It also found that individuals or communities with higher income levels are less likely to support traditional ecosystem practices. The shift in resource collection incentives (from subsistence to income) as a result is likely to threaten ecosystems, management practices and the human populations that will have to rely on them in the future. Therefore, it may be essential to externally-manage systems of resource management in the future as economic development encroaches on traditional communities. These findings also have implications for the future of less wealthy communities in resource-rich regions. Both wild and human populations inhabiting an ecosystem come under threat when economic development and market pressures force the local view of natural resources to shift from one of hidden harvest opportunities to hidden revenue.

Keywords: Hidden harvest, Hidden revenue, Local ecological knowledge, Indonesia, Traditional food, Economics, Resource management, Traditional management practices

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A01G1/00, A01G17/00, A47G19/00, A23L1/00, A23L1/06

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge  

Vol. 6(1), January 2007, pp. 160-162

 

Ethnobotany of Finger millet among Muthuvan tribes of Idukki district, Kerala

Johncy Manithottam & MS Francis*

Spices Board, Government of India, Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Sugandha Bhavan, Cochin 682025, Kerala; *Center for Postgraduate Studies and Research, Department of Botany, Sacred Heart College, Thevara, Cochin 682013, Kerala

E-mail: msfrancisman@yahoo.co.uk

Received 22 August 2005; revised 10 October 2006

Muthuvan tribes of Idukki district adopt slash and burn method of cultivation for Eleucine coracana (L.) Gaerten. The selection of land is based on ecological indicators such as Carex myosurus Nees and Scleria terrestris (L.) Fasset.  Their intercropping pattern, seed material storage and shifting cultivation remain unique in several ways. Katty is a special dish prepared from the powdered grains of Eleucine by these people.

Key words: Eleucine coracana, Muthuvan tribes, Katty, finger millet, slash and burn method

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A01G1/00, A01G17/00, A47G19/00, A23L1/00, A23L1/06, A23L2/02

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 6(1), January 2007, pp. 163-168

 

Wild edibles used by Palliyars of the western Ghats, Tamil Nadu

 

V Arinathan1, VR Mohan2*, A John De Britto3 & C Murugan4

1Department of Botany, Kamaraj College, Thoothukudi, Tamil Nadu

2Botany Research Laboratory, VO Chidambaram College, Thoothukudi, Tamil Nadu

3PG and Research Department of Botany, St Xavier’s College, Palayamkottai, Tamil Nadu; 4Coffee Board, Bangalore

Received 22 September 2005; revised 19 July 2006

A survey of wild edible food plants was undertaken and about 171 species belonging to 67 families were selected and documented from different settlements of Palliyars in the Southeastern slopes of the western Ghats, Tamil Nadu. Plant species with their family names, vernacular names and plant parts used are tabulated.

Key Words: Indigenous knowledge, Palliyars, Wild edible plants, Western Ghats

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A01G1/00, A01G17/00, A47G19/00, A23L1/00, A23L1/06, A23L2/02

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 6(1), January 2007, pp. 169-172

 

Wild vegetables sold in local markets of Karbi Anglong, Assam

 

A Kar1* & S K Borthakur2

1Institute of Integrated Resource Management, Science & Technology Section, Tezpur 784501, Assam

2Department of Botany, Gauhati University, Guwahati 781014, Assam

E-mail: ashishvision10@rediffmail.com

Received 7 August 2006; revised 26 October 2006

The Karbi tribes in Assam utilize many wild plants as vegetables. The papers deals with 29 wild vegetables with their botanical name, local (Karbi) name, brief description of the plant, time of collection, parts used, mode of use, taste, habitat and regeneration, which are used by the tribe and are also sold in markets of Karbi Anglong. The paper also suggests for detailed ethnobotanical studies, documentation of indigenous knowledge and cultivation of wild vegetable, and develop multi-tier wild edible garden to preserve wild vegetables.

Key words: Karbi tribe, Wild edible plants, Wild vegetables, Assam

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A01G1/00, A01G17/00, A47G19/00, A23L1/00, A23L1/06, A23L2/02

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 6(1), January 2007, pp. 173-176

 

Wild edible plants of the Anamalais, Coimbatore district, western Ghats,
Tamil Nadu

 

VS Ramachandran

PG and Research Department of Botany, Kongunadu Arts and Science College (Autonomous), Coimbatore 641 029, Tamil Nadu

Email: vsrbot@yahoo.co.in

Received 25 August 2006; revised 25 September 2006

Anamalai hills, western Ghats, Coimbatore district, Tamil Nadu were surveyed to list out the edible plants utilized by the tribal communities such as Kadars, Pulaiyars, Malasars, Malaimalasars and Mudhuvars. About 74 plant species including 25 leafy vegetables, 4 fruit yielding and 45 fruit / seed yielding varieties have been identified. The local tribal communities for their dietary requirements since a long time have utilized these forest produce. Many of these less familiar edible plants can be subjected to further investigation to meet the food and nutrition security of the nation.

Keywords: Tribals, Anamalais, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, Wild edible plants, Kadars tribe, Pulaiyars tribe, Malasars tribe, Malaimalasars tribe and Mudhuvars tribe

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A01G1/00, A01G17/00, A47G19/00, A23L1/00, A23L1/06, A23L2/02

 

 

 

   

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 6(1), January 2007, pp. 177-181

 

Tribal knowledge on wild edible plants of Meghalaya, Northeast India

 

H Kayang

School of Life Science, Department of Botany, Mawlai Mawkynroh Permanent Campus,
North Eastern Hill University, Shillong 793022

E-mail: hkayang@hotmail.com

Received 7 September 2005; revised 20 June 2006

Documentation of tribal knowledge on wild edible plants of Meghalaya brought to light a number of wild plant species used as edibles. The plant parts, viz. roots, tubers, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds are used in raw or cooked forms. The present study records 110 wild growing plants, which are eaten whole or in part by the local people. The paper enumerates and discusses various aspects of the wild plants used by Khasi, Jaintia and Garo tribes of Meghalaya.

Key words: Wild edible plants, Khasi tribe, Jaintia tribe, Garo tribe, Meghalaya

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A01G1/00, A01G17/00, A47G19/00, A23L1/00, A23L1/06, A23L2/02

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 6(1), January 2007, pp. 182-184  

Raw edible plants of cold desert Ladakh

Basant Ballabh1*, OP Chaurasia1, PC Pande2 & Z Ahmed1

1Field Research Laboratory, Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO), Leh-Ladakh, Jammu & Kashmir
2Department of Botany, Kumaon University SSJ Campus, Almora, Uttaranchal

Received 22 August 2006; revised 10 November 2006

The paper describes 31 plants species belonging to 15 families, used as raw edibles by the tribal communities of Ladakh region. Various plant parts, viz. bulbs, roots, leaves, leaf-stalks, fruits and seeds used in different ways such as edibles fruits, Chutnies, edibles in salads and used for flavouring food products are discribed. In far-flung areas where, there is no communication available, the tribal communities are still dependant on wild resources for fulfilling their daily needs.

Key words: Raw edible palnt, Ladakh, Tribal communities, Cold desert

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A01G1/00, A01G17/00, A47G19/00, A23L1/00, A23L1/06, A23L2/02

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 6(1), January 2007, pp. 185-190

 

Edible plants of tropical forests among tribal communities of Madhya Pradesh

 

R K Pandey* & Satvant Kaur Saini

Forest Ecology & Environment Division, State Forest Research Institute, Polipathar, Jabalpur 482008, Madhya Pradesh

Received 16 February 2006; revised 25 July 2006

In Madhya Pradesh, Baiga and Gond tribes are identified as the main collectors and users of forest resources among the forest dwellers. These non-wood forest products (NTFPs) have immense potential to meet the daily requirement of tribal communities and also a source of raw material supply to small pharmaceutical industries. The forest resources of Baiga dominated forest areas of Dindori district of Madhya Pradesh contribute more than 60 % of their annual income. Baiga communities collect the maximum forest resources for their subsistence among forest dwelling communities in the world. Many people living in and around forests are unaware of the potential of these resources for income generation because they lack access to information on processing possibilities. Local people and institutional stakeholders resulting into depletion of resources in natural forests ignore sustainable harvesting of forest resources. An attempt has been made to assess the status of economically important utilizable forest resources in their natural habitats of tropical forests of tropical forests of Dindori and Mandla districts.

Key words: Non-wood forest products, Forest dwellers, Tropical forests, Sustainable harvesting, Edible plants, Baiga tribe, Gond tribe

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A01G1/00, A01G17/00, A47G19/00, A23L1/00, A23L1/06, A23L2/02

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 6(1), January 2007, pp. 191-194

 

Wild edible plants of Majuli island and Darrang districts of Assam

 

U Barua1*, DK Hore1 & R Sarma2

1NBPGR Regional Station, Umiam 793 103, Meghalaya;
2FDI (NGO), Maligaon Chariali, Guwahati 781 011, Assam

E-mail: ubarua@rediffmail.com; nbpgrshl@neline.com

Received 19 July 2006; revised 17 November 2006

Brahmaputra valley of Assam is very unique in its plant bioresources and is inhabited by different communities. Besides the cultivated crops, they are also dependent on various wild plants, which are used for consumption as well as in ethnomedicine. The paper deals with 38 wild edible plants of Majuli island and Darrang districts.

Keywords: Assam, Wild edible plants, Rabha tribe, Bodo tribe, Koch tribe, Rajbonshi tribe, Mishing tribe, Deori tribe, Chutia tribe, Sonowal Kachar tribe, Keot tribe, Koibarta tribe, Kalita tribe, Ahom tribe

IPC Int. Cl.8:                A61K36/00, A01G1/00, A01G17/00, A47G19/00, A23L1/00, A23L1/06, A23L2/02

 


Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 6(1), January 2007, pp. 195-198

 

Arenga wightii Griff.¾A unique source of starch and beverage for Muthuvan tribe of Idukki district, Kerala

Johncy Manithottam & MS Francis*

Spices Board, Govt. of India, Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Sugandha Bhavan, Cochin 682025, Kerala; *Center for Postgraduate Studies and Research, Department of Botany, Sacred Heart College, Thevara, Cochin682013, Kerala

E-mail: msfrancisman@yahoo.co.uk

Received 22 August 2005; revised 23 November 2006

Arenga wightii Griff. is a palm seen along the slopes of western Ghats in Idukki district of Kerala state. Muthuvan tribal community living in Idukki district utilizes the plant for extraction of starch and palm vine. They have developed and standardized their own techniques for extraction of starch and palm vine. The starch extracted is used for the preparation of various dishes while palm vine is consumed directly without fermentation. The paper deals with the method of extraction of starch and palm vine and its usage.

Key words: Arenga wightii, Starch, Palm, Muthuvan tribe, Idukki district, Kerala

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A01G1/00, A01G17/00, A47G19/00, A23L1/00, A23L1/06

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 6(1), January 2007, pp. 199-203

 

Bamboo seeds as a means to sustenance of the indigenous community

S Kiruba1*, S Jeeva2, S Sam Manohar Das1 & D Kannan3

1Post Graduate Studies and Research Centre in Zoology, Scott Christian College, Nagercoil 629 603, Tamil Nadu
2Ecology Research Laboratory, Department of Botany, School of Life Sciences, North-Eastern Hill University, Umshing - Mawkynroh, Mawlai, Shillong 793 022, Meghalaya
3Centre for Environmental Studies, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Ettimadai, Coimbatore - 641 105, Tamil Nadu

E-mail: sambiocontrol@gmail.com

Received 24 August 2006; revised 11 October 2006

Bamboo is a natural gift for human livelihood. Bamboo has the peculiarity of flowering and seeding only after a long vegetative phase, and it varies from species to species. The present paper deals with the use of seeds of Bambusa arundinacea Willd. by the Kani tribes of Kanyakumari district, southern western Ghats. Method of seed collection, storage and mode of consumption by indigenous people have been described. The indigenous community not only uses the seeds as a food, but also as commercial commodity to improve the economy. The Kani tribes believe that the seeds of Bambusa arundinacea enhance the fertility, so that there is great demand of seeds of this species in pharmaceutical industry to manufacture drugs to improve fertility.

Key words: Bambusa arundinacea, Bamboo, Fertility, Indigenous community, Kani tribes, Traditional knowledge

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A01G1/00, A01G17/00, A47G19/00, A23L1/00, A23L1/06, A23L2/02

 

 


Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 6(1), January 2007, pp. 204-216

 

Gendered knowledge and changing trends in utilization of wild edible greens in Western Ghats, India

M K Ratheesh Narayanan & N Anil Kumar*

M S Swaminathan Research Foundation, 3rd Cross Road, Taramani Institutional Area, Chennai 600 113, Tamil Nadu

Received 7 July 2006; revised 25 August 2006

The paper describes the differences and trends in the use and management of wild edible greens within and between households pertaining to three ethnic and one migrant community in Wayanad district, an agro-biodiversity hot spot in southern Western Ghats. A total of 366 people were interviewed and 20 key informants were selected from each community to examine multiple uses, preferences, marketing and local availability of edible wild greens, where 102 species were recorded. The paper discusses how gender, ethnicity, age and socio-economic status affect wild green management and household nutritional security. Women are more skillful in managing the surrounding landscape and are main knowledge holders and conservationists. The implications of land use changes, agrochemicals, restrictions on forest access and alien species invasion on the availability of wild greens are highlighted. It was found that women are taking effective steps to sustainably manage landscapes and species that provide edible greens, but changing trends in gender relations inhibit their efforts; alien species invasion and modern agri-practices lead to local extinction of many greens, and the erosion of traditional knowledge especially among youth due to materialistic life style affects the sustainable use of many wild greens.

Key words: Wild edible greens, Traditional knowledge, Ethnicity, Nutritional security, Biodiversity conservation, Western Ghats, Paniyar tribe, Kattunaikkar tribe, Kurumar tribe

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A01G1/00, A01G17/00, A47G19/00, A23L1/00, A23L1/06, A23L2/02

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 6(1), January 2007, pp. 217-222

 

Edible weeds of tribals of Jharkhand, Orissa and West Bengal

Rekha Sinha* & Valeria Lakra

Directorate of Extension Education, Birsa Agricultural University, Kanke, Ranchi 834 006, Jharkhand

Received 13 December 2005; revised 5 July 2006

An extensive survey was carried out among ten ethnic groups in Jharkhand, Orissa and West Bengal of eastern India to document edible plants, which grow as weeds in their agricultural and non-agricultural fields. Data were collected through PRA exercises and interview schedules covering 8 districts, 10 community development blocks and 12 villages. The study identifies 43 species of weeds belonging to 36 genera and 26 families that are commonly consumed by the tribal population as per their availability. The habit, season as well as place of procurement and edible part of these plants have been discussed.

Key Words:          Edible weeds, Tribals, Jharkhand, Orissa, West Bengal, Santhal, Sounti, Gond, Juang, Kol, Bhumiz, Oraon,           Munda, Kharwar, Chero tribes

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A01G1/00, A01G17/00, A47G19/00, A23L1/00, A23L1/06, A23L2/02

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 6(1), January 2007, pp. 223-229

 

Traditional knowledge on wild food plants in Andhra Pradesh

 

K N Reddy1, Chiranjibi Pattanaik2*, C S Reddy3 & V S Raju4

1Laila Impex R&D Centre, Unit-1, Phase-3, Jawahar Autonagar, Vijayawada 520 007, Andhra Pradesh;
2Salim Ali Centre for Ornithology & Natural History, Deccan Regional Station, Hyderabad 500 017, Andhra Pradesh;
3Forestry & Ecology Division, National Remote Sensing Agency, Hyderabad 500 037, Andhra Pradesh;
4Department of Botany, Kakatiya University, Warangal 506 009, Andhra Pradesh

Email: jilu2000@rediffmail.com

Received 4 October 2006; revised 28 November 2006

The purpose of the study was to document the traditional wild food plants used by tribal people in Andhra Pradesh. A total of 156 species were documented as wild plants used for food purposes. Among those species, 56 species are herbs followed by 55 trees, 27 shrubs and 18 climbers. Mostly, herbs are used as leafy vegetables. It has been observed that the traditional knowledge on wild food plants is on sharp decline. Unless efforts are made to educate the younger generations about their importance, it may be lost in near future. This type of study could contribute significantly in Government policies to improve food security in tribal areas, and in the improvement of wild vegetable status, whose potential as sources of nutrition is currently undervalued.

Keywords: Wild food plants, Traditional knowledge, Edible plants, Tribals, Andhra Pradesh, Chenchu, Khond Paroja, Kutia Khond, Kolam, Sugalis, Lambadis

IPC Int. Cl.8:                A61K36/00, A01G1/00, A01G17/00, A47G19/00, A23L1/00, A23L1/06, A23L2/02

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 6(1), January 2007, pp. 230-238

 

Medicinal and food value of Capparis—a harsh terrain plant

 

S N Mishra*, P C Tomar & N Lakra

Department of Biosciences, M D University, Rohtak-124001, Haryana

E-mail: shyamnmishra@yahoo.com

Received 31 August 2006; revised 10 November 2006

Capparis is a dominating genus of the family Capparidaceae. Capparis spp. are xerophytic, growing in a broad range of climatic conditions, such as dry deserts to cooler terrains of mountain either as shrubs, trees or creepers. The female flowers of some of the Capparis species are used as vegetable and fruits are used in pickle production because of their high nutritive ingredients like proteins, carbohydrate, minerals and vitamins. Whole plant or parts are used for curing asthma, rheumatism, diabetes, paralysis, toothache, as antihelmintic, antiallergic, snakebite antidote, etc. Out of the many Capparis species, a few are of specific interest for curing particular ailments, like tuberculosis, cancer, rheumatism or diabetes, which still requires extensive study. Simultaneously, it will be valuable to evaluate utility potential of flowers/fruits in cancer patients due to high titre of spermidin containing alkaloids, which are implicated in tumorogenesis. The review highlights medicinal importance of the Capparis products and unnoticed threatened status in their respective niches for sustainable use and long lasting conservation. Being harsh terrain species, plant needs to be considered for strategic planning for greening deserts hilltops.

Key words: Medicinal plant s, Food value, Capparis sp., Harsh terrain plant

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A01G1/00, A01G17/00, A47G19/00, A23L1/00, A23L1/06

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 6(1), January 2007, pp. 239-243

 

Prioritization of cultivated and wild edibles by local people in the Uttaranchal hills of Indian Himalaya

Chandra Prakash Kala

National Medicinal Plants Board, Chandralok Building, 36 Janpath, New Delhi 110001
Email:cpkala@yahoo.co.uk

Received 25 May 2006; revised 10 October 2006

The paper deals with the preferences of local communities on the cultivated and wild edible plant species in an Indian Himalayan state, Uttaranchal. The state is comprised of 13 districts, which have 5 major tribal communities (i.e. Bhotiya, Jaunsari, Boksha, Tharu and Raji). The preferences of local people on the cultivated and wild edible plant species varied across the different localities. A total 23 cultivated food crop species and 15 wild edible fruit species were prioritized as the most preferred species by the local people in the study area. Of the prioritized food crops, Triticum aestivum, Oriza sativa, Eluesine coracana, Hordium vulgare and Brassica campestris were common preferences of local people, whereas of the wild edible fruits Myrica esculenta, Berberis asiatica, Rubus ellipticus and Ficus auriculata were the common preferences of local people in Uttaranchal. The preferences for different food plants by the local people are further discussed in the changing socio-cultural and socio-economic context.

Key Words: Wild edible plants, Uttaranchal, Bhotiya, Jaunsari, Boksha, Tharu Raji

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A01G1/00, A01G17/00, A47G19/00, A23L1/00, A23L1/06, A23L2/02