Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

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VOLUME 7

NUMBER 3

JULY 2008

 

CONTENTS

Marker analysis of polyherbal formulation, Triphala – A well known Indian traditional medicine 379
Pulok K Mukherjee, Sujay Rai, Sauvik Bhattacharya, Atul Wahile & Bishnu Pada Saha
 
   
Evaluation of Ayurvedic compound formulations 2- Palas’abijadi Cũrna 384
Subha Rastogi, Sayyada Khatoon, Madan Mohan Pandey, Anshu Rathi, Ajay Kumar Singh Rawat & Shanta Mehrotra
 
   
Standardisation of Yogaraja guggulu – An Ayurvedic polyherbal formulation 389
KR Gopala Simha, V Laxminarayana, SVLN Prasad & Shahjahan Khanum
 
   
Dietotherapy and its significance with special reference to the management of Dique (tuberculosis) 397
MMH Siddiqui & M Shamim Khan
 
   
A study on the impact on stress and anxiety through Yoga nidra 401
Kamakhya Kumar
 
   
Effect of emotional culturing session on random event generator 405
Mohan Tewani, Nagarathna R & Nagendra HR
 
Ethnomedicinal plants used by Kani tribes of Agasthiyarmalai biosphere reserve, southern
Western Ghats
410
JW Prakash, RD Anpin Raja, N Asbin Anderson, Christhudhas Williams, GS Regini, K Bensar, R Rajeev, S Kiruba, S Jeeva & SSM Das
 
   
Some folk medicines from Lakhimpur district, Assam 414
Dilip Kalita & Rajib Lochan Bora
 
   
Medicinal plants and their utilization by villagers in southern districts of Tamil Nadu 417
K Rajendran, P Balaji & M Jothi Basu
 
   
Traditional herbal cosmetics used by local women communities in district Attock of
Northern Pakistan
421
Mushtaq Ahmad, Mir Ajab Khan & Muhammad Zafar
 
   
Ethnomedicinal plants used by the tribals of Bargarh district to cure diarrhoea and dysentery 425
Sunil Kumar Sen & Lalit Mohan Behera
 
   
Unintended consequences of arable crop technology within farming systems in Oyo State, Nigeria 429
Oladele OI, Oladipo OA & Ogunlade I
 
   
Folk remedies for insect bites from Gundlabrahmeswaram Wild Life Sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh 436
K Venkat Ratnam & RR Venkat Raju
 
   
Documentation of traditional herbal knowledge of Khamptis of Arunachal Pradesh 438
Prabal Sen, Mihin Dollo, Manabendra Dutta Choudhury & Dhrupad Choudhury
 
   
Folk therapy for eczema, bone fracture, boils, sores and gingivitis in Taragtal province of Uttaranchal 443
KR Arya & SC Agarwal
 
   
Medicinal plants used by different tribes of Cachar district, Assam 446
Ajit Kumar Das, BK Dutta & GD Sharma
 
   
Socio-cultural perspectives to the sacred groves and serpentine worship in Palakkad district, Kerala 455
Murugan K, Ramachandran VS, Swarupanandan K & Remesh M
 
   
Indigenous technical knowledge for control of insect pest and livestock disorders 463
Sullip Kumar Majhi
 
Ethoiatrical uses of Euphorbia antiquorum L. and E. ligularia Roxb. in Assam 466
P Deka, KK Nath & SK Borthakur
 
   
Management of indigenous sugarcane under rice-wheat based agro-ecosystem through informal institutions 469
Ranjay K Singh & Amish K Sureja
 
   
Indigenous labour sourcing: Subsistence farming and poverty status among farmers in Nigeria 478
Oladele OI
 
   
Indigenous Technological Knowledge on soil and water management from Himachal Himalaya 485
Chaman Lal & LR Verma
 
   
A study on the traditional housing technology of Bangladesh 494
Nasir Uddin
 
 
Medicinal weeds of crop fields and role of women in rural health and hygiene in Nalbari
district, Assam
501
DK Bhattacharjya & PC Borah
 
   
Indigenous Knowledge and practices of women herb sellers of Southwestern Nigeria 505

OR Omobuwajo, GO Alade & A Sowemimo

 
   
Verbesina encelioides: Perspective and potentials of a noxious weed 511
SC Jain, R Jain, R Singh & E Menghani
 
   
Author Index 514
   
Subject Index 514
   
Seminar Proceedings 516
   
Announcements 518
   
Forthcoming Seminars/Conferences 521
   
Guidelines to Authors 522

 

  

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 7(3), July 2008, pp. 379-383

 

Marker analysis of polyherbal formulation, Triphala – A well known Indian traditional medicine

Pulok K Mukherjee*, Sujay Rai, Sauvik Bhattacharya, Atul Wahile & Bishnu Pada Saha

School of Natural Product Studies, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur, University, Kolkata700032, West Bengal

E-mail: pknatprod@yahoo.com

Received 10 February 2006; revised 20 November 2007

Triphala is one of the ages old; most commonly used polyherbal preparation in Indian System of Medicine (ISM) particularly in Ayurveda. A rapid, simple, and accurate method with high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) has been developed to standardize Triphala and its individual component using gallic acid (GA) as analytical marker compound. Methanol extracts of Triphala, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia belerica were used for HPTLC on silica gel plates. The Rf of GA was found to be 0.80 with densitometric scanning at 254 nm and the calibration plot was linear in the range of 400 ng to 1800 ng of GA. The correlation coefficient, 0.999, was indicative of good linear dependence of peak area on concentration. The GA content in Triphala with its individual constituents like Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia belerica, was found to be 14.38, 17.50, 16.60 and 11.92 mg g-1. This method permits reliable quantification of GA with good resolution and separation of the same from other constituents of extracts of Triphala and its constituents. Recovery values from 96.86 to 98.71% showed the reliability and reproducibility of the method. The proposed HPTLC method for quantitative monitoring of GA in Triphala and its constituents can be used for routine quality testing and similar methods can be developed for other herbal formulations.

Keywords: HPTLC, Standardization, Triphala, Gallic acid, Ayurveda, ISM

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 7(3), July 2008, pp. 384-388

 

Evaluation of Ayurvedic compound formulations 2- Palas’abijadi Cũrna

 

Subha Rastogi, Sayyada Khatoon, Madan Mohan Pandey, Anshu Rathi, Ajay Kumar Singh Rawat & Shanta Mehrotra*

Pharmacognosy and Ethnopharmacology Division, National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow 226 001, Uttar Pradesh

E-mail: rastogi_subha@yahoo.co.in

Received 24 August 2006; revised 18 December 2006

Quality assurance is an integral part of all systems of medicine to ensure quality medicament. Thus, there is an urgent need to evaluate such parameters which can be adopted by the pharmaceutical industries. In the communication, attempts have been made to evaluate Palas’abijadi Cũrna, an Ayurvedic compound formulation. Four samples procured from different manufacturers were subjected to physicochemical analysis, HPTLC fingerprinting, and botanical characterization, and compared using authentic ingredients as reference. It was observed that the microscopic and chromatographic analyses compliment each other in their findings, and can be used effectively for the identification of raw materials in the compound formulation (s).

Keywords: Palas’abijadi Cũrna, Ayurvedic formulation, Quality control parameters, Drug standardisation, Pharmacognosy

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 7(3), July 2008, pp. 389-396

 

Standardisation of Yogaraja guggulu — An Ayurvedic polyherbal formulation

KR Gopala Simha1*, V Laxminarayana1, SVLN Prasad1 & Shahjahan Khanum2

1Sodhana Trust, Gautam Towers, Sardar Patel Road, Secunderabad 500 003, Andhra Pradesh; 2HNo 1-7-10/ 3 B,
Jai Santoshi Nagar, Rd # 8, Habsiguda, Hyderabad 500 007, Andhra Pradesh

E-mail:sodhana@satyam.net.in; sodhana@sify.com

Received 20 March 2006; revised 27 November 2006

Standardisation of the Ayurvedic medicine, Yogaraja guggulu has been achieved by following modern scientific quality control procedures both for the raw material and the finished product. The obtained values/ranges of physical and chemical parameters can be adopted to lay down new pharmacopoeial standards to be followed for traditional preparation of Yogaraja guggulu with batch-to-batch consistency. The phytochemical constituents found to be present in the raw material used for the preparation of Yogaraja guggulu possibly facilitate the desirable therapeutic efficacy of the medicinal formulation as a whole in ailments, and also could help in knowing the underlying mechanisms of pharmacological action.

Keywords: Ayurvedic formulation, Guggulu, Yogaraja guggulu, Drug stability, Drug standardization

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 7(3), July 2008, pp. 397-400

 

Dietotherapy and its significance with special reference to the management
of Dique (tuberculosis)

M M H Siddiqui* & M Shamim Khan

Department of Moalejat, Faculty of Unani Medicine, Ajmal Khan Tibbiya College, Aligarh Muslim University
Aligarh 202002, Uttar Pradesh

E-mail: drhaque@rediffmail.com

Received 14 June 2006; revised 1 March 2007

Dietotherapy deals with certain ailments by administration of specific diet or by regulating the quantity and quality of foods. Tuberculosis (Dique) is a chronic ailment and is the major cause of illness and death in the under developed countries. Malnutrition resulting from poverty and ignorance combined with unhygienic living condition and poor sanitation makes an individual susceptible to Dique. Although tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis but according to Unani System of Medicine, susceptible infection condition is the basic cause of Dique. The combating of the disease depends upon enhancement of the body resistance and eradication of the mycobacterium. To achieve the first phase, there is essential to increase sufficient quantity and good quality of protein, fat, carbohydrate, vitamins and minerals while the second phase belong the use of specific antibacterial therapy. The paper deals with dietary schedule of the patient suffering from tuberculosis.

Keywords: Dietotherapy, Dique, Tuberculosis, Dawai-e-Ghizai, Ghizai-e-Dawai, Ghiza

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 7(3), July 2008, pp. 401-404

 

A study on the impact on stress and anxiety through Yoga nidra

Kamakhya Kumar

Department of Human Consciousness & Yogic Science, Dev Sanskriti Vishwavidyalaya Shantikunj, Haridwar 249411, Uttarakhand

E-mail: kamakhya_kumar@rediffmail.com

Received 24 March 2006; revised 9 October 2007

The study aims at finding out the effect of Yoga nidra on stress and anxiety on college going students. The study conducted at the Yoga clinic of Dev Sanskriti Vishwavidyalaya. Practice time was 30 min the duration was 6 months. 80 students were taken from PG Yoga classes for observing the effect as well as 30 was in control group. The result shows a significant change in the practice group as Yoga nidra positively decreased the stress level of the male and female subjects. Several other studies prove Yoga nidra equally influences anxiety level significantly in both male and female subjects.

Keywords: Yoga nidra, Stress, Anxiety

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 7(3), July 2008, pp. 405-409

 

Effect of emotional culturing session on random event generator

Mohan Tewani*, Nagarathna R & Nagendra HR

Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandhana Samsthana, 19 Eknath Bhavan, Gavipuram circle, Kempegowda Nagar,
Bangalore 560019, Karnataka

Received 23 February 2006; revised 30 December 2007

Thirty females in the age group 18-50 yrs participated in the study to find out the effect of Emotion Culturing Session (ECS) on the Random Event Generator (REG) compared to a Random Thinking (RT) session. The pre- and post- session recordings on REG without intent lasted for 10 minutes, while the ECS and RT sessions lasted for 30 minutes. The number of episodes in which the REG could be significantly influenced (mean value > 101.00 indicative of p < 0.05) showed highly significant increase in the ‘pre’ verses ‘during’ data of ECS compared to RT sessions. These results indicate a distinct possibility of enhancement of the power of psycho-kinesis through emotions culturing sessions (ECS). This is in tune with the findings of field REG trials in which several REG instruments in different parts of the world have recorded significant influence on REG.

Keywords: Emotions culturing session, Random thinking, Random event generator, Psycho-kinesis

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 7(3), July 2008, pp. 410-413

 

Ethnomedicinal plants used by Kani tribes of Agasthiyarmalai biosphere reserve, southern Western Ghats

J W Prakash1, R D Anpin Raja2, N Asbin Anderson1, Christhudhas Williams1, G S Regini1, K Bensar1, R Rajeev1,
S Kiruba3, S Jeeva4 & S S M Das3*

1Research Centre in Botany, Scott Christian College, Nagercoil 629 003, Tamil Nadu; 2Research Centre in Zoology, Scott Christian College, Nagercoil 629 003,Tamil Nadu; 3Christian College, Kattakada, Trivandrum 695 572, Kerala; 4Ecology Research Laboratory, Department of Botany, School of Life Sciences, North-eastern Hill University, Shillong 793 022, Meghalaya

E-mail: sambiocontrol@gmail.com

Received 4 March 2006; revised 11 October 2006

The paper deals with some less known ethnomedicinal uses of 15 plant species belonging to 13 families. These plants are used as effective remedies by tribals of Agasthiyamalai region of southern Western Ghats.

Keywords: Ethnomedicine, Kani, Southern Western Ghats

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 7(3), July 2008, pp. 414-416

 

Some folk medicines from Lakhimpur district, Assam

 

Dilip Kalita* & Rajib Lochan Bora

*Botany Department, Dibru College, Dibrugarh 786003, Assam; Botany Department, DHSK College,

Dibrugarh 786 001, Assam

 

Received 10 February 2006; revised 10 January 2007

An attempt has been made to study the folk medicine used by some rural people of the Lakhimpur district, Assam for the treatment of 14 different diseases like ascites, allergy, blood dysentery, cough, constipation, epilepsy, eczema, gastritis, gout, loss of appetite, loosening of teeth, piles, tonsillitis and pinworm infection, which are prevalent in the study areas.

Keywords:      Lakhimpur, Folk medicine, Bej, Bejini

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 7(3), July 2008, pp. 417-420

 

Medicinal plants and their utilization by villagers in southern districts
of Tamil Nadu

K Rajendran*, P Balaji & M Jothi Basu

Department of Botany, Thiagarajar College, Madurai 625 009, Tamil Nadu

E-mail: Kuppurajendran@rediffmail.com

Received 17 February 2006; revised 30 October 2006

Medicinal plant survey was carried out in remote villages of Madurai, Dindigul and Theni districts of Tamil Nadu. Of many plant species traditionally used by the villagers, 59 plant species belonging to 53 genera from 28 families of medicinally important plants were identified and their uses are described. Among the species, Azadirachta indica, Cardiospermum halicacabum, Erythrina indica, Gloriosa superba, Jatropha curcas, Moringa oleifera, Phyllanthus amarus, Sesbania grandiflora, Tamarindus indica, Tridax procumbens, and Vitex negundo are used in their daily life. While Aloe vera, Azadirachta indica, Curcuma longa, Emblica officinalis, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Gloriosa superba, Moringa oleifera, Ricinus communis, Sesamum indicum, Sesbania grandiflora, Solanum americanum, Tamarindus indica and Zingiber officinale are commonly cultivated.

Keywords: Medicinal plants, Traditional medicine, Ethnomedicine, Tamil Nadu

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 7(3), July 2008, pp. 421-424

 

Traditional herbal cosmetics used by local women communities in district Attock of Northern Pakistan

Mushtaq Ahmad*, Mir Ajab Khan & Muhammad Zafar

Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-I-Azam Univerity, Islamabad, Pakistan

E-mail: mushtaqflora@hotmail.com

Received 23 February 2006; revised 11 December 2006

Since ancient times woman have turned to the beautifies of nature to help or increase their own beauty. Even today, people especially in rural areas depend upon plants for traditional cosmetics. The research work is confined to herbal cosmetics with special reference of local communities of district Northern Pakistan. Through questionnaires, study was conducted in 20 villages of district Attock to collect information from local people for preparation, use of herbal cosmetics and their conservation. Indigenous data on 40 herbal recipes were collected from respondent informants. A total of 40 plant species belonging to 38 genera and 34 families were used in herbal cosmetics. Local communities, especially woman heavily use these herbal cosmetics for their beauty and believe that these are easily available, less expensive, and have no side effects.

Keywords: Herbal cosmetics, Traditional cosmetics, Pakistan

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 7(3), July 2008, pp. 425-428

 

Ethnomedicinal plants used by the tribals of Bargarh district to cure
diarrhoea and dysentery

Sunil Kumar Sen* & Lalit Mohan Behera

*Department of Botany, Panchayat College, Bargarh 768028, Orissa; PG Department of Botany, GM (Autonomous) College
Sambalpur 768001, Orissa

Received 23 March 2006; revised 9 October 2007

The tribals and other rural communities residing in and around the forests in Bargarh district of Orissa mostly depend on the vegetation around them for the prevention as well as treatment of diseases and ailments. First hand information on ethnomedicinal uses of plants, their doses and mode of administration have been collected from the local traditional medicine practitioners as well as experienced old men and women. The paper deals with 35 ethnomedicinal plants used by the tribals for the treatment of diarrhoea and dysentery in Bargarh district. The tribals of the district, who were interviewed, include Sahanra, Binjhal, Gond and Kondh, besides some other minor communities.

Keywords: Ethnomedicinal uses, Orissa, Diarrhoea, Dysentery, Sahanra, Binjhal, Gond, Kondh

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 7(3), July 2008, pp. 429-435

 

Unintended consequences of arable crop technology within
farming systems in Oyo state, Nigeria

 

1Oladele* OI, 1Oladipo OA & 2Ogunlade I

1Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, University of Ibadan, Nigeria;
2Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, University of Ilorin, Nigeria

E-mail: iogunlade@yahoo.com

Received 22 March 2006; revised 27 November 2007

To improve farmers’ production, researchers have developed some agricultural technology, which however produces several consequences, in the usage by farmers. Hence, an attempt was made to study the farmer’s perception of the consequences of arable crops technology in Oyo state. This was achieved through multistage random sampling (using questionnaire). PPMC was used to test the relationship between unintended consequences and some independent variables. It was discovered that benefits, adoption, social participation and contact with extension agents are significant while age and farm size are not significant. Multiple regression analysis of unintended consequences and independent variables shows that there is significant relationship between unintended consequences and independent variables. The most important predictor is adoption, frequency of meetings and cassava productivity.

Keywords:      Agricultural technology, Arable crop technology, Farming systems, Nigeria

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 7(3), July 2008, pp. 436-437

 

Folk remedies for insect bites from Gundlabrahmeswaram Wild Life Sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh

 

K Venkata Ratnam & RR Venkata Raju*

Department of Botany, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur 515 003, Andhra Pradesh

E–mail: rrvenkataraju@ yahoo.com

Received 4 April 2006; revised 25 September 2007

The investigation provides information on folk remedies used for different insect bites by the tribal people inhabiting in and around the forests of Gundlabrahmeswaram wild life sanctuary. A list of hither to unknown and little known crude drugs used for different insect bites along with mode of administration is provided.

Keywords:      Ethnomedicine, Folk remedies, Insect bite, Gundlabrahmeswaram Wld Life Sanctuary, Chenchus, Yanadis

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 7(3), July 2008, pp. 438-442

 

Documentation of traditional herbal knowledge of Khamptis of Arunachal Pradesh

Prabal Sen1, Mihin Dollo1, Manabendra Dutta Choudhury2 & Dhrupad Choudhury1*

1GB Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, North East Unit, Itanagar 791 113, Arunachal Pradesh,
2Department of Life Sciences, University, Silchar 788 011, Assam

E-mail: dhrupadc@yahoo.co.in

Received 4 April 2006; revised 16 October 2007

In the present global milieu, documentation of the country’s traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) particularly those associated with bioresources has assumed high priority. The paper records the use and ethnomedicinal values of 37 plant species belonging to 29 families, utilised by Khamptis of Arunachal Pradesh. For each plant species, the information lists plant name, crude drug preparation, and the method of use. Such documentation not only provides opportunities, but also holds potential for developing products for the pharmaceutical sector, safeguard from biopiracy and above all sustainable use. This will also act as a tool to the economic upliftment of the upland tribal communities by harnessing some of the potential and high value species.

Keywords: Traditional Knowledge, Ethnomedicine, Khamptis, Arunachal Pradesh, Lohit

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 7(3), July 2008, pp. 443-445

 

Folk therapy for eczema, bone fracture, boils, sores and gingivitis in
Taragtal province of Uttaranchal

 

KR Arya* & SC Agarwal

Botany Division, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226001, Uttar Pradesh

Email: aryakr@rediffmail.com

Received 22 August 2006; revised 9 May 2007

The communication provides the findings of the folk therapy used for the treatment of eczema, bone fracture, boils, sores and gingivitis of Taragtal province at Ganai block of Almora district in Uttaranchal. The study area is extremely remote part of the district and is inhabited by majority of Kumaoni and few of them are Garhwali. The general population and the traditional herbal healers continue to rely on their folk system of medication for their healthcare. A total number of 15 participants from general public, 14 traditional herbal healers, and 24 patients suffering from above diseases were involved in the study as a source of information. The aim of the study is to explore the folklore therapy of this region for the treatment of eczema, bone fracture, boils, sores and gingivitis for the betterment of the common people and wider application.

Key words: Folk medicine, Garhwali, Kumaoni, Eczema, Bone fracture, Boils, Sores, Gingivitis, Uttaranchal

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 7(3), July 2008, pp. 446-454

 

Medicinal plants used by different tribes of Cachar district, Assam

Ajit Kumar Das*, BK Dutta** & GD Sharma***

*Department of Botany, SS College, Hailakandi 788151, Assam;

**Department of Ecology & Environment Sciences, Assam University, Silchar 788011;

***Department of Life Science, Assam University, Silchar 788011, Assam

Received 15 September 2006; revised 29 May 2007

A survey was carried out in different parts of Cachar district of Assam to gather information regarding the uses of medicinal plants by the different tribes/communities settled in the district. Out of 107 plant species, some are being used against jaundice, diarrhoea, dysentery, cough, malarial fever, skin diseases, sexual diseases, etc. Due to the impact of urbanisation and partial modernisation, the primitive communities in this region are losing their traditional culture and practice of medicinal plant use in their daily life. Certain anthropogenic activities (i.e. deforestation, shifting cultivation, construction of roads, etc.) are the main causes to affect this medicinal plant diversity. Therefore, appropriate measures should be taken to improve the habitat of these wild medicinal plants by controlling deforestation, soil erosion, etc. Sustainable harvesting of medicinal plants and the new found medicinal plant species are advised to be cultivated and in vitro conservation should be encouraged for the benefit of mankind at large.

Keywords:      Ethnomedicine, Medicinal plants, Conservation, Cachar district, Assam, Jaintia, Riang, Chorai, Hrangkhol, Mizo, Vaiphei Paite, Karbi, Naga, Kuki

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 7(3), July 2008, pp. 455-462

 

Socio-cultural perspectives to the sacred groves and serpentine worship in Palakkad district, Kerala

Murugan K1, Ramachandran V S2, Swarupanandan K2* & Remesh M3

1Department of Botany, University College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala;

2Division of Forest Ecology and Biodiversity Conservation, Kerala Forest Research Institute, Peechi, Thrissur 680653, Kerala;

3Centre for Research in Indigenous Knowledge Science and Culture, Jawahar Nagar, Calicut 673006, Kerala

Received 5 April 2006; revised 6 September 2007

 

Sacred groves (kavukal) are seen through out Kerala, having varied forms, cultural practices and belief systems. The vegetation in the groves is highly varied viz. mangroves, fresh water swamps, or other tropical forest types. Deities worshipped in the groves are also highly varied. One such type is the sacred grove dedicated to serpent God and serpent worship is considered to be one of the oldest and most prevalent forms of nature worship in the world. While serpent worship is seen through out India, only in Kerala, people worship serpent in the sacred groves dedicated to them called, Sarpa kavu. The study brought out three broad types of groves in Palakkad, viz. the primitive, the recent and the sacraments devoid of groves. Worship, rites and rituals associated with the grove include both primitive ones like Noorum palum, Kalemezhuthupattu and the Vedic types like Sarpa bali and Payasa homam. Beside these, the myths and beliefs associated with serpent worship are also discussed in detail. The study brings to light the existence of groves devoid of any vegetation, indicating that sacred groves can be relicts from a past socio-cultural epoch, which served to transmit the cultural heritage generations from pre-historic time. Conservation of natural resources in the past involved many taboos, rituals and other religious practices and sacred groves was such a traditional socio-cultural mechanism aiming at nature conservation that integrated socio-cultural aspects for conservation.

 

Keywords: Traditional Knowledge, Ethnomedicine, Sacred groves, kavukal, Serpent worship, Conservation, Kerala

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 7(3), July 2008, pp. 463-465

 

Indigenous technical knowledge for control of insect pest and
livestock disorders

 

Sullip Kumar Majhi

Division of Fisheries, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Umroi Road, Barapani 793 103, Meghalaya

E-mail: sullipkm@rediffmail.com

Received 18 October 2005; revised 21 November 2006

The paper outlines the salient feature of traditional belief in relation to agricultural practices as well as for livestock management. The study carried out in VR Palem village of Ponnuru mandal, Andhra Pradesh revealed that the villagers use indigenous knowledge, including treatment of some of the human disease. So far as, technical knowledge in agricultural practice in the village is concerned, the insect and pest control in some of the commercially important plant like coconut tree is found to be important one. Beside, it has been also found that there exists some of the important traditional knowledge for healing the fractured bones and ligaments in livestock as well as remedies for various stomach related problems.

Key words:     Indigenous Technical Knowledge, Traditional agricultural practices, Insect control, Pest control, Kammas, Madiga, Mala, Yanadi

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. .7(3), July 2008, pp. 466-468

 

Ethoiatrical uses of Euphorbia antiquorum L. and E. ligularia Roxb. in Assam

P Deka, KK Nath* & SK Borthakur1

Department of Botany, Mangaldai College, Mangaldai 784 125, Assam; Department of Botany,
Gauhati University, Guwahati 781 014, Assam

Received 20 March 2006; revised 1 January 2008

The paper deals with information on use of Euphorbia antiquorum L. and E. ligularia Roxb. in traditional medicine of Assam. During ethnobotanical survey conducted among different ethnic groups of the state, 24 prescriptions using the above two species against 20 ailments have been recorded.

Keywords: Traditional medicine, Euphorbia sp., Assam

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol.7 (3), July 2008, pp. 469-477

 

Management of indigenous sugarcane under rice-wheat based agroecosystem through informal institutions

 

Ranjay K Singh1* & Amish K Sureja2

1Department of Extension Education and Rural Sociology; 2Department of Vegetable Science,
College of Horticulture and Forestry, Central Agricultural University, Pasighat 791 102, Arunachal Pradesh

E-mail: ranjay_jbp@rediffmail.com.

Received 17 March 2006; revised 18 December 2006

Informal rural social institutions and indigenous knowledge systems as social capitals have often played significant role in conserving, managing and sustaining the indigenous biodiversity. Looking to the importance of informal rural social institutions and farmers’ wisdom in conservation of indigenous biodiversity, an attempt has been made to document the resource-poor farmers’ informal social institutions and common practices for conservation and management of indigenous sugarcane varieties in three randomly selected villages of Azamgarh district, eastern part of Uttar Pradesh. The data were collected from the resource-poor and resource-rich farmers by using the focus group discussions and personal interview methods. The study depicts that farmers have developed an informal institution and a cumulative body of indigenous knowledge based on trial and error to conserve, adapt and manage the indigenous sugarcane varieties. The varieties and adopted approaches are found to be compatible with the socio-economic and biophysical indicators of rice-wheat based agroecosystem. Cultural feasibility and local resources available with farmers are basic attributes in facilitating the chain of cooperation through Sajha-Kolhad to help each other for management of indigenous sugarcane varieties in holistic manner. The informal institution and knowledge involved in managing the indigenous sugarcane varieties were found to be environmentally sound, economically viable, socially justifiable and more humane in nature. With regard to production stability and agronomic and cultural attributes, indigenous sugarcane varieties are more compatible than the improved varieties.

Keywords: Institution, Indigenous knowledge, Conservation, Sugarcane, Rice-wheat agro-ecosystem

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 7(3), July 2008, pp. 478-484

 

Indigenous labour sourcing: Subsistence farming and poverty status among farmers in Nigeria

 

Oladele OI

Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

E-mail: oladele20002001@yahoo.com

Received 10 May 2006; revised 12 October 2007

The paper examines the concepts of farm renting, farm pledging and sharecropping as correlates of poverty status among farmers in Nigeria. A multistage random sampling technique was used to select farmers in Ondo state, where the practice of these concepts predominates. Data were collected through structured interview schedules and data analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. One-way analysis of variance for the six categories of the respondents on expenditure, poverty alleviating strategies and income from other activities shows that there is a significant difference among the respondents for the variables examined. The implication of these findings is that poverty alleviation programmes should focus the types of income generating activities examined in the study.

Keywords: Indigenous labour sourcing, Farming, Nigeria

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 7(3), July 2008, pp 485-493

 

Indigenous Technological Knowledge on soil and water management from Himachal Himalaya

Chaman Lal* & L R Verma

Institute of Integrated Himalayan Studies,
(UGC Centre of Excellence), Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla 171 005, Himachal Pradesh

E-mail: chaman.rao@gmail.com

Received 7 June 2006; revised 24 August 2006

Over a millennium indigenous people of Himachal Pradesh have evolved a large number of practices locally called Indigenous Technical Knowledge (ITK) relating to soil and water management systems suitable for different agroclimatic conditions of the state. The ITK regarding soil and water management systems were collected and compiled through PRA and household interviews in the remote and rural area of Himachal Pradesh. In several parts of the Himachal Himalaya, villages are located at the foothills or in the valleys. Villagers often harvest rainwater by building small water storage ponds commonly called chal. In hills, there is traditional practice to plough the fields early in the morning before dew or fog is evaporated for the conservation of water. Spring water is collected in small reservoirs scattered at intervals on the high uplands and then drawing water from these ponds when required. Heavy snow is melted with the help of ash. Ash is spread / broadcasted over field for weed control, surface soil crust breaking, and making soil more porous by conserving the rainwater. In Kinnaur district, soil mulching is done with Pinus, Chilgoza needles and grasses from the kandas/hill top. Mulching conserves soil moisture in the field and also helps in maintaining the soil temperature. In the lower areas of Himachal Pradesh during the rainy season, roof water is collected in dugout structures known as diggi in Kangra and khatis in Hamirpur and Bilaspur district. Khatis provides stored water, which is the main source of water. Farmers have been managing soil and water by making arrangements for the safe disposal of excess water.

 

Keywords: Traditional Knowledge, Soil management, Water management, Himachal Himalaya, Himachal Pradesh

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 7(3), July 2008, pp. 494-500

 

A study on the traditional housing technology of Bangladesh

Nasir Uddin

Department of Anthropology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Chittagong 4331, Bangladesh

E-mail: nuchoton@yahoo.com

Received 28 June 2007; revised 19 December 2007

Across history of human civilization, ecological factors motivated people of different periods in shaping their settlement strategy. From the very commencement of people’s settlement-practice, housing practice became the symbol of protection and safety for human existence. Whenever people think of housing construction, ecological factors have been given the principal contemplation to cope with the hostile natural calamities and unusual environmental behaviour. People around the world still maintain and practice this trend historical, pragmatic and situational in housing construction. Indigenous people across the world have hereditarily been exercising this sort of housing technology for years that includes ecological and environmental reflection. However, even modern architectural design embodies the discourse of ‘environmentally-sound’ in construction process. With the increased economic dimension of human life, economic factors are also reflected in the domain of housing technology that includes cost-effectiveness and sustainability, etc. The paper explores one of such traditional housing technologies, mud-made housing technology bring widely practiced in different parts of Bangladesh. It explores the state and architecture, ecological and economic reasoning of the mud-made housing technology of Bangladesh.

Keywords: Traditional housing technology, Mud-made housing, Bangladesh

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 7(3), July 2008, pp. 501-504

 

Medicinal weeds of crop fields and role of women in rural health and hygiene in Nalbari district, Assam

 

DK Bhattacharjya & PC Borah*

Department of Botany, BH College, Howly 781316, Barpeta, Assam

Received 10 April 2006; revised 11 September 2006

The paper presents 32 medicinally important weed species found in different crop fields along with some other plant species believed to have medicinal properties, which are being used by the rural people, particularly the women in Nalbari district, Assam. These weeds, although considered harmful to the crops, and are eradicated from the crop fields during cultural operation, may be fruitfully utilized to serve the medicinal purposes against various diseases. The herbal recipes recorded in the study may provide ample opportunities to study them critically for their efficacy and also for new drug development.

Keywords: Medicinal weed, Ethnomedicine, Hygiene, Assam

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 7(3), July 2008, pp. 505-510

 

Indigenous Knowledge and practices of women herb sellers of
Southwestern Nigeria

 

OR Omobuwajo*, GO Alade & A Sowemimo

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

E-mail:oomobuwa@oauife.edu.ng,oomobuwa@yahoo.com

Received 30 August 2006; revised 7 February 2008

In Nigeria, the knowledge and practices of herb sellers, who are mostly women has not been documented. Preliminary survey of the herb selling profession was carried out. Sixty-five women herb sellers located in major towns and cities in Southwestern, Nigeria, Ile-ife (15), Ibadan (15), Abeokuta (15) and Lagos (20) were interviewed, 51 women responded. The results showed that herb sellers are a link to Traditional Medicine Practitioners (TMPs) and the populace as they sell medicinal plants, small animals and animal parts to them. They treat malaria, gonorrhoea, skin problems, candidiasis, impotence, infertility and rheumatism. They give antenatal and general care to women and children. Their indication of plants most commonly used may be an indication of plants under pressure and possibly over exploited, as their concern over unavailability of plants, which used to be abundant was expressed. The herb sellers indicated an inadequate knowledge of plant preservation.

Keywords: Herb seller, Biodiversity, Traditional medicine, Ethnomedicine, Nigeria

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 7(3), July 2008, pp. 511-513

 

Verbesina encelioides: Perspective and potentials of a noxious weed

S C Jain1*, R Jain2, R Singh1 & E Menghani1

1Medicinal Plants and Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302004, Rajasthan
2Deparment of Chemistry, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302004, Rajasthan

E-mail- jainnatpro3@rediffmail.com

Received 12 February 2007; revised 15 February 2008

Verbesina encelioides (Cav.) Benth. & Hook. Fil ex Gray (Asteraceae) regarded as a notorious weed and an ornamental garden plant has found various uses in folk medicine in different parts of the world. This plant possesses analgesic, emetic, febrifuge and insecticidal actions but is mildly toxic to small ruminants, which is attributed to the relative amount of galegine. V. encelioides also produces a number of metabolites like flavonoids, terpenoids, sesquiterpenes and essential oils, etc. in appreciable yields. Some of these compounds have exhibited significant antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumour, hypoglycaemic, antiimplantation and antiinflammatory activities. The paper is an overview of the potential utilization of
V. encelioides, which is otherwise a well known weed.

Keywords: Verbesina encelioides, Toxicity, Bioactivity, Galegine, Secondary metabolites, Folk medicine, Weed