Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

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8VOLUME

2NUMBER

2009APRIL

 

        CONTENTS

 

Papers

 

Traditional knowledge of Adi tribe of Arunachal Pradesh on plants 

146

      RC Srivastava & Adi community

 

 

 

Floristic composition and practices on the selected sacred groves of Pallapatty village (Reserved forest), Tamil Nadu

154

      Ganesan S, Ponnuchamy M, Kesavan L & Selvaraj A

 

 

 

Traditional knowledge base in the management of village bamboos: A case study in Barak Valley, Assam, Northeast India

163

      AJ Nath, G Das & AK Das

 

 

 

Diversity and conservation of medicinal plants in Barak valley, Northeast India

169

      AR Barbhuiya, GD Sharma, A Arunachalam & S Deb

 

 

 

Pharmacognostical evaluation of root bark of Streblus asper Lour.

176

      V Madhavan, Pravinkumar P Zamabad, MR Gurudeva & SN Yoganarasimhan

 

 

 

Medical pluralism – The challenges ahead

181

      GG Gangadharan & Darshan Shankar

 

 

 

Medicinal plants of cold desert Ladakh used in the treatment of stomach disorders

185

      Basant Ballabh & OP Chaurasia

 

 

 

Medicinal plants of Muzaffarnagar district used in treatment of urinary tract and kidney stones

191

      Prachi, N Chauhan, D Kumar & MS Kasana

 

 

 

Indigenous knowledge of using medicinal plants in treating skin diseases in Kanyakumari district, Southern India

196

      C Kingston, S Jeeva, GM Jeeva, S Kiruba, BP Mishra & D Kannan

 

 

 

Ethnoveterinary practices and socio-cultural values associated with animal husbandry in rural Sunderbans, West Bengal

201

      Samares Kumar Das &  Hema Tripathi

 

 

 

Indigenous Technical Knowledge (ITK) in dairy enterprise in coastal Tamil Nadu

206

      K Ponnusamy, Jancy Gupta & R Nagarajan

 

 

 

Traditional tools in agricultural practices

212

      C Karthikeyan, D Veeraragavathatham, D Karpagam & S Ayisha Firdouse

 

Tribal pest control practices of Tamil Nadu for sustainable agriculture

218

      Purusottam Mohapatra, N Ponnurasan & P Narayanasamy

 

 

 

Indigenous storage structures

225

      C Karthikeyen, D Veeraragavathatham, D Karpagam & S Ayisha Firdouse

 

 

 

Indigenous method of rat proof grain storage by Adi tribes of Arunachal Pradesh

230

      SK Sarangi, R Singh & KA Singh

 

 

 

A traditional fishing method of Assam for catfishes using duck meat as an attractant

234

      Rajdeep Dutta & Birendra Kr Bhattacharjya

 

 

 

Fishing methods in the rivers of Northeast India

237

      SD Gurumayum & M Choudhury

 

 

 

Indigenous technical knowledge about the use of spent mushroom substrate

242

      MP Sagar, OP Ahlawat, Dev Raj, B Vijay & C Indurani

 

 

 

Traditional knowledge of water management in Kumaon Himalaya

249

      Ajay S Rawat & Reetesh Sah

 

 

 

Ethnotherapeutic management of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) and reproductive health conditions in Central Province of Kenya

255

      Grace N Njoroge & Rainer W Bussmann

 

 

 

Women’s wisdom and indigenous human healthcare practices

262

      Ranjay K Singh & Anamika Singh

 

 

 

Antibacterial activity of Kutajarista - an Ayurvedic preparation

270

      Premnath Shenoy KR & Yoganarasimhan SN

 

 

 

Evaluation of antibacterial activity of Elanir kujambu - an Ayurvedic eye formulation

272

      Premnath Shenoy KR & SN Yoganarasimhan

 

 

 

Preparation and testing of perfume as described in Brhatsamhita

275

      Sachin A Mandavgane, PP Holey & JY Deopujari

 

 

 

Efficacy of plants-based holy stick fumigation against infectious bacteria

278

      Prabhu N, Rengaramanujam J & Anna Joice P

 

 

 

Ethnomedicinal survey of folk drugs used in Bahirdar Zuria district,
Northwestern Ethiopia

281

      Muthuswamy Ragunathan & Solomón Mequanente Abay

 

 

 

Ethnobotany of Indian horse chestnut (Aesculus indica) in Mandi district, Himachal Pradesh

285

      A Rajasekaran & Joginder Singh

 

 

 

Use of indigenous knowledge by women in a Nigerian rural community

287

      Olatokun Wole M & Ayanbode OF

 

Indigenous Technical Knowledge and ancient proverbs of the coastal fisher folk of Kerala and their implications

296

      PS Swathi Lekshmi & Dinesh Babu AP

 

 

 

Folk medicinal uses of plant roots from Meerut district, Uttar Pradesh

298

      Amit Tomar

 

 

 

Author Index

302

 

 

Subject Index

302

 

 

Forthcoming Seminars/Conferences

304

 

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8(2), April 2009, pp. 146-153

 

 

Traditional knowledge of Adi tribe of Arunachal Pradesh on plants

R C Srivastava & Adi community

Botanical Survey of India, Arunachal Pradesh Circle, Post Box No 127, Itanagar 791111, Arunachal Pradesh

E-mail: rcs_bsi@yahoo.co.in

Received 20 January 2008; revised 9 May 2008

Arunachal Pradesh, falling under Easter Himalayan region one of the global mega-diversity centers, is a botanical paradise and the home of 110 ethnic communities (tribes) most of which are still forest dwellers and so diverse that they can not understand each others language. Hindi is gradually becoming popular among the persons, who are near townships. The paper throws light on different uses of 108 species of plants in day-to-day life of the people belonging to Adi ethnic community of Arunachal Pradesh.

Keywords: Ethnobotany, Adi, Nyishi, Arunachal Pradesh

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8(2), April 2009, pp. 154-162

 

 

Floristic composition and practices on the selected sacred groves of
Pallapatty village (Reserved forest), Tamil Nadu

 

Ganesan S*, Ponnuchamy M, Kesavan L & Selvaraj A,

Centre for Research and PG Department of Botany, Thiagarajar College (Autonomous), Madurai 625 009, Tamil Nadu

E-mail: sganesan76@yahoo.com

Received 10 August 2006; revised 19 December 2007

Field studies on floristic composition and ethnobotanical practices of the sacred groves of in and around Pallapatty village, Madurai district of Tamil Nadu were undertaken. A total of 133 plant species belonging to 113 genera distributed among 51 families were recorded. The mode of mythical and therapeutic uses and conservation practices of these plants by the local people has been discussed.

Keywords: Floristic composition, Ethnobotany, Sacred groves, Conservation, Tamil Nadu

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8(2), April 2009, pp. 163-168

 

 

Traditional knowledge base in the management of village bamboos: A case study in Barak Valley, Assam, Northeast India

AJ Nath¹, G Das² & AK Das¹*

Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Assam University, Silchar,
Assam; Department of Statistics, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong, Meghalaya,

E-mail: asheshdas@sancharnet.in

Received 15 September 2006; revised 27 September 2007

Bamboos are the important component in the traditional land use systems of Barak Valley. The traditional practice of village bamboo management in the homegarden system was studied in the Cachar district of Barak Valley, Assam. Utilization of village bamboos for fulfilling basic rural necessitate supports the maintenance of village bamboo diversity. Traditional management of village bamboos has recognized the formation of certain societal groups that forms a complex interlinkage and generates rural employment. Traditional practice of moulding of soil around the clump, addition of leaf litter and farm yard manure to the bamboo clump is of practical importance and have scientific basis. Clear felling strategy of bamboo clump management for commercial utilization has severe effects on the clump growth parameters that can endanger the village bamboo productivity. Strategies to overcome the weaknesses of traditional management system are also discussed.

Keywords: Village bamboos, Bamboo management, Bamboo clump, Traditional Knowledge, Assam

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8 (2), April 2009, pp. 169-175

 

 

Diversity and conservation of medicinal plants in Barak valley, Northeast India

AR Barbhuiya1*, GD Sharma2, A Arunachalam3 & S Deb3

1Department of Forestry, Mizoram University, Aizawl 769 009, Mizoram;
2Department of Life Science, Assam University, Silchar 788 011, Assam;
3Department of Forestry, North Eastern Regional Institute of Science and Technology,
Nirjuli 791 109, Arunachal Pradesh

E-mail:arbarbhuiya@gmail.com

Received 8 January 2007; revised 20 August 2008

Through an ethnobotanical survey of Barak-valley, about 150 naturally growing and frequently used medicinal plants were collected. Out of these collections, 24 plant species have been highly prioritised for conservation. Among these, population of Acorus calamus Linn., Aegle marmelos Linn., Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb., Costus speciosus (Koem.ex.Retz) Sm., Rauvolfia serpentina (L.) Benth.ex Kurz., Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers., etc are reducing day-by-day due to over-exploitation for medicinal purposes, felling for timber, etc. and also due to inherent poor natural regeneration. During the exploration, emphasis was given on herbal treatment for everyday common ailments and diseases, particularly used by the local tribes of Barak-valley such as Riang, Kachari, Hmar, Rongmai Naga, and Manipuri and Teagarden community. The study gives an account on the diversity of medicinal plants and priority medicinal plants for conservation. The study also warrants an herbal policy to address public awareness, cultivation and conservation on a sustainable basis with in the environmental protection regime.

Keywords: Medicinal plants, Riang, Kachari, Hmar, Rongmai Naga, Manipuri, Barak valley, Assam, Conservation

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8(2), April 2009, pp. 176-180

 

 

Pharmacognostical evaluation of root bark of Streblus asper Lour.

 

V Madhavan1, Pravinkumar P Zamabad1, MR Gurudeva2 & SN Yoganarasimhan1*

1Department of Pharmacognosy, MS Ramaiah College of Pharmacy, MSRIT Campus, Bangalore 560 054, Karnataka
2VV Pura College of Science, KR Road, Bangalore 560 004, Karnataka

E-mail: dr_yogan@yahoo.co.in

Received 9 August 2007revised 8 April 2008

Streblus asper Lour. known as Shakhotaka in Ayurveda and Piraayan in Siddha is an important medicinal plant belonging to family Moraceae. The root bark is antipyretic, antidysentric and analgesic, and sedative. The study provides taxonomical, pharmacognostical and physicochemical details helpful in laying down standardization and pharmacopoeial parameters. The diagnostic characters are latex exudation, lenticular opening, crystals and latex cells in secondary phloem, 2-3-seriate medullary rays, and septate fibers. Physicochemical studies revealed, total moisture content (8.91%), total ash (15.00%), acid insoluble ash (5.65%), water-soluble ash (3.23%), alcohol soluble extractive value (18.05%), and water-soluble extractive value (35.83%). Ultraviolet analysis exhibited considerable variation. Preliminary organic analysis revealed carbohydrates, glycosides, phytosterols, phenolic compounds, tannins, saponin, gums and mucilage. Thin layer chromatographic studies gave 8 and 7 spots in alcohol and aqueous extracts, respectively.

Keywords: Streblus asper, Pharmacognosy, Physicochemical analysis

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8(2), April 2009, pp. 181-184

 

 

Medical pluralism – The challenges ahead

G G Gangadharan & Darshan Shankar

FRLHT, No 74/2, Jarakabande Kaval, Attur, PO Yalahanka, Bangalore 560 064, Karnataka

Received 28 July 2006; revised 13 November 2006

The paper explains the need and urgency for an intellectual debate on Medical pluralism. This debate has to take place in an environment of positive thinking, openness to understand diverse knowledge systems and a felt need to look for better option to fill the gaps of conventional medicine and above all the importance of taking healthcare to the cross section of the community which is affordable and effective.

Keywords: Medical pluralism, Traditional medicine

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8(2), April 2009, pp. 185-190

 

 

Medicinal plants of cold desert Ladakh used in the treatment of stomach disorders

Basant Ballabh* & O P Chaurasia

Field Research Laboratory, Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO), Leh-Ladakh, Jammu & Kashmir

Received 22 August 2006; revised 10 October 2007

The paper deals with 57 plants species belonging to 24 families used in the treatment of stomach disorders by the Boto (the Buddhists) tribal community of Ladakh, Jammu & Kashmir state. Plants parts used in the treatment of stomach disorders along with methods of preparation, dose of administration and duration of treatment is described. The traditional practitioners are called Amchis in Ladakh and the traditional medical system is principally based on Tibetan System of Medicine. The local people of the region still rely on traditional systems of medicine for curing stomach disorders and more than 60% tribal population is dependant on herbal remedies.

Keywords: Stomach disorders, Cold desert, Amchi, Boto tribes, Herbal remedies, Ethnomedicine, Medicinal plants

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8(2), April 2009, pp. 191-195

 

 

Medicinal plants of Muzaffarnagar district used in treatment of
urinary tract and kidney stones

 

Prachi1, N Chauhan2, D Kumar1 & MS Kasana2*

1Department of Botany, CCR (PG) College, Muzaffarnagar 251 001, Uttar Pradesh;
2Department of Botany, IP (PG) College, Bulandshahr 203 001, Uttar Pradesh

E-mails: mskasana@gmail.com; prachi2978@yahoo.co.in

Received 21 July 2007; revised 4 February 2008

A floristic survey of ethnomedicinal plants was conducted at Muzaffarnagar district of Uttar Pradesh to assess the potentiality of plant resources. The study revealed that 15 plant species belonging to 13 families are used as anti-urolithiatic agents in local remedies. The information on medicinal uses is based on the exhaustive interviews with local healers and herbalists, practicing traditional system of medicine. Details of the plants, parts used, method of preparation, dosage and mode of administration have been reported. Equisetum debile Roxb. and Gomphrena celosioides Mart. are most effective and commonly used in treatment of urinary tract and kidney stones. These may prove precious potential source of bioactive compounds of therapeutic value against uro- and nephro-lithiasis and hence need further critical scientific testing, phytochemical examination and clinical evaluation for the purpose.

Keywords: Medicinal plants, Traditional medicine, Ethnomedicine, Kidney stone, Urolithiasis, Urinary tract stone, Calculi, Uttar Pradesh

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8(2), April 2009, pp. 196-200

 

 

Indigenous knowledge of using medicinal plants in treating skin diseases in Kanyakumari district, Southern India

C Kingston1, S Jeeva2, GM Jeeva1, S Kiruba3, BP Mishra2 & D Kannan4*

1Post Graduate Studies & Research Centre in Botany, Scott Christian College, Nagercoil 629 003, Tamil Nadu; 2Ecology Research Laboratory, Department of Botany, School of Life Sciences, North–Eastern Hill University, Shillong 793 022, Meghalaya; 3Post Graduate Studies & Research Centre in Zoology, Scott Christian College, Nagercoil 629 003, Tamil Nadu; 4Centre for Environmental Studies, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Ettimadai, Coimbatore 641 105, Tamil Nadu

E-mail: d_kannan@ettimadai.amrita.edu

Received 24 August 2006; revised 24 November 2007

Plant species used in the treatment of skin diseases among the indigenous communities of Kanyakumari district of Tamil Nadu was conducted between 2003-2004. Thirty plant species belonging to 29 genera and 22 families were found to be used specifically in the treatment of various 11 skin diseases viz., dandruff, eczema, impetigo, leprosy, parasite, psoriasis, rash, scabies, swellings, tinea cruris and tinea versicularis. The communities use 9 plant species invariably for the treatment of all kinds of skin diseases while 4 species are exclusively used to treat leprosy. Saraca asoca plant becomes vulnerable since it is frequently used for the treatment of scabies.

Key words: Ethnobotany, Ethnomedicine, Medicinal plants, Skin diseases, Kanyakumari

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8(2), April 2009, pp. 201-205

 

 

Ethnoveterinary practices and socio-cultural values associated with animal husbandry in rural Sunderbans, West Bengal

Samares Kumar Das1&  Hema Tripathi2*

1Department of Veterinary and Animal Husbandry Extension, College of    Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Central Agricultural University, Selesih, Aizawl, Mizoram, 2Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Uttarakhand

E-mail: hematripathi1@yahoo.co.in

Received 24 August 2006; revised 17 September 2007

The study was undertaken to explore, understand and document the livestock and livelihood related social realities and their interlinkages in rural societies of Sundarbans. Four case studies were conducted in 4 purposively selected distinct villages under 4 blocks of Sundarbans. It was found that the rural inhabitants of study villages still had a traditional way of living though the impact of urbanisation was also visible in material culture and other aspects of life. Villagers invariably resorted to ethnoveterinary practices to get rid of the common ailments in the first place by themselves followed by fellow villagers having better knowledge in those practices. Few well recognised occupational ethnoveterinarians were found across the study villages. Ethnoveterinary practices were followed in paschimi / tuntiphola in cattle; foot and mouth diseases or other type of sore in cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat; delayed expulsion of placenta, abortion and dystokia in cow; pox in duck and chicken; loose faeces in cattle, goat and chicken; sprain or strain; cataract in the eye of cattle, etc. Importance of livestock in lives of local people in Sundarbans could indirectly be traced out from folk rhymes /games, festivals exist in the society and from behaviour of animals’ owners towards their stock. Mention of duck, chicken, meat, buffalo and sheep/goat were noticed in some folk rhymes chanted by the children folk while playing various indigenous games and plays across the study villages.

Keywords: Ethnoveterinary practices, Folk rhymes, Socio-cultural values, Animal husbandry

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8(2), April 2009, pp. 206-211

 

 

Indigenous Technical Knowledge (ITK) in dairy enterprise in coastal Tamil Nadu

 

K Ponnusamy1* Jancy Gupta2 & R Nagarajan3

1Central Institute of Brackish Water Aquaculture, Chennai, Tamil Nadu; 2Dairy Extension Division,
National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana; 3Division of Agronomy, TNAU, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu

 

Received 15 September 2006; revised 22 December 2007

Indigenous Technical Knowledge evolved from the experiences of farmers found to possess practical utility in solving some of the farmer’s problems under their own conditions. A study undertaken in two coastal districts of Tamil Nadu helped to document various ITKs in dairying. The validation of ITKs with 25 scientists showed varied level of validity scores. The constraints in adopting ITKs as perceived by the farmers are also reported.

Keywords: Indigenous technical knowledge, Dairy enterprise, Tamil Nadu

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8(2), April 2009, pp. 212-217

 

 

Traditional tools in agricultural practices

C Karthikeyan, D Veeraragavathatham, D Karpagam* & S Ayisha Firdouse

Division of Agricultural Extension), Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Sirugamani 639 115, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu

Email: karpagamextn@yahoo.co.in

Received 5 January 2007; revised 25 February 2008

The study was undertaken to identify various traditional tools used for agricultural operations by the farmers of Tamil Nadu. Agricultural tools are as old as Stone Age. Traditional agricultural tools were economical in terms of labour, money and time saving. These tools were made up of locally available materials like stones, wood, etc. Traditional tools are operated easily without any special skills. The study was conducted in Coimbatore, Erode, Salem, Krishnagiri, Villupuram, Dindigal, Madurai, Kovilpatty, Aruppukottai and Virudhunagar districts of Tamil Nadu. Information was documented by using Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) techniques like observation and discussion. In the study, 21 traditional agricultural tools were identified and described.

Keywords:  Traditional tools, Indigenous tools, Agricultural practices, Tamil Nadu

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8 (2), April 2009, pp. 218-224

 

 

Tribal pest control practices of Tamil Nadu for sustainable agriculture

Purusottam Mohapatra, N Ponnurasan & P Narayanasamy*

Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar 608 002, Tamil Nadu

Received 19 July 2006 revised 23 October 2006

In an attempt to revalidate indigenous pest control practices enliving in certain hillocks of Tamil Nadu, more than 125 practices covering crops like rice, vegetables, etc. store produce and domestic habitations have been documented. From the collection, based on popular usage, certain pest control practices were selected and subjected them for their efficacy in the laboratory and field conditions. All of them showed their potency against various pests.

Keywords:  Pest control, Indigenous pest control, Sustainable agriculture, Crop protection

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8(2), April 2009, pp. 225-229

 

 

Indigenous storage structures

C Karthikeyen, D Veeraragavathatham, D Karpagam* & S Ayisha Firdouse

Division of Agricultural Extension, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Sirugamani 639 115,   Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu

E-mail: karpagamextn@yahoo.co.in

Received 5 January 2007; revised 23 February 2008

Indigenous practices play a vital role in sustainable agriculture development and are unique to a given culture of society. An exhaustive survey was conducted in dry tracts of Tamil Nadu to document the indigenous storage structures used by farmers. Information was documented by using participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) techniques. During survey, various types of indigenous storage structures used at the farm level in Tamil Nadu were identified. Among these, Kodambae (large sized cylindrical structures), Kuthir (medium capacity bins) and mud pots paanai (small capacity storage) are common types of storage systems. Grains are also stored in conventional granary rooms. Bamboo structures, urai indigenously oven is also in use. These structures are designed to enable the grain to be loaded and unloaded, with the possibility of periodic removal of limited quantities of grain, after which the unloaded part was sealed.  By this way, the quality of grain was maintained in good condition.

Keywords: Indigenous storage, Grain storage, Indigenous knowledge, Tamil Nadu

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8(2), April 2009, pp. 230-233

 

 

Indigenous method of rat proof grain storage by Adi tribes of Arunachal Pradesh

SK Sarangi1*, R Singh2 & KA Singh3

1Division of Agricultural Engineering, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region,
Umroi Road, Umiam 793 103, Meghalaya; 2ICAR Research Complex for NEH
Region, Arunachal Pradesh Centre, Basar 791 101, Arunachal Pradesh;
3Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi 284 003, Uttar Pradesh

E-mail: sukanta_sarangi@yahoo.com

Received 7 August 2006; revised 28 November 2006

Rodents are important storage pest of NEH region due to availability of congenial habitat. The farmers of West Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh with their years of wisdom have been using an indigenous method of rat proof granary called Nahu in Adi language. The study reveals three scientific features of this structure used as rat proof grain storage. Use of stone pad at the bottom, wooden plate at the middle and airtight compartment at the top makes it a unique and innovative storage structure.

Keywords: Granary, Grain storage, Nahu, Adi, Rat proof storage, Rodents, Arunachal Pradesh

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8(2), April 2009, pp. 234-236

 

 

A traditional fishing method of Assam for catfishes using duck meat as an attractant

Rajdeep Dutta1* & Birendra Kr Bhattacharjya2

1Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Tirap District, Deomali 786 629, Arunachal Pradesh;
Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute (ICAR), NER Center, Guwahati 781 006, Assam

E-mail: rajdeep18j@rediffmail.com

Received 12 February 2007; revised 10 October 2007

An indigenous fishing method of River Kalong- Kapili, an important South bank tributary of Brahmaputra river is described. In this practice, small catfishes (Mystus sp) are caught in marginal areas of the river using raw meat of domestic duck (Anas platyrhynchos, Linnaeus, 1758) as an attractant. School of small catfishes attracted by the smell of the meat enters into small pits, where they are hand picked. Strong flavour of duck meat is used as an attractant in this innovative fishing method.

Keywords: Traditional fishing method, Mystus sp, Fish attractant, Duck meat, Assam, Ko

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8 (2), April 2009, pp. 237-241

 

 

Fishing methods in the rivers of Northeast India

S D Gurumayum1* & M Choudhury2

1Gopaldev Mandir, Tourangbam Leikei, Uripok, Imphal, Manipur; 2Northeastern Regional Center, CIFRI,
Housefed Complex, Central Building, Dispur, Guwahati 781006, Assam

E-mail: santaguru@rediffmail.com, ranjanaguru@yahoo.co.uk

Received 21 August 2006; revised 19 November 2007

The Northeast frontier of India, which has been ranked 6th among the top 25 biodiversity spot in the world demonstrates the absolute dependence of men on nature. Riverine fishery resources of these states comprise 19,150 km of streams and rivers with diversified fish fauna, having both torrential and plain forms but still the old traditional methods of fishing are prevalent and most of the practices followed are primitive and outdated as there is no new and reliable technology available. Some of the existing fishing methods in the hill steams are hooks and line, maze/ barricade, encircling gear, entangling gear, impaling gear, scooping gear, groping, impoundment, indigenous trap and noose fishing. For the large scale fishing destructive practices such as dynamiting and poisoning are employed. Electric fishing is also becoming very popular in some parts.

Keywords: Fishing methods, Northeast India, Traditional medicine

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8 (2), April 2009, pp. 242-248

 

 

Indigenous technical knowledge about the use of spent mushroom substrate

MP Sagar1, OP Ahlawat2, Dev Raj3, B Vijay4 & C Indurani5

1,2,4National Research Centre for Mushroom, Solan 173 213, Himachal Pradesh;
3Department of Post Harvest Technology, Dr YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan, Himachal Pradesh;
5Directorate of Extension Education, TNAU, Coimbatore 641 003, Tamil Nadu

E-mail: mpsagar59@rediffmail.com

Received 9 January 2007; revised 10 September 2007

The study on indigenous technical knowledge (ITK) about use of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) for agriculture revealed wide variations in age of the SMS applied in different crops at mushroom grower’s farm and it ranged between 0 month (fresh) to 36 months (old). Similarly, the quantity of SMS applied also varied between a minimum of 4.75 q to maximum of 1,000 q/ha in field crops and 4-6 kg/plant in apple orchard. The mushroom growers as well as researchers noticed yield enhancement and lower incidence of diseases in agricultural and horticultural crops along with changes in soil physical conditions on using SMS as manure. On the basis of empirical data and experience gained during the process of verification and refinement of ITKs about use of SMS as manure in crops, it is concluded that SMS should be decomposed for at least 12 months using scientific methods of composting such as natural weathering in pits, aerobic recomposting and anaerobic recomposting instead of disposing off in open on road side. Similarly, the doses of recomposed SMS for various crops should be worked out on the basis of total nutrients (NPK) requirement of the respective crops and the nutrients status of SMS. The recomposed SMS should be used singly as basal application or in combination with inorganic fertilizers.

Keywords: Indigenous technical knowledge, Spent mushroom substrate, Manure

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8(2), April 2009, pp. 249-254

 

 

Traditional knowledge of water management in Kumaon Himalaya

Ajay S Rawat1* & Reetesh Sah2

1Department of History, Kumaon University, Sai Sadan, Joy Villa Compound, Tallital, Nainital 2, Uttarakhand;
2UGC-Academic Staff College Kumaun University, Nainital1, Uttarakhand

E-mail: ajaysrawat@rediffmail.com; reeteshsah@rediffmail.com

Received 3 October 2006 revised 22 October 2007

Water resources regime in Kumaon Himalaya is a product of its specific environmental conditions. Major river systems, lakes along with a plethora of streams and springs are the main sources of water in this region. In pre-colonial Kumaon, communities took pride in their water systems and the local communities had the right of ownership over the use of local natural resources. They managed their water bodies on their own and this gave birth to a unique water harvesting civilization. Water was revered and regarded as sacred as is evidenced by the exquisite ornamentations and architecture of the structures around water bodies. An amazing aspect of these structures and systems is their longevity. But the colonial intrusion disturbed the community mode of management and gave precedence to private and state property rights over common property rights. The situation did not change even after Independence. The paper throws light on the water harvesting methods and the linkages of water with forests. It also focuses on the watershed approach for managing water resources in the present scenario.

Keywords: Traditional knowledge, Water management, Kumaon Himalaya

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8(2), April 2009, pp. 255-261

 

 

Ethnotherapeutic management of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) and reproductive health conditions in Central Province of Kenya

 

Grace N Njoroge*1 & Rainer W Bussmann2

1Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Botany Department PO Box 62000 Nairobi, Kenya
2The University of Texas at Austin, USA

E-mail: gnjerinjoroge@hotmail.com/ gnjoroge@fsc.jkuat.ac.ke; rbussmann@natureandculture.org

Received 9 October 2006; revised 3 May 2007

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are among the most common infectious diseases that pose major public health concerns in the world today. Although plants used in management of reproductive health in traditional communities play a major role in primary healthcare, they are often over looked in most ethnobotanical surveys. The study investigates various STDs and reproductive health conditions managed through ethnotherapeutic agents as well as the important herbal remedies utilized in Central Province of Kenya. Of 49 plant species belonging to 30 families used in managing various STDs and reproductive health conditions in the study area, 16 species were mentioned three or more times during the survey. Herbal agents used for the treatment of these conditions, especially the ones with high agreement on their use among respondents, form an important resource for antimicrobial screening against microorganisms associated with STDs especially those which have already developed resistant strains. Several species were used in managing pain associated with reproductive issues and may warrant investigations to authenticate their analgesic properties.

Keywords: Sexually transmitted diseases, Reproductive health management, Medicinal plants, Kenya

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8(2), April 2009, pp. 262-269

 

 

Women’s wisdom and indigenous human healthcare practices

Ranjay K Singh1* & Anamika Singh2

1College of Horticulture & Forestry, Central Agricultural University, Pasighat,
Arunachal Pradesh; 2Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Mahila
Mahavidyalaya, Banaras Hindu University (BHU), Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh

E-mail:ranjay_jbp@rediffmail.com

Received 10 October 2006 revised 20 August 2007

In the study, an effort was made to explore the diversities of indigenous knowledge systems pertaining to human health among rural women of the purposively selected villages of eastern part of Azamgarh district, Uttar Pradesh. Data pertaining to study were collected by using the participatory approach, group discussions, participant learning and personal interview methods. Results indicate that women are having their ancestral wisdom to cure many diseases. A range of indigenous fruits and tubers are utilized during drought and food scarcity to meet nutrition requirement for maintaining health. These indigenous practices of health were found to be appropriate on account of low cost, good efficacy and easy local availability.

Keywords: Ethnomedicine, Women wisdom, Indigenous knowledge, Medicinal plants, Traditional knowledge, Uttar Pradesh

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8(2), April 2009, pp. 270-271

 

 

Antibacterial activity of Kutajarista - an Ayurvedic preparation

Premnath Shenoy KR1 & Yoganarasimhan SN2*

1Regional Research Laboratory, Bangalore, Karnataka; *2MS Ramaiah College of Pharmacy, MSR Nagar,
MSRIT post, Bangalore 560 054, Karnataka

E-mail: dr_yogan@yahoo.co.in

Received 12 February 2007; revised 25 September 2007

Kutajarista, an antidiarrhoeal Ayurvedic formulation prepared in the laboratory using Madhuca longifolia (Koen.) Macbr. (Sapotaceae) (flowers), Holarrhena antidysenterica (Roxb. ex Fleming) Wall. (Apocynaceae) (stem bark), Gmelina arborea Roxb. (Verbenaceae) (stem bark), Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz. (Lythraceae), Vitis vinifera L. (Vitaceae) (raisins) and adjuvants, viz. honey and jaggery as ingredients is screened for antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus pumilus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus and Candida albicans; the standard preparation of Kutajarista is compared with three market samples.

Keywords: Kutajarista, Antidiarrhoeal activity, Ayurvedic preparation, Antimicrobial activity, Dysentery

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8(2), April 2009, pp. 272-274

 

 

Evaluation of antibacterial activity of Elanir kujambu -
an Ayurvedic eye formulation

 

Premnath Shenoy KR1 & SN Yoganarasimhan2*

1Regional Research Institute (Ay), Bangalore 560 011, 2*Department of Pharmacognosy; MS Ramaiah College of Pharmacy,
MSRIT Post, MSR Nagar, Bangalore 560 054, Karnataka

E-mail: dr_yogan@yahoo.co.in

Received 13 April 2007; revised 6 February 2008

Elanir kujambu is an anjana, a classical Ayurvedic preparation comprising wood of Berberis aristata, pericarps of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellirica, Phyllanthus emblica, stolon of Glycyrrhiza glabra, stem bark of Gmelina arborea, tender coconut (Cocos nucifera) water, synthetic camphor, honey and rock salt. The standard formulation prepared in the laboratory and two market samples of Elanir kujambu were screened and compared for antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus pumilus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus and Candida albicans.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Elanir kujambu, Anjana, Ayurvedic formulation, Eye formulation

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8(2), April 2009, pp. 275-277

 

 

Preparation and testing of perfume as described in Brhatsamhita

Sachin A Mandavgane1*, PP Holey2 & JY Deopujari3

1Department of Chemical Engineering, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur, Maharashtra;

Laxminarayan Institute of Technology, Nagpur 440 010, Maharashtra;

3Dhanvantari Hospital, Dharampeth, Nagpur 440 010, Maharashtra

E-mail:mandavgane@gmail.com

Received 18 May 2007; revised 24 September 2007

Brhatsamhita of Varaha-Mihira (5-6th century AD) describes the materials and methods of perfumes in chapter Gandhayukti. This chapter explains Gandhārnava (perfume ocean), wherein it provides a matrix of 4×4, i.e. total 16 ingredients, choosing any 4 of them along any row, column or diagonal and permuted variously at will and that in one, 2, 3 or 4 parts provide 1,820 different compositions of perfumes. Though the chapter gives the details of raw materials, but it has not given the process of preparation and purification. In the study, an attempt was made to prepare perfumes using 8 of 16 ingredients with different permutations. Paper presents a primary study to explore the possibility and feasibility of perfume preparation as described in Brhatsamhita. 

Keywords: Ancient technology, Brhatsamhita, Varaha-Mihira, Perfume

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8(2), April 2009, pp. 278-280

 

 

Efficacy of plants-based holy stick fumigation against infectious bacteria

Prabhu N*, Rengaramanujam J & Anna Joice P

Post Graduate and Research Department of Microbiology, Dr NGP Arts and Science College, Kovai Medical Centre and Hospital, Coimbatore 641 035, Tamil Nadu

E-mail: prachanna_76@yahoo.co.in

Received 8 January 2007; revised 15 September 2008

The most common and accepted method of fumigation is to produce fumes using formaldehyde along with potassium permanganate. The formaldehyde cause sulphydryl poisoning, protein aggregation and cancer inducing nature due to protein cross linkage. Indians follow the practice, Homam –Yagam, where the lifestyle of meditation and external medical practices were followed. Various holy sticks collected from trees and fumes were produced along with cow dung cake and ghee. Various bacteria were isolated from various sources and each organism was exposed to the religious stick fumes with different time incubation. The results revealed that organisms like Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae were prominently inhibited. Fumes of Achyranthus aspera controlled Streptococcus pyogenes. These sticks (dhoops) with various level combinations produce fumes to inhibit or reduce the level of contamination and risk of infection.

Keywords: Fumigation, Dhoops, Pyogenic organisms, Holy stick fumigation

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8(2), April 2009, pp. 281-284

 

 

Ethnomedicinal survey of folk drugs used in Bahirdar Zuria district,
Northwestern Ethiopia

 

Muthuswamy Ragunathan*1 & Solomón Mequanente Abay 2

1Medicinal Plant Documentation Unit, Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, PB 196, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia; 2Addis Ababa University, Medical Faculty, Department of Pharmacology, PO Box 9086, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

E-mail: ragunathranilmonica@yahoo.com; ragunathan@fastmail.fm

Received: 24 May 2007; revised 27 December 2007

An ethnomedicinal survey on folk drugs used by different ethnic groups in Bahirdar Zuria district northwestern Ethiopia was done. Field survey and personal discussion methods were used in the collection of data. A total of 27 plant species were used as folk drugs among Bahirdar district people. Most of the herbal remedies were given in the form of fresh juice. The majority of drugs was made from single plant species and was administered orally. Most prevalent diseases in this area are malaria, tuberculosis, bronchitis, and skin diseases. 27 plant species belonging to 26 genera, 24 species and 21 families applied for therapeutic purposes by the different ethnic group of Bahirdar Zuria district are enumerated. Medicinal plants with their local names and ethnomedicinal claims including method of applications to treat common illness are presented.

Keywords: Ethnobotany, Ethnomedicine, Amhara ethnic group, Ethiopia

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8(2), April 2009, pp. 285-286

 

 

Ethnobotany of Indian horse chestnut (Aesculus indica) in Mandi district, Himachal Pradesh

 

A Rajasekaran* & Joginder Singh

Himalayan Forest Research Institute, Panthaghati, Shimla 171 009, Himachal Pradesh

Email: rajsekaran@yahoo.com

Received 26 September 2007; revised 21 April 2008

Aesculus indica Coleb. ex Wall. (Hippocastanaceae), known as Himalayan chest nut or Indian horse chestnut is a large tree, distributed in the Himalayas from Kashmir to Nepal. The tree is locally known as Khanor in Himachal Pradesh and its parts are used in day-to-day activities as fodder, medicine and timber. A flour, locally known as Tattwakhar is prepared from the seeds of the tree. In the paper, detailed ethnobotanical information on the tree collected from Chuwar valley of Mandi district of Himachal Pradesh along with traditional method of preparation of Tattwakhar flour is presented.

Keywords: Aesculus indica, Tattwakhar, Khanor, Bitterness, Halwa

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8(2), April 2009, pp. 287-295

 

 

Use of indigenous knowledge by women in a Nigerian rural community

Olatokun Wole M* & Ayanbode O F

Africa Regional Centre for Information Science, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

E-mail: woleabbeyolatokun@yahoo.co.uk

Received 21 July 2007; revised 4 February 2008

The study investigated Rural Women’s use of Indigenous Knowledge (IK) in the development of Ogun State, Nigeria. Among others, it aimed at identifying the nature and types of IK being used by the rural women, the extent of use as well as the domains of use. It equally aimed at finding out how the rural women’s use of IK has positively affected sustainable development in Ogun State. The survey research design was adopted. The targeted population comprised rural women in Odeda local government area of Ogun State. A purposive sample of 250 respondents was selected. Data were collected with an interviewer-administered structured questionnaire and analyses were carried out using frequencies and percentage distributions. Findings revealed that majority of the rural women were farmers and illiterates but have vast knowledge of traditional medicine. There was an extensive use of oral IK in various domains: culture transfer and preservation, food security, saving and lending money, population control, childcare, etc but its greatest impact was in the area of food production.

Keywords: Indigenous Knowledge, Sustainable development, Nigeria

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8(2), April 2009, pp. 296-297

 

 

Indigenous Technical Knowledge and ancient proverbs of the coastal fisher folk of Kerala and their implications

P S Swathi Lekshmi1* & Dinesh Babu A P2

1Socio-Economic Evaluation and Transfer of Technology Division, Mangalore Research Centre of CMFRI, Mangalore;
2Crustacean Fisheries Division, Mangalore Research Centre of CMFRI, Mangalore

Received 10 August 2006; revised 19 December 2007

The paper attempts to study the Indigenous Technical Knowledge of the fisher folk of fishing villages, Maruvakkad and Mallipuram belonging to Chellanam and Elankunnapuzha Panchayats, respectively of Palluruthy and Vypeen Block, Ernakulam. The Traditional knowledge and proverbs pertaining to the fishing community of these villages were collected and the scientific rationale for the same was studied.

Keywords: Indigenous Technical Knowledge, Fisheries, Proverbs, Implications

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8(2), April 2009, pp. 298-301

 

 

Folk medicinal uses of plant roots from Meerut district, Uttar Pradesh

Amit Tomar

Department of Botany, Meerut College, Meerut 250001, Uttar Pradesh

E-mail: amittomar1982@yahoo.co.in

Received 21 August 2006 revised 24 January 2008

The paper enumerates 39 medicinal plant species belonging to 39 genera and 28 families, which are used as folk medicine in the treatment of various ailments or diseases by the rural and common people of Meerut district.

Keywords: Folk medicine, Medicinal plants, Vaidhya