Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

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VOLUME 7

NUMBER 4

OCTOBER 2008

 

CONTENTS

 

Pharmacognostical studies on Sankhapushpi (Convolvulus microphyllus Sieb. ex Spreng. and Evolvulus alsinoides (L.) L.)

529

      V Madhavan, S N Yoganarasimhan & M R Gurudeva

 

 

 

Standardization of Navaka Guggulu - An Ayurvedic polyherbal formulation

542

      KR Gopala Simha & V Laxminarayana

 

 

 

Traditionally fermented biomedicines, arishtas and asavas from Ayurveda

548

      S Sekar & S Mariappan

 

 

 

Evaluation of antidiarrhoeal activity of Kutajarista- a classical Ayurvedic preparation

557

      Premnath Shenoy KR & Yoganarasimhan SN

 

 

 

Hepatoprotective effect of Bhumyamalki (Phyllanthus fraternus Webster) and Phaltrikadi decoction in patients of acute viral hepatitis

560

      Harbans Singh

 

 

 

Judiveera - An excellent remedy for malaria

566

      Hari Prakash Pandey

 

 

 

Management of dysfunctional uterine bleeding with Bhumyamalki

568

      Neelam & Jaya

 

 

 

Utility of cupping therapy Hijamat in Unani medicine

572

      Jamal Akhtar & M Khalid Siddiqui

 

 

 

Therapeutic evaluation of Qalbeen- A polyherbal mineral formulation in ischaemic heart disease

575

      Mohd Mohsin, AB Khan, MH Hakim & T Latafat

 

 

 

Herbal remedies among the Khasi traditional healers and village folks in Meghalaya

581

      SR Hynniewta &Yogendra Kumar

 

 

 

Traditional medicobotany of Chakma community residing in the Northwestern periphery of Namdapha National Park in Arunachal Pradesh

587

      R Sarmah, D Adhikari, M Majumder & A Arunachalam

 

 

 

Ethnobotanical observations on Bamboos among Adi tribes in Arunachal Pradesh

594

      Tika Prasad Sharma & SK Borthakur

 

 

 

Utilisation of mangrove forests in Bhitarkanika wildlife sanctuary, Orissa

598

      Chiranjibi Pattanaik, C S Reddy, N K Dhal & Rashmita Das

 

 

 

Ethnomedicinal plant knowledge of the Mullu kuruma tribe of Wayanad district, Kerala

604

      VP Silja, K Samitha Varma & KV Mohanan

 

 

 

Some unique ethnomedicinal perceptions of tribal communities of Chitrakoot,

613

Madhya Pradesh

 

      RLS Sikarwar, Bharat Pathak & Anil Jaiswal

 

Traditional knowledge associated with fish harvesting practices of War Khasi community of Meghalaya

618

      H Tynsong & BK Tiwari

 

 

 

An indigenous community fishing practice of Tirap district, Arunachal Pradesh

624

      Rajdeep Dutta & Birendra Kr Bhattacharjya

 

 

 

Native ecological techniques for economizing water usage in dry farming in Tamil Nadu

627

      C Karthikeyan, D Veeraragavathatham, D Karpagam & S Ayisha Firdouse

 

 

 

Indigenous weather and forecast practices of Coimbatore district farmers of Tamil Nadu

630

      N Anandaraja, T Rathakrishnan, M Ramasubramanian, P Saravanan & NS Suganthi

 

 

 

Need for systematic ethnozoological studies in the conservation of ancient knowledge systems of Nepal – a review

634

      Usha Lohani, Kishor Rajbhandari & Katre Shakuntala

 

 

 

Indigenous medication used by Himachali women to cure pregnancy discomforts

638

      Neetu Sharma

 

 

 

Indigenous knowledge and sustainable agricultural resources management under rainfed agro-ecosystem

642

      Ranjay K Singh & Amish K Sureja

 

 

 

Implications of Prior Informed Consent for the conservators of indigenous biological diversity of Northeast India
655
      Ranjay K Singh
 

 

 

Ethnobotany of biofencing among teagarden and ex-teagarden communities of Nagaon district of Assam

666

      Sarat Borkataki, Mahananda Chutia & SK Borthakur

 

 

 

Microbial load on medicinal plants sold in Bini markets, Nigeria

669

      M Idu, SE Omonigho, CL Igeleke, FE Oronsaye & ES Orhue1

 

 

 

A traditional panacea for pneumonia and pneumonites

673

      HP Pandey, Naseem Khan & SK Chauhan

 

 

 

Traditional knowledge of Iranian farmers on biological pest management

676

      Mohammad Amiri Ardakani1 & Mohammad Hosein Emadi

 

 

 

Indigenous herbal coolants for combating heat stress in the hot Indian arid zone

679

      Suresh Kumar, Farzana Parveen, Sangeeta Goyal & Aruna Chauhan

 

 

 

Author Index

682

Subject Index

682

Annual Title Index

684

Annual Author Index

691

Annual Subject Index

692

List of Referees

695

Guidelines to Authors

697

Dorth Sconing Conference/Serinars

698

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 7(4), October 2008, pp. 529-541

 

 

Pharmacognostical studies on Sankhapushpi (Convolvulus microphyllus Sieb. ex Spreng. and Evolvulus alsinoides (L.) L.

 

V Madhavan1, S N Yoganarasimhan1* & M R Gurudeva2

1M S Ramaiah College of Pharmacy, Bangalore; 2V V Pura College of Science, Bangalore 560 054

E-mail: dr_yogan@yahoo.co.in

Received 4 January 2007; revised 22 June 2007

Sankhapushpi is an important drug used in Ayurvedic system of medicine. It is considered as one of the controversial drugs in Ayurveda since more than one botanical source is assigned to the drug. To facilitate correct and easy identification of the drug, pharmacognostical studies covering morphology, macro- and microscopical studies and physico-chemical analysis along with diagnostic characters on two sources - Convolvulus microphyllus and Evolvulus alsinoides is presented. The study helps in the standardization of the drug.

Keywords:   Sankhapushpi, Convolvulus microphyllus, Evolvulus alsinoides, Pharmacognostical characters, Phytochemical analysis

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 7(4), October 2008, pp. 542-547

 

 

Standardization of Navaka Guggulu - An Ayurvedic polyherbal formulation

KR Gopala Simha* & V Laxminarayana

Sodhana Trust, Gautam Towers, Sardar Patel Road, Secunderabad 500 003, Andhra Pradesh

Email: sodhana@satyam.net.in

Received 20 June 2006; revised 5 October 2007

Standardization of the Ayurvedic medicine Navaka guggulu, known to be effective in medoroga – excess fat deposition in the body – has been achieved by following modern scientific quality control procedures, both for the raw material and the finished product. The obtained values of physical and chemical parameters for the finished product can be adopted to lay down new pharmacopoeial standards to be followed for traditional preparation of Navaka guggulu (synonym: Vyoshadi guggulu) with batch-to-batch consistency. The phytochemical constituents found to be present in the raw material used for the preparation of Navaka guggulu possibly facilitate the desirable therapeutic efficacy of the standardized medicinal formulation as a whole, and also could help in knowing the underlying mechanisms of pharmacological action.

Keywords: Guggulu, Navaka guggulu, Vyoshadi guggulu, Ayurvedic formulation, Standardization, Phytochemical constituents, Drug stability

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 7(4), October 2008, pp. 548-556

 

 

Traditionally fermented biomedicines, arishtas and asavas from Ayurveda

S Sekar* & S Mariappan

Department of Biotechnology, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024, Tamil Nadu

E-mail:sekarbiotech@yahoo.com; sekarbiotech@bdu.ac.in

Received 5 December 2006; revised 7 August 2007

 Ayurveda comprises of various types of medicines including the fermented forms namely arishtas (fermented decoctions) and asavas (fermented infusions). These are regarded as valuable therapeutics due to their efficacy and desirable features. The bulk of knowledge on these fermented medicines remains undocumented, unrecognized and invalidated. In the paper, the fundamental concepts in the designing of arishtas and asavas with representative examples have been highlighted. It further focuses on the art of preparation, fermentation, storage and usage of these products. The trends in commercial utilization are also investigated. The entire group of these fermented medicines comprising of 79 products are analyzed based on their utility in treating various illness of humans and a comprehensive grouping is evolved. The possible avenues of further investigations using the tools of modern science for the characterization, validation and improvement of these traditional products are indicated.

Key words: Arishta, Asava, Ayurveda drugs, Fermentation, Traditional medicine

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 7(4), October 2008, pp. 557-559

 

 

Evaluation of antidiarrhoeal activity of Kutajarista- a classical Ayurvedic preparation

Premnath Shenoy KR1* & Yoganarasimhan SN2*

2MS Ramaiah College of Pharmacy, MSR Nagar, MSRIT post, Bangalore 560054,
1Regional Research Institute (Ay), Bangalore, Karnataka

Email: dr_yogan@yahoo.co.in

Received 17 January 2007; revised 2 April 2008

Kutajarista, an antidiarrhoeal classical Ayurvedic preparation is evaluated for its biological action in albino mice. The study confirms the therapeutic activity of this polyherbal preparation. Comparative study of market samples showed differences in activity, when compared to standard preparation.

Keywords Kutajarista, Ayurvedic, antidiarrhoeal, Holarrhena antidysenterica

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 7(4), October 2008, pp. 560-565

 

 

Hepatoprotective effect of Bhumyamalki (Phyllanthus fraternus Webster) and Phaltrikadi decoction in patients of acute viral hepatitis

 

Harbans Singh

Department of Kayachikitsa, Desh Bhagat Ayurvedic College & Hospital, Post Box No 78, Mandi Gobindgarh 147301,
District Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab

E-mail: dr.harbans@rediffmail.com.

Received 28 June 2006; revised 11 October 2006

Hepatitis infection has become a major worldwide health problem because the potential nature of course of the disease to cirrhosis and the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Acute viral infection is the most common cause of all forms of hepatitis. The viral hepatitis have been thought to be self limiting in nature but sometimes majority of patients of viral hepatitis have been observed ending up with a serious complications like hepatic failure, etc. So, the clinical study was planned to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of Bhyumyamalki (Phyllanthus fraternus Webster) and Phaltrikadi decoction (an Ayurvedic herbal composition) on scientific parameters. In the clinical trial, three groups of patients of viral hepatitis have been studied to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of Bhumyamalki and Phaltrikadi decoction. The first group was given 50 ml of freshly prepared Bhumyamalki decoction, made from 10 gm of crude drug, twice daily. The second group was given a standardized decoction of herbal composition Phaltrikadi decoction, in a dosage of 50 ml made from 10 gm of crude drug, twice daily. The third group was given 100 gm of glucose powder daily. The trial was conducted for one month and liver functions test were periodically evaluated to assess the hepatoprotective effect of drugs under trial. At the end of the trial, group first and second exhibited hepatoprotective efficiency over the control.

Keywords: Viral hepatitis, Ayurveda, Hepatoprotective activity, Bhumyamalki, Kutuki, Daruharidra, Kalmegha, Bhringraja

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. .7(4), October 2008, pp. 566-567

 

 

Judiveera - An excellent remedy for malaria

Hari Prakash Pandey

Duthie Herbarium, Ethnobotany Cell, Department of Botany, University of Allahabad,
Allahabad 211 002, Uttar Pradesh

E-mail: hp_pandey@rediffmail.com

Received 16 May 2006; revised 17 October 2006

India is one of the richest countries in traditional knowledge, because of its ambient biodiversity, variety of habitats and rich ethnic divergence. This age old wisdom originated in close association with nature and validated in the laboratory of life, even before the advent of formal scientific era. Thus we have had well-established local health tradition still relevant in indigenous healthcare system. Judiveera is a herbomineral preparation of Datura leaf, pieces of arecanut, catechu and lime wrapped with betel leaf, used for the treatment of malaria by rural and tribal medicine men of the districts Balrampur, Gonda and adjoining regions of Uttar Pradesh, The communication embodies method of Judiveera preparation, doses, mode of administration, result, discussion and conclusion on various aspects of the formulation.

Keywords: Ethnomedicine, Traditional remedy, Judiveera, Malaria, Terai region, Uttar Pradesh

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. .7(4), October 2008, pp. 568-571

 

 

Management of dysfunctional uterine bleeding with Bhumyamalki

Neelam* & Jaya

Department of Prasuti Tantra, Faculty of Ayurveda, Institute of Medical Sciences,
Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, Uttar Pradesh

neelamvns07@hotmail.com

Received 8 May 2006; revised 9 January 2007

Rhythm and periodicity are the characteristics of a woman's life, so is her menstruation. Every healthy woman menstruates regularly and rhythmically every month during her reproductive era. Any change in this normal rhythm brings curious concern to women. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB), one of the most common and significant complaints is seen in about 10-15% of woman attending Gynecological clinic. DUB is defined as the occurrence of excessive abnormal uterine bleeding for which organic causes or pelvic pathology cannot be found. Bhumyamalki is the drug, which has been described in various Ayurveda text books for such type of bleeding. The aim of the study is to see the effect of Bhumyamalki in cases of DUB. Bhumyamalki showed better results than the control group, which was treated with triquilar a triphasic hormonal tablet.

Keywords: Dysfunctional uterine bleeding, Bhumyamalki, DUB, Abnormal uterine bleeding, Ayurveda drug

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. .7(4), October 2008, pp. 572-574

 

 

Utility of cupping therapy Hijamat in Unani medicine

Jamal Akhtar* & M Khalid Siddiqui

Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine, 61-65, Institutional Area, Opp D-Block,
Janakpuri, New Delhi 110 058

E-mail: jamal7862@yahoo.co.in; jamal7862@rediffmail.com

Received 12 April 2006; revised 30 October 2006

Unani physicians have described different methods to treat diseases including pharmacotherapy, dietotherapy and regimental therapy. Cupping is one of the oldest and frequently practiced regimental therapies, which is indicated in various diseases, e.g. arthritis, migraine, asthma, headache, hemorrhoids, etc. alone or in combination with other therapies. The paper discusses the method and indications of the cupping therapy mentioned in Unani System of Medicine.

Keywords: Cupping, Unani medicine, Hijamatm, Regimental therapy

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 7(4), October 2008, pp. 575-580

 

Therapeutic evaluation of Qalbeen- A polyherbal mineral formulation in ischaemic heart disease

Mohd Mohsin, AB Khan, MH Hakim* & T Latafat

Department of Moalijat, AK Tibbiya College, AMU, Aligarh 202002, Uttar Pradesh

Email: aqdas2005@rediffmail.com

Received 20 June 2006; revised 5 October 2007

Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is the serious, chronic, life threatening illness affecting the general cross section of population in developed and developing countries. It causes more deaths and disability, and incurs greater economic loss than any other illness in the developed world. Similar pattern is now being seen in India also. India being a host of several well recognized alternative medicines, especially Unani medicine can contribute a lot in its management. Several drugs either singly or in combination have been used by the ancient as well as modern Unani physicians with promising results. Usually the benefits of herbal drugs overlay its hazards and complications. Hence for this purpose, Qalbeen (a herbomineral formulation) which is used by the Unani physicians for this purpose, and also cost effective has been discussed. The overall improvement in clinical symptoms, signs, electrical and mechanical functions of the left ventricle as determined by two dimensional echocardiography was found to be significant. Therefore, the drug can be prescribed in the stable cases of ischaemic heart disease with certain reservation for a pretty length of time.

Keywords: Myocardial ischaemia, Unani medicine, Qalbeen, Ischaemic heart disease

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 7(4), October 2008, pp. 581-586

 

 

Herbal remedies among the Khasi traditional healers and village folks
in Meghalaya

SR Hynniewta &Yogendra Kumar*

Department of Botany, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong793 022, Meghalaya

E-mail: yogendrakumar@hotmail.com; ykgaur2001@yahoo.com

Received 15 May 2006; revised 6 March 2007

The paper provides first hand information on the herbal remedies practiced by the rural folks of Meghalaya. During the study, out of several known herbal plants 54 plant species belonging to 53 genera and 38 families were found to be used by the local medicine men and village folks to cure various ailments. The report incorporates the mode of application and dosage of these herbal drugs, which is obtained with great difficulty because in many cases these medicine men are reluctant to share their knowledge.

Keywords: Ethnobotany, Ethnomedicine, Medicinal plants, Traditional healers, Meghalaya

 


Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 7(4), October 2008, pp. 587-593

 

 

Traditional medicobotany of Chakma community residing in the Northwestern periphery of Namdapha National Park in Arunachal Pradesh

 

R Sarmah*, D Adhikari, M Majumder & A Arunachalam

Department of Forestry, North Eastern Regional Institute of Science and Technology, Nirjuli 791109, Arunachal Pradesh

E-mail: roshan_sarmah@yahoo.co.in

Received 15 May 2006; revised 20 December 2007

Namdapha national park in Arunachal Pradesh is one of the largest reservoirs of plant biodiversity in the Northeast India. A large number of medicinal plants occur here in the wild. The Chakma community inhabiting the Northwestern periphery of the park has been utilizing a large number of medicinal plants from the park area for their day-to-day life. The medicinal use of 63 plant species belonging to 38 families in different ailments by the Chakma community in Arunachal Pradesh has been documented. It is suggested that the traditional ecological knowledge pertaining to the medicinal plant utilization needs further exploration and warrants recognition of an incentive based community conservation of medicinal plants.

Keywords: Chakma community, Medicinal plants, Namdapha national park, Arunachal Pradesh

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 7(4), October 2008, pp. 594-597

 

 

Ethnobotanical observations on Bamboos among Adi tribes in
Arunachal Pradesh

 

Tika Prasad Sharma¹* & SK Borthakur²

¹State Medicinal Plant Board, Forest Department, Deorali 737102, PO Tadong, Gangtok, East Sikkim;
²Department of Botany, Gauhati University, Guwahati 781014, Assam

Received 21 August 2006; revised 15 June 2007

Arunachal Pradesh is inhabited by 25 major tribes and 110 sub-tribes with a rich blend of indigenous culture and traditions. The paper provides information gathered on ethnobotanical uses of bamboos among the Adi tribes of Arunachal Pradesh.

Keywords: Ethnobotany, Arunachal Pradesh, Adi tribes, Bamboos, Ethnomedicine

 


Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 7(4), October 2008, pp. 598-603

 

 

Utilisation of mangrove forests in Bhitarkanika wildlife sanctuary, Orissa

Chiranjibi Pattanaik1*, C S Reddy1, N K Dhal2 & Rashmita Das3

1Forestry & Ecology Division, National Remote Sensing Agency, Hyderabad 500 037, Andhra Pradesh

2Natural Products Department, Regional Research Laboratory, CSIR, Bhubaneswar 751 013, Orissa

 3Department of Botany, Berhampur University, Berhampur 760 007, Orissa

E-mail: jilu2000@rediffmail.com

Received 19 September 2006; revised 15 October 2007

Fifty one mangrove plant species and its associates were collected from Bhitarkanika wildlife sanctuary, Kendrapara district, Orissa. Among those plants, Rhizophoraceae members were recorded maximum in number (9 species) followed by Meliaceae (4), and Caesalpiniaceae (4). The inhabitants of the surrounding areas depend on the mangrove forests for their daily needs like food, timber, fuelwood, medicine and other traditional products. The paper provides field information on traditional products and medicinal uses of 51 taxa of mangrove plants recorded through interviews of local people of the sanctuary areas. Species are arranged alphabetically providing plant name, family, local name, parts used, habitat and uses.

Keywords: Mangrove forests, Traditional knowledge, Bhitarkanika wildlife sanctuary, Orissa

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 7(4), October 2008, pp. 604-612

 

 

Ethnomedicinal plant knowledge of the Mullu kuruma tribe of
Wayanad district, Kerala

VP Silja1, K Samitha Varma1 & KV Mohanan2*

1Department of Botany, Zamorin’s Guruvayurappan College, Calicut 673 014, Kerala; 2Department of Botany,
University of Calicut, Calicut 673 635, Kerala

E-mail: drkvmohanan@rediffmail.com

Received 10 October 2006; revised 5 June 2007

Mullu kuruma tribe is a very prominent tribal group of Wayanad district of Kerala state with unique culture and ethnobotanical practices. The study has revealed the use of 136 plant species for traditional medicinal purposes by the tribe. They use about 14 plants for the treatment of skin diseases, 10 for inflammation, 3 as abortifacient, 9 for dandruff, 11 for dysentery, 6 for piles, 7 for epilepsy, 19 for asthma and other bronchial diseases, 11 for anaemia, 4 for constipation, 1 for tuberculosis, 8 for jaundice and other liver diseases, 6 for burns, 7 for leucorrhoea, 2 for migraine, 5 for wounds, 3 for malaria and 13 for urinary complaints and kidney stone.

Key words: Ethnomedicine, Medicinal plants, Mullu kuruma tribe, Wayanad, Kerala

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 7(4), October 2008, pp. 613-617

 

 

Some unique ethnomedicinal perceptions of tribal communities of Chitrakoot, Madhya Pradesh

RLS Sikarwar*, Bharat Pathak & Anil Jaiswal

 

Arogyadham (JRD Tata Foundation for Research in Ayurveda and Yoga Sciences), Deendayal Research Institute, Chitrakoot 485 331, District Satna, Madhya Pradesh

E-mail: rlssikarwar@rediffmail.com

Received 18 December 2006; revised 20 June 2007

Chitrakoot is rich in ethnic and biological diversity since ancient times. Several tribal communities like Kol, Gond and Mawasi inhabit Chitrakoot region, and utilize wide variety of plant resources for food, fodder, fibre, medicine, etc. An ethnobotanical study among the tribal communities of Chitrakoot has been carried out during 2002-2005. In the study, ethnomedicinal uses of 28 plant species belonging to 27 genera and 23 families have been reported. These uses are not reported in earlier published literature.

Keywords: Ethnomedicine, Chitrakoot, Madhya Pradesh, Kol, Gond, Mawasi

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 7(4), October 2008, pp. 618-623

 

 

Traditional knowledge associated with fish harvesting practices of
War Khasi community of Meghalaya

 

H Tynsong & BK Tiwari*

Centre for Environmental Studies, Northeastern Hill University, Shillong 793 022, Meghalaya

Received 28 June 2006; revised 11 October 2006

The paper reports and analyses the findings of Traditional Ecological Knowledge associated with fish harvesting practices of War Khasi community, a sub tribe of Khasi, inhabiting southern slopes of Meghalaya. The study area has a forested landscape and harbours dense network of streams and rivers, viz. Wah Umsong, Wah Umsi, Wah Umshrei, Wah Umkhat, Wah Durit and Wah Umjar. These rivers and their associated water bodies are impregnated with a variety of fish and other aquatic life forms, which constitute a sizable part of the diet of local people. The War Khasi community has evolved several traditional fish-harvesting practices, locally known as Buh Kroh, Riam Kriah, Riam Khohka, Riam Kyllong, Ring Khashiar, Buh Ruh and Bia Dohpieh. The study revealed that these methods are most suited to local conditions, help in perpetual fish harvest and conservation of aquatic biodiversity of the region. The paper discusses the ecological and biodiversity value of these practices in the light of recent policy decisions of local communities concerning conservation of aquatic resources of region and other biodiversity enriching and livelihood enhancing practices of these communities.

Keywords: Traditional Ecological Knowledge, Ethnobiology, Fish harvesting, War Khasi, Meghalaya

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 7(4), October 2008, pp. 624-626

 

 

An indigenous community fishing practice of Tirap district, Arunachal Pradesh

Rajdeep Dutta1* & Birendra Kr Bhattacharjya2

1Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Tirap district, PO Deomali 786 629, Arunachal Pradesh; 2Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute,
NER Center, Guwahati 781 006, Assam

E-mail: rajdeep18j @rediffmail.com

Received 4 July 2006; revised 15 May 2007

An indigenous community fishing practiced by the Wancho tribe of Tirap district, Arunachal Pradesh in Tissa river is described. In this practice, fishing was facilitated in the pool zones of the hill stream by making the stream water muddy. Fishes gasping for air in muddy waters is then caught using cast nets operated from indigenous bamboo rafts (4.6-6.1 m long and 1.1-1.4 m wide). The study revealed that community fishing is a part of the cultural heritage of the Wancho tribe of Tirap district. The principle behind the fishing method was found to be deoxygenation of water caused by churning of bottom sediments.

Keywords: Indigenous Technical Knowledge, Traditional fishing practice, Community fishing, Bamboo raft, Arunachal Pradesh, Wancho tribe, Ethnobiology, Fish harvesting

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 7(4), October 2008, pp. 627-629

 

 

Native ecological techniques for economizing water usage in dry farming in Tamil Nadu

C Karthikeyan, D Veeraragavathatham, D Karpagam* & S Ayisha Firdouse

Department of Agricultural Extension, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Sirugamani 639 115, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu

Email: karpagamextn@yahoo.co.in

Received 4 July 2006; revised 15 May 2007

Indigenous practices play a vital role in sustainable agriculture development and it is unique to a given culture of society. This knowledge is the information base for a society and facilitates communication and decision making for their development. The study was focused on the technologies being practiced by farmers for water conservation in dry tracts of South India. The study was conducted at Ramnad, Tuticorin and Virudhunagar districts with an objective of documenting the native ecological techniques for economizing water usage among the dry land farmers. Documentation of indigenous techniques for water conservation was done using Participatory Rural Appraisal techniques and direct interview method. Triangulation exercise was also done in the study villages to gather reliable information. Indigenous water saving techniques adopted by the dry land farmers of Tamil Nadu has been described.

Keywords: Indigenous techniques, Water conservation, Dry farming, Water harvesting

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 7(4), October 2008, pp. 630-633

 

 

Indigenous weather and forecast practices of Coimbatore district farmers of Tamil Nadu

N Anandaraja*, T Rathakrishnan, M Ramasubramanian, P Saravanan & N S Suganthi

Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Sociology, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Madurai 625 104, Tamil Nadu Email: anadaraja_n@rediffmail.com

Received 13 June 2006; revised 28 December 2006

Traditional beliefs are abundant particularly among the rural community. In many cases, traditional beliefs are existing in the form of well defined indigenous technologies which are valued much and followed in their farming system. Indigenous knowledge includes both technical and non-technical fields covering various social and religious taboos, beliefs and customs, communication patterns, music, ecology, vegetation, climate and so on. A study was conducted at Coimbatore district, Tamil Nadu of identifying the various indigenous/traditional weather forecasting methods known/practiced by the farmers. The study contained three categories of sample with a sample size of 30 each, namely Seasonal climate forecast farmers (SCF), Medium Range Weather Forecast Farmers (MRF) and Non-informed (NI) farmers. The farmers were selected using simple random sampling. The data was collected through a well structured and pre-tested interview schedule by employing personal interview technique and percentage analysis was used to analyze the data. Fifteen indigenous/traditional weather and climate related practices were identified. Among different indigenous practices, eleven practices related to rainfall, two practices related to pest and disease incidence and one each for drought and almanac has been delineated.

Keywords: Indigenous forecasting, Almanac, Traditional knowledge, Weather forecasting, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 7(4), October 2008, pp. 634-637

 

 

Need for systematic ethnozoological studies in the conservation of
ancient knowledge systems of Nepal – a review

Usha Lohani*1, Kishor Rajbhandari1 & Katre Shakuntala2

1Department of Zoology, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal;

2Department of Zoology, Bangalore University, Bangalore, Karnataka

Email: buba@wlink.com.np.

Received 19 July 2006; revised 29 October 2007

Ethnozoology deals with the study of interrelationship between the primitive human societies and the animal resources around them. Different factors like strategic location of the country along the central and eastern Himalaya, topographical and the climatic variations have given rise to diverse and unique assemblages of flora and fauna. Equally diverse are the people (59 ethnic groups), who have been interacting with these resources from the very beginning to adapt in the difficult Himalayan landscape. The knowledge as related to use, management and conservation of the animal resources, acquired during this long course of interaction, is transmitted orally from one generation to the next without being documented anywhere. The knowledge if harnessed properly could prove to be a valuable asset, which could be integrated into the modern development projects for fruitful results. But there is growing trend of depletion of biodiversity as well as cultural diversity in the country. Therefore, it is urgent to initiate organized scientific study and document such valuable and time tested ethnozoological knowledge before these culturally rich people and important faunal resources disappear.

Keywords:Ethnozoology, Himalayan landscape, Biodiversity, Conservation, Cultural diversity, Traditional knowledge, Nepal

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 7(4), October 2008, pp. 638-641

 

 

Indigenous medication used by Himachali women to cure pregnancy discomforts

 

Neetu Sharma

Department of Home Science Extension Education, I C College of Home Science CCSHAU, Hisar 125004, Haryana

E-mail:sharma@hillagric.in; neepradu@rediffmail.com; neprads@rediffmail.com

Received 7 August 2006; revised 25 September 2006

The research work is an effort to document and explore the indigenous knowledge of Himachali rural women used to cure various pregnancy discomforts. Although great strides have been made in bringing modern medicines to clinics in rural areas, indigenous /traditional medication continues to flourish in this region. It is, therefore, necessary for the scientific community to adequately document and validate this knowledge, so that it merges with the scientific stream of knowledge. The paper attempts to document and scientifically validate the indigenous practices followed by rural women to cure various pregnancy discomforts. The information regarding type of food preparation, method of preparation and consumption, etc. was gathered using questionnaire based survey along with informal discussions. It was observed that for curing different pregnancy discomforts, various locally available plant parts are utilized. These plants possess certain medicinal properties, which provide the basis for further use. The data accrued is expected to serve as a tool for the development of herbal drug industries.

Keywords:Traditional knowledge, Traditional medicine, Indigenous medicine, Medicinal plants, Pregnancy discomforts, Himachal Pradesh

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 7(4), October 2008, pp. 642-654

 

 

Indigenous knowledge and sustainable agricultural resources management under rainfed agro-ecosystem

 

Ranjay K Singh* & Amish K Sureja

College of Horticulture and Forestry, Central Agricultural University, Pasighat 791102, Arunachal Pradesh

E-mail: ranjay_jbp@rediffmail.com

Received 2 May 2006; revised 30 October 2006

The paper demonstrates the tribal farmers’ wisdom, perception and their criteria developed for the agricultural resources conservation and survival under the risk prone agro-ecosystem of Dindori district of Madhya Pradesh. The investigation was carried out in seven villages dominated by Gond, Baiga and Pradhan tribes. Conventional and participatory methods were applied to record the data. The result indicates that, despite the increasing commercialization of agriculture, the great majority of the farmers in the area are peasants, or small-scale producers. After centuries of cultural and biological evolution, traditional farmers have developed and inherited complex farming systems, adapted to the risk prone situations. These have helped them to conserve and sustainably manage harsh environments and meet their subsistence need without depending on costly energy based inputs. Agro-ecological and ethno-ecological evidence in vogue among the tribal community increasingly indicates that these systems are productive, sustainable, ecologically sound, and tuned to the social, economic, and cultural features of the local tribe. Some of the cultural adaptations that farmers have developed in the area include: domestication and conservation of diversity of plants and maintenance of a wide genetic resource base. Farmers are competent to make vertical agricultural development through the series of traditional resource conserving practices, variety conservation, weed, pest, nutrient, and water management practices to deal with socio-environmental changes. Scientists involved in agricultural research and development must try to learn, systematize and incorporate the farmers’ practices, before this wealth of practical knowledge is lost forever, given that most traditional farming systems are rapidly disappearing in the face of major social, economic and political changes occurring in developing societies.

Keywords: Indigenous knowledge, Natural resources conservation, Indigenous varieties, Tribal farmers, Sustainability

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 7(4), October 2008, pp. 655-665

 

 

Implications of Prior Informed Consent for the conservators of indigenous biological diversity of Northeast India

 

Ranjay K Singh

Department of Agricultural Extension, College of Horticulture and Forestry, Central Agricultural University,
Pasighat, Arunachal Pradesh

E-mail: ranjay_jbp@rediffmail.com

Received 2 May 2006; revised 29 November 2007

Despite the 1992 UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) requiring the rendering of due credit and benefit to local biodiversity conservators and Traditional Knowledge (TK) holders, very few examples of benefit sharing can be seen on the ground in India. Looking to the importance of the requirement, a project on indigenous natural resources management practices of the tribal peoples of Northeastern India was implemented in the year 2005 in different regions of Arunachal Pradesh and Meghalaya. The primary goal of the project was to explore the hidden wisdom of tribal peoples regarding indigenous knowledge and use, and conservation of biodiversity. In the project, workshops of TK holders together with personal interviews were organized to seek their views and perspectives about Prior Informed Consent (PIC) and Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) relating to their knowledge and practices. Two major types of incentives to the knowledge holders can be identified: materialistic and non-materialistic. A society of poor economic status but high ethical values needs non-materialistic incentives. The majority of these people were of the opinion that their knowledge could be displayed in full text for non-commercial and academic purposes. Research on indigenous resources and cashing the name and fame by formal scientists, needs to be formalized through the community and knowledge holders, with explicit acknowledgement of their wisdom. With the changing and variability in altitude, biodiversity, geography, culture and social norms, the ethics and ways of accessing biodiversity were found to vary from group to group. Knowledge holders living in areas of rich biodiversity at high altitudes required the offer of maximum benefit percentage towards the welfare and conservation of community-based biodiversity. Gender variability also determined percentage of benefit sharing and types of rewards suggested for the TK holders.

Keywords: Traditional knowledge, Local culture, Biodiversity, Prior Informed Consent, Intellectual Property Rights, Benefit Sharing

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 7(4), October 2008, pp. 666-668

 

 

Ethnobotany of biofencing among teagarden and ex-teagarden communities of Nagaon district of Assam

 

*Sarat Borkataki1, Mahananda Chutia2 & SK Borthakur3

1Department of Botany, Nowgong College, Nagaon, Assam; 2Regional Research Laboratory, Jorhat, Assam; 3Department of Botany, Gauhati University, Guwahati, Assam

E-mail: mahanaba@yahoo.co.uk

Received 26 July 2006; revised 13 November 2006

 

 

Raising plants as live fencing in home gardens is a traditional practice among the tea garden communities. An ethnobotanical study was carried out in order to document the indigenous knowledge about the plants grown as live fencing. Of 27 plants species documented that included shrubs, succulent shrubs and deciduous climbers, Bambusa sp. and Musa sp. were very common (95 and 80% occurrence), with potential economic value and also strong soil binding properties. The traditional biofencing practice is not only to protect the home gardens but also a part of conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity among tea garden communities.

Keywords: Biofencing, Live fencing, Santhals, Bhumis, Gours, Koiris, Goalas, Kurmis, Teegu, Panica, Orangs, Hedge plant, Assam

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 7(4), October 2008, pp. 669-672

 

 

Microbial load on medicinal plants sold in Bini markets, Nigeria

M Idu1*, S E Omonigho2, C L Igeleke3, F E Oronsaye4 & E S Orhue1

1Department of Botany, University of Benin, PMB 1154, Benin City, Nigeria

2Department of Microbiology, University of Benin, PMB 1154, Benin City. Nigeria

3Department of Basic & Applied Sciences, Benson Idahosa University, Benin City, Nigeria

4Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Benin, PMB 1154, Benin City, Nigeria

E-mail: macdonaldidu@hotmail.com

Received 21 April 2006; revised 21 November 2007

Microbiological analysis was carried out on samples of 20 medicinal plants obtained from open markets in Benin and her environs. The standard plate count technique on Nutrient agar (NA) was used to determine the total aerobic bacterial count, mannitol salt agar and Baird-Parker agar for staphylococcal count, MacConkey agar for coliform count and potato dextrose agar for fungal counts. The purified bacterial and fungal isolates were then characterized and identified. All the samples examined contained microorganisms. The bacterial count ranged from 1.0×103 cfu/g to 9.8×104 cfu/g with Aframomum meleguata, Onyokea gore and Khaya ivorensis having the highest count of 9.8 × 104cfu/g; 9.4 × 103 cfu/g and 8.8×103 cfu/g, respectively and Justicia flava had the lowest count of 1.0 × 103 cfu/g. The fungal counts were high in all the samples examined. The bacterial isolates were identified as Staphylococcus aureus (50.0%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (25.0%), Escherichia coli (10.0%) and Bacillus subtilis (40.0%) while fungal isolates included Aspergillus niger (85.0%) and Penicillium species (50.0%). The presence of these microorganisms in the samples could be due to improper handling and storage procedures as most of the samples were kept in bags on cold floors in very humid tropical stores (stalls).

Keywords: Microbial load, Medicinal plants, Nigeria

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. .7(4), October 2008, pp. 673-675

 

 

A traditional panacea for pneumonia and pneumonites

HP Pandey1*, Naseem Khan2 & SK Chauhan1

1Department of Botany, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211 002, Uttar Pradesh;

2Institute of Interdisciplinary Studies, (Applied Sciences), University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211 002, Uttar Pradesh

E-mail: hp_pandey@rediffmail.com

Received 16 May 2006; revised 17 October 2006

The communication provides an investigative report of a synergistic formulation consisting of Leucas aspera Spreng plant root and Periplaneta americana Burm. an insect being used to prevent and cure pneumonia and pneumonites in children. The paper embodies detailed methodology, doses and administration, observations, discussion and conclusion on the various aspects of traditional formulation and future perspectives.

Keywords: Leucas aspera, Periplaneta americana, Pneumonia, Ethnomedicine, Traditional panacea

 


Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. .7(4), October 2008, pp. 676-678

 

 

Traditional knowledge of Iranian farmers on biological pest management

Mohammad Amiri Ardakani1 & Mohammad Hosein Emadi2*

1Department of Agricultural Extension, Kohgiluyeh-va-Boyrahmad Province, Yasuj, Iran;
2System Agriculture and Rural Development, UWS Australia, Rural Research Center (RRC),
Ministry of Agricultural Jihad, Tehran, Iran

E-mail: amiriardakani@yahoo.com; mhemady@yahoo.com.

Received 24 April 2006; revised 17 July 2006

Traditional knowledge of Iranian farmers on biological pest management has been discussed. Methods of controlling the insect pest population of a certain species by exposing it to its natural enemies have been enumerated.

Key words: Traditional knowledge, Biological pest management, Farmers, Iran

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 7(4), October 2008, pp. 679-682

 

 

Indigenous herbal coolants for combating heat stress in the hot Indian Arid Zone

Suresh Kumar*, Farzana Parveen, Sangeeta Goyal & Aruna Chauhan

Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur 342003, Rajasthan

Received 25 August 2006; revised 5 December 2006

In view of continuous hot weather in eight months a year in arid western Rajasthan, desert dwellers have developed strategies to cope excessive heat. These include use of plants as herbal coolant for human body. An appraisal of such herbal coolants in western Rajasthan revealed use of 30 species of angiosperm belonging to 30 genera and 24 families. In the paper, common & botanical names and uses of 30 taxa as herbal coolant has been described.

Keywords: Indigenous knowledge, Herbal coolants, Heat stress, Indian arid zone