Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

 

Special Issue on Indian Systems of Medicine

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VOLUME 8

NUMBER 3

JULY 2009

 

       CONTENTS

 

Papers

 

Use of Kñéravidäré as a substitute for Vidäré as per Ayurvedic descriptions

310

      Padma Venkatasubramanian, Subrahmanya Kumar K & SN Venugopal

 

 

 

Analysis of Hinguvacādi Cūrna

319

      Ariamuthu Saraswathy, S Rukmani & S Ariyanathan

 

 

 

Pharmacognostical evaluation of Drosera burmannii Vahl (Droseraceae)

326

      V  Madhavan, Hema Basnett, MR Gurudeva & SN Yoganarasimhan

 

 

 

Pharmacognostic studies on Acrotrema arnottianum Wight- a promising ethnomedicinal plant

334

      J Usha Kumari, M Navas, Mathew Dan & S Rajasekharan

 

 

 

Standardization of Centipeda minima, Mimusops elengi, Orchis mascula and Paeonia emodii

338

      Rajbir Singh, Monika Kachroo & Shyam S Agrawal

 

 

 

Preparation and characterization of a mercury based Indian traditional drug: Ras-Sindoor

346

      Sunil Kumar Singh, Anand Chaudhary, DK Rai & SB Rai

 

 

 

Medicinal plants for the treatment of fever (Jvaracikitsā) in the Mâdhavacikitsâ tradition of India

352

      DN Mishra

 

 

 

Antibacterial activity of Kutajarista - an Ayurvedic preparation

362

      Premnath Shenoy KR & Yoganarasimhan SN

 

 

 

Tāmalakī - An analytical review

364

      Binay Sen & SD Dubey

 

 

 

Therapeutic efficacy of Agnimantha (Premna obtusifolia R. Br.) in obesity (Sthaulya)

369

      Rina Ghosh, Sukumar Ghosh & Lakshmi Narayan Maity

 

 

 

Uses of medicinal plants in Panchakarma Ayurvedic therapy

372

      Mradu Gupta & BP Shaw

 

 

 

Efficacy and safety of an Ayurvedic regimen in Medoroga

379

      SVLN Prasad, V Prahalad Rao, V Punita, Y Murali Manohar Raju, UV Sharmila &
B Anand

 

 

 

Shata- dhauta- ghrita – A case study

387

      Supriya Deshpande, Avinash Deshpande, Suresh Tupkari & Anoop Agnihotri

 

 

 

Care for addiction through Ayurveda

392

      Papri Nath

 

 

 

Concept of aging in Ayurveda

396

      Bal Govind Tiwari & BN Upadhyay

 

 

 

Mustard and its uses in Ayurveda

400

      Ram Manohar P, Reshmi Pushpan & Rohini S

 

 

 

Clinical efficacy of Withania coagulans Dunal and Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn. in Type 2 Diabetes mellitus

405

      Aftab Alam, MY Siddiqui & MH Hakim

 

 

 

Hypoglycaemic activity of Berg-e-Arusa and Shoneez

410

      Kahkashan Zainab, SZ Rehman, Tajuddin, Abdul Latif & Nasreen Jahan

 

 

 

Clinical evaluation of the efficacy of a combination of zanjabeel (Zingiber officinale) and amla (Emblica officinalis) in hyperlipidaemia

413

      Rihana Kamal & Shagufta Aleem

 

 

 

Clinical evaluation of the efficacy of Qurs Sartan Kafoori and Sharbat Zoofa Murakkab in chronic bronchitis

417

      Abdul Quddus, MMH Siddiqui, MY Siddiqui & Shagufta Aleem

 

 

 

Scientific validation of Unani compound formulation for its efficacy in bronchial asthma

421

      KC Singhal, Furkhunda Jabin, Shoaib Ahmad, SZ Rahman, RK Bhargava & A Latif

 

 

 

Effect of Psoralia corylifolia Linn. and Marham-e-Gulabi in Da-al-sadaf (psoriasis)

425

      M Shamim Khan, MMH Siddiqui & Shagufta Aleem

 

 

 

Clinical trial of Unani herbomineral cream to evaluate its topical effects on Acne vulgaris

431

      Shagufta Parveen, Sharique Zafar, Masroor Ali Qureshi   & Humaira Bano

 

 

 

Safety and efficacy of leeching therapy for symptomatic knee osteoarthritis using Indian medicinal leech

437

      SM Abbas Zaidi, SS Jamil, A Sultana, F Zaman & M Fuzail

 

 

 

Clinical importance of leech therapy

443

      Tanzeel Ahmad & Mohd Anwar

 

 

 

Study on efficacy of Siddha drugs (CL and CEN) in rheumatoid arthritis

446

      B Muthukumar

 

 

 

Standardization of a polyherbal Siddha formulation, Amukkara Choornam

449

      Kartik Ch Patra, K Jayaram Kumar, P Suresh

 

 

 

Study on the effect of Pranakarshan pranayama and Yoga nidra on alpha EEG & GSR

453

      Kamakhya Kumar & Bhanu Joshi

 

 

 

Role of Pranayama breathing exercises in rehabilitation of coronary artery disease patients: a pilot study

455

      Asha Yadav, Savita Singh & KP Singh

 

 

 

Effect of deep relaxation technique on the capacity to influence REG- a randomized control trial

459

      Ghanshyam Singh Thakur, Nagendra HR & Nagarathna R

 

 

 

Standardization and simplification of physico-therapeutic procedures in Ayurveda and naturopathy: A preliminary study with Jala Neti

464

      Sanjeev Rastogi, Rajiv Rastogi & Ranjana Rastogi

 

 

 

Author Index

471

 

 

Subject Index

471

 

 

Book Reviews

473

 

 

Forthcoming Conferences / Seminars

474

 

 

 

 

AUTHOR INDEX

 

 

Agnihotri Anoop

387

Agrawal Shyam S  

338

Ahmad Shoaib

421

Ahmad Tanzeel

443

Alam Aftab

405

Aleem Shagufta

413, 417,425

Ali Masroor

431

Anand B

379

Anwar Mohd

443

Ariyanathan S

319

 

 

Basnett  Hema

326

Bhargava RK

421

 

 

Chaudhary Anand

346

Dan Mathew  

334

Deshpande Avinash

387

Deshpande Supriya

387

Dubey SD  

364

 

 

Fuzai M

437

 

 

Ghosh Rina

369

Ghosh Sukumar

369

Gupta Mradu

372

Gurudeva MR

326

 

 

Hakim MH

405

Humaira Bano

431

 

 

Jabin Furkhunda

421

Jahan Nasreen

410

Jamil SS

437

Joshi Bhanu

453

Kachroo Monika  

338

Kamal Rihana

413

Khan Shamim M

425

Kumar Jayaram K

449

Kumar Kamakhya

453

Kumar Subrahmanya K

310

 

 

Latif Abdul

410, 421

 

 

Madhavan V

326

Maity Lakshmi Narayan

369

Mishra DN

352

Muthukumar B

446

 

 

Nagarathna R

459

Nagendra HR

459

Nath Papri

392

Navas M 

334

Parveen Shagufta

431

Patra Kartik Ch

449

Prasad SVLN

379

Punita V

379

Pushpan Reshmi

400

 

 

Quddus Abdul

417

Qureshi BP

431

 

 

Rahman SZ

421

Rai DK

346

Rai SB

346

Rajasekharan S

334

Raju Murali Manohar Y

379

Ram Manohar P

400

Rao Prahalad V

379

Rastogi Rajiv

464

Rastogi Ranjana

464

Rastogi Sanjeev

464

Rehman SZ

410

Rohini S

400

Rukmani S

319

 

 

Saraswathy Ariamuthu

319

Sen Binay

364

Sharmila UV

379

Shaw BP

372

Shenoy Premnath KR

362

Siddiqui MMH

417, 425

Siddiqui MY

405, 417

Singh KP

455

Singh Rajbir 

338

Singh Savita

455

Singh Sunil Kumar

346

Singhal KC

421

Sultana A

437

Suresh P

449

 

 

Tajuddin

410

Thakur Ghanshyam Singh

459

Tiwari Bal Govind

396

Tupkari Suresh

387

 

 

Upadhyay BN

396

Usha Kumari J

334

 

 

Venkatasubramanian Padma

310

Venugopal SN

310

 

 

Yadav Asha

455

Yoganarasimhan SN

326, 362

 

 

Zafar Sharique BP

431

Zaidi Abbas SM

437

Zainab Kahkashan

410

Zaman F

437



 

SUBJECT INDEX

 

Acne vulgaris

431

Acrotrema arnottianum

334

Agnimantha

369

Amla

413

Amukkara choornam

449

Antidiarrhoeal activity

362

Antiinflammatory activity               

425

Antimicrobial activity

362

Antipsoriatic activity

425

Asatmya

392

Atherosclerosis

413

Ayurveda                                         

310, 352, 364, 392, 396, 400, 464

 

 

Ayurvedic drugs

 

319, 346, 369,
379

Ayurvedic preparation

362

 

 

Bhasma

346

Bhūmyāmalakī

364

Blood letting

443

Breathing exercises

446

Bronchial asthma

421

 

 

Chromatography

338, 449

Chronic bronchitis

417

Coronary artery disease

446

Cow ghee

387

 

 

Da-al-sadaf

425

Deep relaxation technique               

459

Diabetes

405, 410

Drosera burmannii

326

Dvyantara

392

 

 

Ekantara

392

 

 

Ethnomedicine

334

Fingerprint profile

319

GC/MS spectrum

387

Ginger

413

Gunakarma

364

 

 

Hinguvacādi Cūrna

319

Hirudo therapy

443

HPTLC

319, 326

Hyperlipidaemia

413

Hypoglycemic activity

410

 

 

Immunity

453

Indian Systems of Medicine         

338

 

 

Jala Neti

464

Jara

396

Jvaracikitsâ

352

 

 

Knee osteoarthritis

437

Kñéravidäré

310

Kutajarista

362

 

 

Leach therapy

437, 443

 

 

Mâdhavacikitsā

352

Malavedan tribe

334

Marham-e-Gulabi

425

Medicinal plants

310, 352, 372

Medoroga

379

Mustard

400

 

 

Nasya

372

Naturopathy

464

Navaka guggulu

379

 

 

Obesity

369

Ointment base

387

Osteoarthritis

437

 

 

Panchakarma

372, 464

Pharmacognostical characters       

326

Pharmacognosy

334

Pharmacopoeial standards               

319

Pranakarshan pranayama           

453

Pranayama

446

Premna obtusifolia

369

Psoralia corylifolia

425

Psoriasis

425

 

 

Qurs Sartan Kafoori

417

 

 

Random event generator               

459

Rasayana

396

Ras-Sindoor

346

Regimental therapy

443

Rheumatoid arthritis

446

 

 

Satmya

392

Satmyikarana

392

Sharbat Zoofa Murakkab               

417

Siddha drugs

446, 449 

Skin disease

425

Skin hydration

387

Snehan

372

Standardisation

319,338, 449, 464

Sthaulya

369

Sthaulyahara kashayam               

379

Sundew

326

Śvāsa

364

Swedan

372

Synonyms

310

 

 

Tāmalakī

364

Topical preparation

387

Traditional knowledge

352, 400

Traditional medicine

346

Trigonella foenum-graecum           

405

Tryantara

392

 

 

Unani herbomineral cream            

431

Unani medicine

405,,413, 421,443, 410,425, 417, 431, 437

Vaman

372

Vasti

372

Vidäré

310

Virechan

372

 

 

Warm-e-Shoab Muzmin                 

417

Withania coagulans

405

 

 

Yoga nidra

453


 

 

 

 


Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8(3), July 2009, pp. 310-318

 

 

Use of Kñéravidäré as a substitute for Vidäré as per Ayurvedic descriptions

Padma Venkatasubramanian*, Subrahmanya Kumar K & SN Venugopal

Foundation for Revitalisation of Local Health Traditions, No 74/2, Jarakabande Kaval, Post Attur, via Yelahanka,
Bangalore 560 064, Karnataka

E-mail: padma.venkat@frlht.org

Received 6 November 2007 revised 22 October 2008

The classical texts of Ayurveda incorporate multiple names for most of the plant drugs described for their medicinal use. As a result, the correct identification of related botanical source, many a times, becomes ambiguous. Extensive background work on nomenclature correlation can be assumed in the scholarly works of several authors of twentieth century including those of the official formularies and pharmacopoeias of Ayurveda of India. However, the works do not describe the research methodology and findings that led to the correlations. There is an urgent need to revisit this issue systematically and to publish the same through books and articles in peer-reviewed journals. Owing to several reasons, including availability of the required plant raw drugs, there are controversies relating to use of more than one botanical entity by the Ayurvedic manufacturing units. Vidäré (ivdarI) is one such example where at least four different botanical entities have been recorded in use by the industry. Pueraria tuberosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) DC. is the only accepted candidate for Vidäré as per official pharmacopoeias. Kñéravidäré (]IrivdarI), a well documented type of Vidäré as per the classical Ayurveda texts, finds no mention as Vidäré in these pharmacopoeias. The study, through etymological analysis of Sanskrit synonyms, formulations and verses, indicates that two distinct botanical entities were used as Vidäré, even during the period of Caraka. Both these entities have been described as having similar properties and actions, thus making them eligible to be used as substitutes of one another. The two botanical entities that merit acceptance as sources of the classical Ayurvedic plant drug Vidäré are Pueraria tuberosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) DC. and Ipomoea mauritiana Jacq., though the later is better known as Kñéravidäré.

Keywords: Ayurveda, Medicinal plant, Synonyms, Vidäré, Kñéravidäré

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A61P25/00

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8(3), July 2009, pp. 319-325

 

 

Analysis of Hinguvacādi Cūrna

Ariamuthu Saraswathy1*, S Rukmani1 & S Ariyanathan2

1Captain Srinivasa Murti Drug Research Institute for Ayurveda and Siddha,
(CCRAS), Anna Hospital Campus, Arumbakkam, Chennai 600 106, Tamil Nadu;
2Centre for Advanced Research in Indian system of Medicine,
SASTRA University, Tanjore 613 402, Tamil Nadu

E-mail: csmdria@gmail.com

Received 20 march 2009; revised 9 April 2009

Quality assurance of herbal medicine is an important factor and basic requirement for herbal drug industry and other drug development organization. Hinguvacādi Cūrna is one of the ancient, most commonly used Ayurvedic formulations. The herbomineral drug is made in combination of 20 plant ingredients and 4 mineral ingredients. The formulation is prescribed for the treatment of ādhmāna (flatulence with gargling sound), śūla (pain), pārśvaśūla (intercostals neuralgia and pleurodynia), and pāndu (anaemia). Due to lack of quality standards, there are batch-to-batch variations. In order to develop standards for the Cūrna, the study was undertaken. The ingredients were procured locally, identified; Cūrna was prepared in laboratory scale and analyzed. Two other samples of Cūrna were procured from different Ayurvedic drug manufacturers. These samples were subjected to physico-chemical analysis, TLC and HPTLC finger printing. The data evolved can be adopted for laying down the pharmacopoeial standards for Hinguvacādi Cūrna.

Keywords: Hinguvacādi Cūrna, Ayurvedic drugs, Fingerprint profile, HPTLC, Pharmacopoeial standards, Standardisation

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A61P1/04, A61P1/06, A61P1/12, A61P7/06

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8 (3), July 2009, pp. 326-333

 

 

Pharmacognostical evaluation of Drosera burmannii Vahl (Droseraceae)

V Madhavan1, Hema Basnett1, MR Gurudeva2 & SN Yoganarasimhan1*

Department of Pharmacognosy1, MS Ramaiah College of Pharmacy, Bangalore 560 054, Karnataka

2Department of Botany, VV Pura College of Science, Bangalore 560 004, Karnataka

E-mail: dr_yogan@yahoo.co.in

Received 13 September 2008; revised 20 January 2009

Drosera burmannii Vahl, a member of Sundews group is an important medicinal and carnivorous plant. Species of Drosera are used in medications for ailments like asthma, cough, ulcers besides being useful in homoeopathy. Many medically active phytoconsitutents including naphthoquinones, plumbagin and hydroplumbagin are reported in species of Drosera. The pharmacognostical evaluation and HPTLC profile help in drug identification and to establish marker compound. The occurrence of plumbagin, an antifertility agent in the taxon is significant.

Keywords: Drosera burmannii, Sundew, Pharmacognostical characters, HPTLC

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A61P11/00, A61P11/06, A61P11/10, A61P29/00, A61P31/02

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8 (3), July 2009, pp. 334-337

 

 

Pharmacognostic studies on Acrotrema arnottianum Wight — A promising ethnomedicinal plant

J Usha Kumari, M Navas, Mathew Dan & S Rajasekharan*

Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, Pacha-Palode, Thiruvananthapuram 695 562, Kerala

E-mail: drrajsek@yahoo.co.in; ethmed_tbgri@yahoo.com

Received 16 October 2006; revised 18 July 2008

The medicated oil prepared with the whole plant of Acrotrema arnottianum Wight, (Dilleniaceae) is used by the Malavedan tribe of Kerala to prevent excessive hair fall and baldness. As a promising ethnomedicinal plant, systematic and detailed pharmacognostical studies as per the standard procedures were carried out. There are no previous reports on pharmacognosy and anatomy of this medicinal plant. Macro-and micro-morphological parameters discussed can be considered as distinguishing standards to identify and decide the authenticity of the drug. Quantitative microscopic parameters which includes the stomatal index, palisade ratio and vein-islet number are also distinguishing features. Powder microscopy of the drug, the behaviour of the powdered drug with different chemical reagents and its fluorescence analysis are also observed to characterise the crude drug.

Keywords: Acrotrema arnottianum, Malavedan tribe, Ethnomedicine, Pharmacognosy

IPC Int. Cl.8: A01K61/00, A61P17/00, A61P17/12

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8(3), July 2009, pp. 338-345

 

 

Standardization of Centipeda minima, Mimusops elengi, Orchis mascula
and Paeonia emodii

Rajbir Singh1, Monika Kachroo1 & Shyam S Agrawal2*

Department of Pharmacology, 2Department of Pharmacy, Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research
Pushp Vihar, Sector 3, New Delhi 110 017

Received 21 November 2006 revised 24 January 2008

TLC/HPTLC profiles with other physiochemical parameters are good tools for standardization and validation of medicinal plants, and are simple and effective methods for determination of the phytochemicals. The study developed TLC/HPTLC methods (optimal solvent system) for phytochemical analysis of five medicinal plants used in Indian Systems of Medicine (whole dried plant of Centipeda minima; dried flowers and fruits of Mimusops elengi; dried root tubers of Orchis mascula and dried root tubers of Paeonia emodii). TLC and HPTLC of ethanolic extracts of C. minima whole herb, M. elengi flower, M. elengi fruit, methanolic extracts of O. mascula root tuber and P. emodi root tuber were compared using several solvent systems including one mentioned in ISM report. Results of both TLC and HPTLC analysis suggests benzene: ethyl acetate (8:2) solvent system for C. minima; benzene: ethyl acetate: glacial acetic acid (6:3:1) for M. elengi flower; benzene: ethyl acetate (8:2) for M. elengi fruits; ethanol: chloroform (7:3) and chloroform: methanol: glacial acetic acid (6:3:1) for O. mascula root tuber and ethanol: chloroform (5:5) solvent system for P. emodi root tuber.

Keywords: Chromatography, Indian Systems of Medicine, Standardization

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A61P3/04, A61P3/06

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8 (3), July 2009, pp. 346-351

 

 

Preparation and characterization of a mercury based Indian traditional drug¾Ras-Sindoor

Sunil Kumar Singh1, Anand Chaudhary2, DK Rai1 & SB Rai1*

1Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University (BHU), Varanasi 221 005, Uttar Pradesh; 2Department of Rasa-Shastra, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University (BHU), Varanasi 221 005, Uttar Pradesh

E-mail: sbrai49@yahoo.co.in

Received 29 August 2008; revised 7 April 2009

The mercury based Indian traditional drug Ras-Sindoor is administered for the various ailments such as syphilis, genital disorders, and for rejuvenation. Pharmaceutical processing of Ras-Sindoor involves treating metallic mercury with sulfur and the juice of the aerial root of Banyan tree (Ficus benghalensis Linn.) and then controlled intermittent heating so that the metallic state is transformed into the corresponding sulfide form. In the study, synthesis and systematic characterization of this drug using various techniques, viz. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), far infrared spectroscopy (FIR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) have been reported. Drug contains mercury in the mercury sulfide form (Hg2+) being nanocrystalline (20-50 nm) in nature and associated with the organic contents of the aerial root of the Ficus benghalensis Linn. Some specific findings were also made which could be of help for the interpretation of therapeutic value, none-toxicity of Ras-Sindoor and for the standardization of such kind of traditional herbo-metallic drugs.

Keywords: Ayurvedic drug, Bhasma, Traditional medicine, Ras-Sindoor

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A61P15/00, A61P15/02, A61P31/00, A61P31/04

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8(3), July 2009, pp. 352-361

 

 

Medicinal plants for the treatment of fever (Jvaracikitsā) in the Mâdhavacikitsâ tradition of India

DN Mishra

Department of Botany, Abeda Inamdar Senior College, Pune 411 001, Maharashtra

Email: drdeben108@gmail.com

Received 30 April 2007; revised 05 September 2008

The traditional knowledge of healing plants and their treatment methods are rooted in the Âyurvedic compendia (Sanskrit medical treaties) and in the unscripted dialects of the people in India. Scientific documentation of this vast information has been accelerated in the last few decades. Absolute correlation and correct taxonomic identification of the referred medicinal plants in the Sanskrit medical texts or of the spoken dialects have not been fully established. A first time study of the medicinal plants used for the treatment of fever (Jvaracikitsā) in Mādhavacikitsā text, one of the most important post Caraka-Suśruta Samhitās reveals that there are a total of 182 vernacular (Sanskrit) plant names in the text for the treatment of all major types of fever. These 182 plant names are actually of 105 medicinal plant species. These 105 plant species belong to 53 families; out of which a maximum of 10 species are from family Fabaceae, 6 from Asteraceae and 5 each from Verbenaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Poaceae. The literature search encountered several plants having one vernacular name with different botanical identifications and also a botanical identification has many vernacular names. The ambiguity is perhaps due to the regional interpolations and linguistic interpretations about the Sanskrit names and also possibly because of non-availability of any suitable ancient taxonomic or pharmacognostical record for the correct identification of these vernacular plant names.

Keywords: Traditional knowledge, Ayurveda, Medicinal plants, Jvaracikitsâ, Mâdhavacikitsā

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A61P29/00, A61P31/00, A61P31/04

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8 (3), July 2009, pp. 362-363

 

 

Antibacterial activity of Kutajarista - an Ayurvedic preparation

Premnath Shenoy KR & Yoganarasimhan SN*

M S Ramaiah College of Pharmacy, MSR Nagar, MSRIT post, Bangalore 560 054, Karnataka

E-mail: dr_yogan@yahoo.co.in

Received 16 March 2007 revised 15 April 2008

Kutajarista, an antidiarrhoeal Ayurvedic formulation prepared in the laboratory using Madhuca longifolia (Koen.) Macbr. (Sapotaceae) (flowers), Holarrhena antidysenterica (Roxb. ex Fleming) Wall. (Apocynaceae) (stem bark), Gmelina arborea Roxb. (Verbenaceae) (stem bark), Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz (Lythraceae), Vitis vinifera L. (Vitaceae) (raisins) and adjuvants, viz. honey and jaggery as ingredients is screened for antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus pumilus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus and Candida albicans; the standard preparation of Kutajarista is compared with three market samples.

Keywords: Kutajarista, Antidiarrhoeal activity, Ayurvedic preparation, Antimicrobial activity

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A61P1/04, A61P1/06, A61P1/10, A61P1/16

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8 (3), July 2009, pp. 364-368

 

 

Tāmalakī — An analytical review

Binay Sen* & SD Dubey

Department of Dravyaguna, Faculty of Ayurveda, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 5, Uttar Pradesh

E-mail: senbinay@yahoo.com

Received 1 May 2007 revised 22 April 2008

Āyurvedic Materia Medica consists of crude drugs mainly of plant origin and there is considerable variation in the identity of the genuine species of the source plant. Vernacular names of plant signify habitat, morphological characters, useful parts, properties, actions, etc. are the keys of plant identification in Āyurveda. In many cases, one synonym is found for different plants. It is because of similar habitat, gross morphological characters, broad spectrum of therapeutic indices and so on. Hence, by single name/synonym, it is natural to consider more than one plant. Tāmalakī may be considered as an example of this phenomenon. In this study an attempt has been made to designate plant species of Tāmalakī by analyzing different views of some Āyurvedic and modern scholars.

Keywords: Āyurveda, Tāmalakī, Śvāsa, Gunakarma, Bhūmyāmalakī

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A61P1/04, A61P1/06, A61P1/08, A61P9/00, A61P11/00, A61P11/06, A61P11/10, A61P13/00, A61P13/02

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8(3), July 2009, pp. 369-371

 

 

Therapeutic efficacy of Agnimantha (Premna obtusifolia R. Br.)
in obesity (Sthaulya)

Rina Ghosh1*, Sukumar Ghosh1 & Lakshmi Narayan Maity2

1JB Roy State Ayurvedic Medical College & Hospital, 170-172, Raja Dinendra Street, Kolkata 700 004, West Bengal

2Department of Kayachikitsa, Institute of Post Graduate Ayurvedic Education and Research at SVSP 294/3/1, APC Road,
Kolkata 700 009, West Bengal

E-mail: subhra68@hotmail.com

Received 12 June 2007 revised 27 October 2008

Sthaulya is a deprecate state of human being. The physical morbidity of Sthaulya is paramount and enhances several disease processes. In the study, the role of Agnimantha (Premna obtusifolia R. Br.) as antiobesity agent has been studied in 26 subjects with severe form of Sthaulya and has been compared in 24 age and sex matched controlled subjects. Subjects of treatment showed remarkable decrease in BMI, triglyceride, cholesterol-HDL ratio, uric acid, LDL-HDL ratio and midtriceps skin-fold thickness. However, these observations are persistent only after continuation of treatment for 9 months. These observations could be more substantiated if a larger study is carried out with assessment of lipoprotein lipase activity and leptine determination. Agnimantha shows significant therapeutic value in obesity. The drug being tikta-katu rasa, ruksha-laghu guna, ushna virya, Katu-vipaka, act nicely for the treatment of obesity. Agnimantha is an ideal drug for the treatment of obesity as it is potent, innocent, cheap and easily available.

Keywords: Ayurvedic drugs, Obesity, Sthaulya, Agnimantha, Premna obtusifolia

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A61P3/04, A61P3/06

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8 (3), July 2009, pp. 372-378

 

 

Uses of medicinal plants in Panchakarma Ayurvedic therapy

Mradu Gupta1* & BP Shaw2

1Department of Dravyaguna, 2Department of Kayachikitsa, Institute of Post Graduate Ayurvedic Education & Research, SVSP Hospital, Kolkata 700009, West Bengal

E mail: mradu_gupta@hotmail.com

Received 4 July 2007 revised 28 February 2008

The paper deals with the use of various medicinal plants during the Ayurvedic process of Panchakarma, a cleansing process that eliminates toxins from the body thereby curing diseases and revitalizing the human body. The five stages (Karmas) of Panchakarma along with the pre-treatment and post-treatment processes have been systematically designed to achieve this purpose. Several medicinal plants play a very important role in all these processes as a key ingredient of the treatment procedures. Since these plants inherently possess specific therapeutic properties, the quantity and composition of the specific medicinal plant to be used for an individual is determined by his body constitution and the specific diseases to be cured.

Keywords: Panchakarma, Snehan, Swedan, Nasya, Vaman, Virechan, Vasti, Medicinal plants

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A61P1/02, A61P11/00, A61P11/04, A61P29/00, A61P31/02

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8 (3), July 2009, pp. 379-386

 

 

Efficacy and safety of an Ayurvedic regimen in Medoroga

SVLN Prasad*1, V Prahalad Rao1, V Punita1, Y Murali Manohar Raju1, UV Sharmila1 & B Anand2

1Sodhana Trust, Gautam Towers, Sardar Patel Road, Secunderabad 500 003, Andhra Pradesh; 2Institute of Mental Health,
Erragadda, Hyderabad
500 038, Andhra Pradesh

E-mail: sodhana@satyam.net.in; sodhana@sify.com

Received 10 June 2008;revised 20 February 2009

A study with an Ayurveda regimen consisting of Navaka guggulu, Sthaulyahara kashayam, a diet pattern and walk exercise for a treatment period of 3 mandalams (120 days) in medoroga was conducted to probe the efficacy and safety aspects of the regimen. 71 patients of medoroga were recruited for the study, and 34 patients formed the sample conforming to certain inclusion and exclusion criteria. Assessment of efficacy at the end of the 120-day treatment period vis-à-vis baseline was done using a self-designed proforma considering the symptoms in accordance with the Ayurvedic system and the physical parameters chest (uras) circumference, abdomen (udara) circumference and hip (sphik) circumference as enunciated in the classical texts. Certain hepatic and renal function tests were done to examine the safety profile of the treatment regimen. At the end of the treatment period, noteworthy symptomatic improvement was found in the patients; statistically significant (p<0.001) reduction in the physical parameters was noticed; and values of the hepatic and renal parameters remained in their respective normal ranges. No side effects were reported by the patients over the treatment period. The study is affirmative of the efficacy and safety of the Ayurvedic treatment regimen when administered for a period of 120 days to patients of medoroga. The importance of doing exercise in addition to intake of the medicines and a diet pattern in medoroga is emphasized.

Keywords: Medoroga, Ayurvedic drugs, Navaka guggulu, Sthaulyahara kashayam

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A61P3/04, A61P3/06

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8 (3), July 2009, pp. 387-391

 

 

Shata- dhauta- ghrita – A case study

Supriya Deshpande1*, Avinash Deshpande2, Suresh Tupkari & Anoop Agnihotri2

1Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (DIPSAR), New Delhi, 110 017; 2Dr DY Patil Pratishthan’s, Padmashree Dr DY Patil Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Pimpri, Pune 411 018, Maharashtra

E-mail: supriyadeshpande149@yahoo.co.in

Received 13 march 2008; revised 15 September 2008

Shata–dhauta–ghrita (SDG) is an Ayurvedic preparation, commonly prescribed for treatment of wounds, burns, chicken pox, scars, herpes, leprosy and other skin diseases. It is prepared by washing clarified butterfat (cow ghee) one hundred times with water. Having potential as a topical product for the treatment of skin diseases, it needs evaluation in modern scientific parameters. The study was carried out to evaluate the changes taking place while washing cow ghee one hundred times which makes it an important topical product.

Keywords: Cow ghee, Topical preparation, Skin hydration, Ointment base, GC/MS spectrum

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A61P17/00, A61P17/02, A61P17/08

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8 (3), July 2009, pp. 392-395

 

 

Care for addiction through Ayurveda

Papri Nath

T 952 B, Bagh Raoji, Near Sidhipura Police Station, East Park Road, Delhi 110 006

Received 6 November 2007 revised 22 October 2008

Addiction is a common problem in 21st century. Young generation are diverting to a harmful life style. Ayurvedic classics had mentioned a simple Satmyikarana procedure as a solution. Regarding Satmyikarana, different Acharyas expressed their views from different angles. Their views are highlighted and more acceptable views according to the contemporary age are also given.

Keywords: Ayurveda, Satmya, Asatmya, Satmyikarana, Ekantara, Dvyantara, Tryantara

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A61P251/00

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8(3), July 2009, pp. 396-399

 

 

Concept of aging in Ayurveda

Bal Govind Tiwari1* & B N Upadhyay2

1Department of Kayachikitsa, Jammu Institute of Ayurveda & Research, Jammu, J & K

2Department of Kayachikitsa, IMS, BHU, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh

E-mail: vdbalgovind@gmail.com

Received 29 May 2007 revised 10 December 2008

Ayurveda is one of the oldest recognized systems of medicine, originated from Vedas. Now at this time, the whole world is showing renewed interest in the aging process and aged people. In first 50 yrs of 21St century old age dependency ratio is expected to double in more developed region and triple in less developed region, thus the age people are going to be a big problem for the society. It is the best time to explore the possibilities of a drug from Ayurveda, which can be given to the aged person and improve their life span.

Keywords: Ayurveda, Jara, Rasayana

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A61P39/00

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8(3), July 2009, pp. 400-404

 

 

Mustard and its uses in Ayurveda

Ram Manohar P*, Reshmi Pushpan & Rohini S

AVT Institute for Advanced Research, Arya Vaidya Pharmacy, 136-137 Trichy Road, Ramanathapuram,
Coimbatore 641 045, Tamil Nadu

Received 17 October 2008 revised 17 April 2009

Mustard is a condiment that has been used for culinary, religious and cultural purposes by humanity since time immemorial. Mustard has figured prominently in the Indian tradition and its medicinal properties have been systematically evaluated and documented in the classical Ayurvedic texts. The paper attempts to carefully review the ancient and contemporary uses of mustard as food and medicine with reference to the Ayurvedic tradition. It will give an outline of the varieties of mustard described in the ancient Ayurvedic writings, comparing Ayurvedic and modern medical information regarding their properties and applications for health as well as other ways in which mustard has been used for betterment of human life.

Keywords:   Traditional knowledge, Ayurveda, Mustard

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A61P17/00, A61P17/02, A61P17/10, A61P19/00, A61P25/00, A61P29/00, A61P31/00, A61P31/02

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8(3), July 2009, pp. 405-409

 

 

Clinical efficacy of Withania coagulans Dunal and Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn. in Type 2 Diabetes mellitus

Aftab Alam*, MY Siddiqui & MH Hakim

Department of Moalijat, Ajmal Khan Tibbiya College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, 202 002, Uttar Pradesh

Email: draftab_alam@rediffmail.com

Received 15 May 2007; revised 6 July 2008

Type 2 Diabetes mellitus has become an epidemic. It is associated with several contributory factors including increased longevity, obesity, unsatisfactory diet, sedentary lifestyle and increasing urbanization. The medical and socioeconomic burden of the disease is caused by the associated complications, which impose enormous strains on healthcare system. Management includes not only diet and exercise but also anti-hyperglycaemic drugs. Several researches have been made to evaluate the hypoglycaemic effect of a lot of herbal drugs. In the trial, the combined effect of Withania coagulans Dunal and Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn. have been studied.

Keywords: Withania coagulans, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Diabetes, Unani medicine

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A61P5/00, A61P5/50

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8(3), July 2009, pp. 410-412

 

 

Hypoglycemic activity of Berg-e-Arusa and Shoneez

Kahkashan Zainab1, SZ Rehman1, Tajuddin1, Abdul Latif1 & Nasreen Jahan2*

1Department of Ilmul Advia, AKT College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, 202 002, Uttar Pradesh;
2Department of Ilmul Advia, National Institute of Unani Medicine, Bangalore 560 091, Karnataka

Received 30 April 2007; revised 25 October 2008

Diabetic problem has become more common in last few decades due to pressure of growing population, ecological disturbances and fast changing life styles. Presently, two main groups of substances are recognized as oral hypoglycemic agents but they are not risk free. In Tibb-e-Unani, many medicinal plants and mineral origin drugs have been mentioned to control diabetes but scientific validation of their antidiabetic properties is the need of the day. Therefore, in the study, the combination of two Unani drugs, i.e. Arusa (leaves of Adhatoda vasica Nees.) and Shoneez (seeds of Nigella sativa Linn.) was selected for the assessment of hypoglycemic activity. The hypoglycemic effect of the individual drug was studied and found to be effective (p<0.05) in the same model. Therefore, the study was designed to find out any synergistic effect of the combination of two drugs. The test combination was studied both in acute and one week models in healthy adult albino rabbits of either sex. Diabetes was observed in the rabbits (fasting blood glucose level ranged from 200-250 mg/100 ml) within 24 hrs after injection of alloxan and divided into 4 groups i.e. diabetic control (distilled water), diabetic standard (glibenclamide), diabetic test A (Arusa & Shoneez)  and diabetic test B (Arusa & Shoneez) . Each group consisted of 5 rabbits. Blood samples were obtained from the marginal ear veins at 0 hr (initial) and 2 hrs, 3 hrs and 6 hrs after drug administration. Blood glucose was estimated by the end point O- toluidine. The study revealed that the aqueous extract of test combination given orally reduced the blood glucose level in alloxan induced diabetic rabbits. The significant reduction (p<0.05) in blood glucose level started after 3 hrs which continued for 6 hrs in both the groups.

Keywords: Unani Medicine, Diabetes, Hypoglycemic activity

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A61P5/00, A61P5/10, A61P5/50

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8(3), July 2009, pp. 413-416

 

 

Clinical evaluation of the efficacy of a combination of zanjabeel (Zingiber officinale) and amla (Emblica officinalis) in hyperlipidaemia

Rihana Kamal* & Shagufta Aleem

Department of Moalijat, AK Tibbiya College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202 001, Uttar Pradesh

Received 4 December 2006 revised 5 July 2008

In Unani System of Medicine, many drugs (single drugs as well compound formulations) are used for the purpose of reducing body weight and treating the obesity (Muhazzil). Indian gooseberry (amla) & ginger (Zanjabeel) are among these medicines. Since these drugs are useful in obesity, these can also be proved beneficial in lowering increased concentration of plasma lipids or treating hyperlipidaemia. Their efficacy has also been proved pharmacologically and these are documented as good hypolipidaemic as well as antioxidant natural agents. The combination of drugs was found to be significant in lowering the level of serum total cholesterol, serum tryglycerides, serum LDL-cholesterol, serum VLDL-cholesterol and in increasing the level of serum HDL-cholesterol in patients of primary hyperlipidaemia.

Keywords: Unani medicine, Hyperlipidaemia, Atherosclerosis, Amla, Ginger

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A61P3/04, A61P3/06, A61P9/00, A61P9/04

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8 (3), July 2009, pp. 417-420

 

 

Clinical evaluation of the efficacy of Qurs Sartan Kafoori and Sharbat Zoofa Murakkab in chronic bronchitis

Abdul Quddus*, MMH Siddiqui, MY Siddiqui & Shagufta Aleem

Department of Moalejat, Ajmal Khan Tibbiya College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202 001, Uttar Pradesh

E-mail: drhaque@rediffmail.com

Received 15 February 2008 revised 11 August 2008

Chronic bronchitis is commonly found in smokers. In Unani medicine, Muhallil Auram (antiinflammatory), Munaffis Balgham (expectorant) and Mulattif (mucolytic) are given in the treatment of chronic bronchitis. The effects of Qurs Sartan kafoori & Sharbat Zoofa Murakkab, the two Unani formulations in 30 patients of chronic bronchitis selected during April 2002 to December 2004 has been evaluated clinically. All the patients were screened for airways obstruction by the Pulmonary Function Tests (PFT) and those found having irreversible airways obstruction were included in the study. Significant improvement in symptoms & signs of the disease and also in pulmonary function tests was observed. At the end of the study, the two formulations were found to be effective in chronic bronchitis.

Keywords: Qurs Sartan Kafoori, Sharbat Zoofa Murakkab, Warm-e-Shoab Muzmin, Unani medicine, Chronic bronchitis

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A61P11/00, A61P11/14

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8(3), July 2009, pp. 421-424

 

 

Scientific validation of Unani compound formulation for its efficacy
in bronchial asthma

KC Singhal1*, Furkhunda Jabin1, Shoaib Ahmad1, S Z Rahman1, R K Bhargava2 & A Latif3

1Department of Pharmacology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, AMU, Aligarh 202 002, Uttar Pradesh

2Department of TB & Chest Diseases, JLN Medical College, AMU, Aligarh 202 002, Uttar Pradesh

3Department of Ilmul Advia, Ajmal Khan Tibbiya College, AMU, Aligarh 202 002 Uttar Pradesh

E-mail: rahmansz@yahoo.com

Received 16 March 2007 revised 15 April 2008

The exact pathogenesis of asthma, a chronic inflammatory disease of the respiratory system is still unknown. In recent past, newer drug therapies are being introduced. Drugs of Unani System of Medicine are also being prescribed since ages for the treatment of bronchial asthma. The study was carried out to scientifically validate the Unani compound formulation for its efficacy in patients of asthma. In the study, potency of an herbal drug formulation, reported as mucolytic, antiinflammatory, expectorant and bronchodilator was evaluated. Lung function test was performed before and after the treatment to evaluate the patients. Two parameters, Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) and Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1) after the treatment showed marked improvement with lesser side effects of test drugs. Hundreds of such herbal drugs are used in various alternative systems of medicine for the treatment of bronchial asthma. These alternative systems of medicine should be explored, so that hidden potential of these systems could be fully utilized to serve the humankind and provide a complete and safe remedy for asthma.

Keywords: Unani Medicine, Bronchial asthma

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A61P9/00, A61P11/00, A61P11/06

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8 (3), July 2009, pp. 425-430

 

 

Effect of Psoralia corylifolia Linn. and Marham-e-Gulabi in
Da-al-sadaf (psoriasis)

M Shamim Khan, MMH Siddiqui* & Shagufta Aleem

Department of Moalejat, Ajmal Khan Tibbiya College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202 001, Uttar Pradesh

Received 12 June 2007 revised 27 October 2008

The therapeutic evaluation of Psoralia corylifolia Linn. and Marham-e-Gulabi (non-pharmacopoeial), a Unani formulation in 40 patients of Da-al-sadaf (psoriasis) revealed an over all clinical improvement in about 77.5% at the end of 45 days treatment. The test drug did not show any side effect on the kidney and liver.

Keywords: Da-al-sadaf, Unani Medicine, Psoriasis, Skin disease, Psoralia corylifolia, Marham-e-Gulabi, Antiinflammatory activity, Antipsoriatic activity

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A61P1/02, A61P17/00, A61P17/02, A61P17/04

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8(3), July 2009, pp. 431-436

 

Clinical trial of Unani herbomineral cream to evaluate its topical
effects on Acne vulgaris

Shagufta Parveen1, Sharique Zafar1, Masroor Ali Qureshi2* & Humaira Bano2

1MIJ   Unani Medical College and HARK Hospital, Varsova, Mumbai 400 061

2Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine, Behind Eye Bank JJ Hospital compounds, Byculla, Mumbai 400 008, Maharashtra

Email: drmseth@hotmail.com

Received 7 August 2007; revised 17 December 2007

A controlled, randomized single blind clinical trial was conducted as per GCP guidelines for the duration of 2 months on the human individuals suffering from acne vulgaris. The patients were divided into 2 groups, control group treated topically with only cream base and the test group treated topically with the UHC. The effects of the Unani herbomineral cream (UHC) were scientifically evaluated in human beings in acne vulgaris. The assessment of the severity of acne vulgaris in the control and test groups was made by the Investigators Global Acne Severity Score. The statistical analysis of the results of severity of acne vulgaris in the control and test groups was made for the total duration of treatment. Group comparisons (within and inter group) were made using ANOVA and paired t- test respectively. The effect of only cream base did not show any significant improvement in the acne vulgaris of the patients of control group. On the other hand, the within group and inter group comparisons in the test group showed significant differences at each stage of the treatment. The test drug, UHC has been proved effective in the treatment of acne vulgaris in the test group in comparison to the control group.

Keywords: Unani medicine, Acne vulgaris, Unani herbomineral cream

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A61P17/00, A61P17/10

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8 (3), July 2009,pp. 437-442

 

 

Safety and efficacy of leeching therapy for symptomatic knee osteoarthritis using Indian medicinal leech

SM Abbas Zaidi1*, SS Jamil2, A Sultana2, F Zaman2 & M Fuzail3

1Interdisciplinary Research Studies, Jamia Hamdard University, New Delhi 110 062; 2Department of Moalijat, Faculty of Medicine (Unani), Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi; Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Allied Health Science, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi

E-mail: drsymab@gmail.com

Received 30 October 2008; revised 20 February 2009

The leeching therapy has been used in Unani System of Medicine to treat various ailments including joints pain. A small randomized trial was conducted to compare the combined efficacy of leeching therapy (Hirudinaria granulosa) and the traditional Unani herbal formulations against the same traditional formulation alone. Intervention was carried out in 40 patients over a period of 6 weeks. Primary outcome measure was Womac pain score. Secondary end points consisted of all other Womac subscores and the Womac total score during the study, active range of motion (knee flexion) and the eight meter walk test. Mixed models were used for statistical analysis. Significant improvements in disease-specific symptoms were observed after six weeks of treatment in patients receiving leeching therapy along with traditional Unani formulation. Pain level of leeching group decreased by 29.02%, stiffness by 58.87% and functional ability increased by 40.56%, Womac total score showed overall change by 45.10%. Control group (the group which received the traditional drug alone) showed decrease in pain by 14.39%, stiffness by 8.04%, physical function by 18.39% and Womac total score by 11.66%. Eight meter walk test showed 6.87% improvement in comparison to control group in which 2.86% change was noted. No significant difference was observed in active range of motion in both the groups. However, this study lacked a standard control group, blinding was not feasible, sample size was small and duration of study was short.

Keywords: Leach therapy, Knee Osteoarthritis, Osteoarthritis, Unani medicine

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A61P19/00, A61P19/02, A61P19/08, A61P21/00

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8(3), July 2009, pp. 443-445

 

 

Clinical importance of leech therapy

Tanzeel Ahmad* & Mohd Anwar

National Institute of Unani Medicine, Bangalore 560 091, Karnataka

Received 30 April 2007; revised 29 December 2008

The Unani System of Medicine is based on the concept of balancing body humours. The majority of the diseases are caused by the endogenous factors by excessive accumulation of foodstuff, blood and superfluous or morbid humours, the metabolic products. Consequently to the concept of congestion or over filling the 6 evacuating methods blood letting, purging, vomiting, sweating, diuresis and cauterization are described. Blood letting in the form of venesection, leech therapy and cupping with scarification is an essential part of regimental therapy. Leech therapy, one of the most important and widely practiced methods known from the time of extreme antiquity is still alive. This fact testifies to its efficiency in various health problems. The paper deals with the method, indications and contra-indications of the leech therapy.

Keywords: Leech therapy, Hirudo therapy, Regimental therapy, Blood letting, Unani medicine

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A61P1/04, A61P9/00, A61P9/04, A61P17/00, A61P17/14, A61P27/14, A61P27/16, A61P29/00, A61P31/02

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8 (3), July 2009, pp. 446-448

 

 

Study on efficacy of Siddha drugs (CL and CEN) in rheumatoid arthritis

B Muthukumar

Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha, 61-65, Institutional area, Opposite D- Block, Janak Puri, Delhi 110 058

E-mail: muthu_siddha@yahoo.co.in

Received 2 April 2008; revised 4 February 2009

Siddha system, a traditional Indian Systems of Medicine, noticed much of the musculo-skeletal disorders, termed as Vatha diseases, under which joint diseases were put as Keel vayu. Vali azhal keelvayu is one among the types of keel vayu. In ancient Siddha texts, various causative factors, clinical features as well as the treatment methodology for the disease vali azhal keelvayu were broadly explained. This condition was well correlated with the disease rheumatoid arthritis, for which there is no curative drugs. So, two polyherbal Siddha drugs (for internal and external use), were tried in a clinical trial as well as pharmacological, biochemical analysis in order to prove the efficacy of these drugs in rheumatoid arthritis, which revealed a positive answer.

Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis, Siddha drugs

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A61P19/00, A61P19/02, A61P29/00

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8 (3), July 2009,pp. 449-452

 

 

Standardization of a polyherbal Siddha formulation, Amukkara Choornam

Kartik Ch Patra1*, K Jayaram Kumar2, P Suresh1

1GITAM institute of Pharmacy, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam 530 045, Andhra Pradesh; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences BIT, Mesra, Ranchi 835 215 Jharkhand

E-mail: herbalkartik@gmail.com

Received 24 February 2008; revised 20 April 2009

Most of the traditional systems of medicine are effective but they lack of standardization. So, there is a need to develop a standardization technique. Central Council of research in Ayurveda and Siddha has given preliminary guidelines for standardizing these conventional formulations. For the uniformity of batches in production of herbal formulations it is necessary to develop methods for evaluation. In the paper, attempt has been made to evaluate Amukkara choornam, a Siddha formulation. Four samples were procured from different manufacturers and were subjected to physiochemical screening, High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) finger printing, microscopic characterization was compared using authentic ingredients as reference. It was observed that all commercial samples matched exactly with that of authentic standards after performing the standardization.

Keywords: Amukkara choornam, Siddha drugs, Standardization, Chromatography

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A61P1/00, A61P1/04, A61P1/06, A61P11/00, A61P11/14, A61P15/00, A61P15/02

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8 (3), July 2009, pp. 453-454

 

 

Study on the effect of Pranakarshan pranayama and Yoga nidra on
alpha EEG & GSR

Kamakhya Kumar1*& Bhanu Joshi2

1Department of Human Cons & Yogic Science, Dev Sanskriti Vishwavidyalaya, Shantikunj, Haridwar, Uttaranchal;
2Department of Yogic Science Govt MBPG College, Haldwani (Nainital) Uttarakhand

Received 3 August 2006; revised 4 October 2008

The study was aimed to find out the effect of yogic practices on student’s physiology. Forty students of 18-25 yrs age groups were selected from MBPG College Haldwani, Nainital, Uttarakhand. A package of Yoga nidra practice and Pranakarshan pranayama was given for 40 days. The effects studied on the alpha EEG and GSR level showed a significant change. On the basis of that it is concluded that practice of yoga helps to improve the immunity of the students.

Keywords: Yoga nidra, Pranakarshan pranayama, Immunity

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61H1/00, A61P31/00

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8(3), July 2009, pp. 455-458

 

 

Role of Pranayama breathing exercises in rehabilitation of coronary artery disease patients¾ A pilot study

Asha Yadav1*, Savita Singh2 & KP Singh2 1

Department of Physiology, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi 110002;
2Department of Physiology and Medicine, University College of Medical Sciences &
Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, Delhi110095

E-mail: drashayadav@yahoo.co.in

Received 11 April 2008 revised 5 November 2008

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common form of heart disease which gets precipitated by increasing stress, dietary habits and urban sedentary lifestyle. Pulmonary functions are found to be influenced in congestive heart failure, left ventricular dysfunction and after cardiac surgery. Pranayama breathing exercises & yogic postures play an impressive role in strengthening of respiratory muscles which improve cardio-respiratory efficiency. The effect of Pranayama breathing exercises on pulmonary function tests (PFTs) of CAD patients was observed. PFTs of 20 diagnosed stable patients of CAD were recorded. They were then taught Pranayama breathing exercises which they practiced at home twice a day. Their PFTs were repeated after 2 weeks and compared to their basal PFTs. Anthropometric parameters were recorded and a standardized questionnaire related to cardio-respiratory health was also worked out. Statistically significant improvements were seen in FEV1%, PEFR, FEF25-75 and MVV after a brief period of breathing exercises. FEV1, FVC and PIFR also showed a trend towards improvement.  Pranayama breathing exercises were found to improve lung functions in CAD patients and can be used as a complimentary therapy for their rehabilitation.

Keywords: Coronary artery disease, Pranayama, Breathing exercises

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A61P9/00, A61P9/08, A61P9/10

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8 (3), July 2009, pp. 459-463

 

 

Effect of deep relaxation technique on the capacity to influence
REG- a randomized control trial

Ghanshyam Singh Thakur*, Nagendra HR & Nagarathna R

Swami Vivekananda Yoga Research Foundation, Eknath Bhavan, #19 Gavipuram Circle, KG Nagar, Bangalore 560 019, Karnataka

Email - hrnagendra@rediffmail.com

 

Received 6 November 2007; revised 5 January 2009

Psychokinesis, power to influence a random event generator called REG from a distance is investigated in this study of the relaxation technique called Deep Relaxation Technique (DRT) which is known to invoke effulgence and higher power of the mind. In this investigation, the effect of DRT compared with supine rest (SR) on 80 healthy volunteers evoking the capacity to influence the REG has been examined. Each session consisted of 3 trials of pre followed by 10 trials during and 3 trails post. The experiment was repeated on the 1st day and the 15th day. Results showed no significant difference between the pre-values of both sessions. There was also no significant change in the REG values of both SR and DRT on the 15th day compared to the 1st day in the during as also post phase. Similarly, there were no significant changes between the groups on the psycho kinetic power to bring changes. There was no significant difference shown in the number of episodes in which REG was influenced significantly (chi square test) between the two groups.

Keywords: Deep relaxation technique, Random event generator

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61P31/00, A99Z

 

 

Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge

Vol. 8 (3), July 2009, pp. 464-470

 

 

Standardization and simplification of physico-therapeutic procedures in Ayurveda and naturopathy ¾A preliminary study with Jala Neti

Sanjeev Rastogi1*, Rajiv Rastogi2 & Ranjana Rastogi3

1State Ayurvedic College and Hospital, Lucknow 226 003, Uttar Pradesh; Central Council for Research in Yoga and Naturopathy,
New Delhi 110 058; 3Vatsala Hospital, Lucknow 226 003, Uttar Pradesh

Email:rastogisanjeev@rediffmail.com

Received 2 April 2008; revised 4 February 2009

Ayurveda and naturopathy describes many physico-therapeutic procedures, which are useful as sole therapy, initial therapy or as adjuvant therapy in many clinical conditions. Panchakarma therapy in Ayurveda and various application of water in naturopathy are commonly used procedures at Ayurveda or nature cure settings. These procedures, though found effective on anecdotal and clinical experience grounds, have not been able to gain enough support to be used as primary therapies. The limiting factors identified so far could be listed as the intricacies associated to their use, requirement of close supervision, requirement of indoor treatment, and lack of standardized protocols, which may be useful for the practical purposes. This was hypothesized that a simplified version of these procedures, which may deal precisely with the limiting factors and essentially without cutting into the effectiveness of the therapy, would be able to draw a quick attention of its presumptive beneficiaries. A simplified version for Jala Neti (saline nasal lavage) was conceived and tried in few patients for its comparative ease of operation and benefits. This preliminary study was able to show an improved applicability of alternative method to the conventional method of Jala Neti.

Keywords: Naturopathy, Jala Neti, Panchakarma, Ayurveda, Standardization

IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A61P11/00, A61P11/10, A61P11/14

 

 

Book Review

 

 Herbal Wealth of North-East India- Database and Appraisal by Dr KK Bhutani, Published by Department of Natural Products, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, SAS Nagar, Punjab; 2008, Paper back, pp 400, Price Rs. 400.00,  US$ 35.

 

Northeast India has extremely rich biological resources with the most diverse flora and fauna. Being one of the hot spots of the biodiversity, the region is active centre of evolution of many new gene pools. The bioresource of Northeast is quite different from mainland. India possesses a total of 427 tribal communities, of these more than 130 major communities live in Northeast, comprised of eight states. Northeast India having several endemics in both flora and fauna is among the four recognized global bioresource hotspots in the country. Northeast India is very rich in biodiversity as well as in ethnic diversity. The ethnic communities still maintain a great traditional knowledgebase in herbal medicine. However, the valuable information lying scattered with different communities is under threat of modernization. Overexploitation and the destruction of forest wealth are leading to depletion of these herbal drugs from their natural habitat and many are at the brink of extinction.

The publication is an outcome of an ambitious program of National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER) to evaluate the pharmaceutical potential of the herbal wealth of Northeast India offering maximum biodiversity. It is a compilation of collaborative efforts of scientific researchers working on ethnomedicinal aspects from northeastern universities and institutes. The book embodies primarily the information collected on 1836 medicinal plants being used for multiple medicinal purposes. The appraisal of the database provides distribution, endemism, extensively and specifically used plants for various ailments, and prioritizes plants that can be used for drug discovery purposes. An appreciable aspect of the book is that it contains glossary of 122 terms and 134 references at the end. The scholarly publication is invaluable for students, teachers, practitioners as well as administrators of healthcare system. Beautiful cover and good printing are hallmark of the publication.

 

 Herbal Wealth of North-East India- A Pictorial & Herbaria Guide by Dr KK Bhutani, Published by Department of Natural Products, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, SAS Nagar, Punjab; 2008, Hard bound, pp 400, Price Rs. 900.00,  US$ 75.

 

Northeast India, a treasure house of bioresources, is considered to be rich in biocultural diversity and is one of the hotspots of the twelve megabiodiversity centers. The resources have been used by the traditional communities since time immemorial. The people have developed a regime of conservation of biodiversity and other resources through various socio-cultural institutions and community knowledge systems. Northeast India has a rich repository of several species of medicinal plants. The traditional medicine systems have been developed and practiced within the ethnic groups. According to some reports, more than 400 species of edible wild plants are consumed as staple foods, vegetables, alcoholic and non alcoholic beverages.

The book under review, presented in two sections provides photographs of 334 medicinal plants in their natural habitat labeled with botanical and vernacular or local names in the first section. In the second section, photographs of 427 herbaria specimens with botanical name, synonyms, plant family, and folklore or traditional uses of plants have been presented. The book provides photographs of medicinal plants, which are very much needed for proper identification for research. There are not many publications from Northeast which provides such photographs. The photographs arranged in alphabetical order are very good and clear. Correct plant botanical names are given. However, in couple of cases, wrong names have crept in. Curcuma domestica (P105) and Curcuma longa (P106) are synonyms; whereas both have been shown as two separate species (page 53); Vitis quadrangularis Wall (P 325) on page 163 should be Cissus quadrangularis Linn. Painstaking efforts have been taken in providing the photographs of such a large number of medicinal plants. This pictorial guide of medicinal plants will be of immense help for the researchers working in various disciplines including pharmacognosy, pharmacology, ethnomedicine, practitioners of indigenous / Indian Systems of Medicine, herbal drug industry, academicians, researchers and health professionals. The printing and production of the book are good and considering the large number of photographs of medicinal plants, price is reasonable.

 

Forthcoming Conferences/Seminars

 

August 2009

SERI 2009 World Conference on Ecological Restoration’, Theme: Linking science with the arts - social and cultural aspects of restoration, August 23-27, Perth, W. Australia, Contact: Joan Gibbs, Lecturer in Ecology, School of Natural and Built Environments, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095, E-mail:  joan.gibbs@unisa.edu.au, Phone: +61-8-8302-5164; Fax +61-8-8302-5721

 

September 2009

Seventh International Congress on Traditional Asian Medicine, ‘Asian Medicine: cultivating traditions and the challenges of globalization’, Institute for Traditional Medicine Services, Thimphu, Bhutan, September 7 - 11, 2009; Visit: http://www.iastam.org/conferences_VII.htm

 

18th Italo-Latin-American Congress on Ethnomedicine “Juan Tomás Roig y Mesa” and 8th Inter- national Workshop Chemistry of Natural Products, 14-18 September 2009, Center of Conventions of Havana, Cuba; Contact: Dr. José Antonio González Lavaut, Organizer Committee President, E-mail: etnomedicina2009@cqf.sld.cu;  info@etnomedicina2009.com or Fax to (537- 2045956).

 

Vth International Congress of Ethnobotany (ICEB), organized by Universidad Nacional de La Plata and Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Argentina, 21-24 September 2009, San Carlos de Bariloche, Patagonia, Argentina, Contact: Dr. María Lelia Pochettino, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Laboratorio de Etnobotánica y Botánica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo Calle 64 nº 3, 1900 La Plata, Argentina, E-mail: pochett@fcnym.unlp.edu.ar

 

The SIEF’s International Ethnocartography Network is organising its 16th conference at the University of Szeged, Hungary, September 12-14, 2009, Contact: Dr Balázs Borsos/ Prof. Dr. Gábor Barna, Vice-Director, Dept. of Ethnology and Cultural Anthropology, Department of Ethnology and Cultural Anthropology, University of Szeged, H-6722 Szeged, Egyetem utca 2, Hungary, http://www.etnologiaszeged.hu; barna@hung.u-szeged.hu, Tel/fax: +36-62-544 216

 

AIATSIS National Indigenous Studies Conference 2009, ‘Perspectives on Urban Life: Connections and Reconnections’, 29 September to 1 October, The Manning Clark Centre, Australian National University, Canberra, Contact: conference2009@aiatsis.gov.au

 

October 2009

Inclusive Growth, Innovation and Technological Change: education, social capital and sustainable development’, organized by: The Global Network for the Economics of Learning, Innovation, and Competence Building Systems (Globelics), UNU-MERIT (Maastricht, The Netherlands), CRES, UCAD (Dakar, Senegal), at Dakar, Senegal, October 6-8, 2009, Contact: Micheline Goedhuys/  Théophile Azomahou, UNU-MERIT , Keizer Karelplein 19, 6211 TC Maastricht, The Netherlands,E-mail: globelicsdakar@merit.unu.edu

 

November 2009

2nd International Symposium on Medicinal and Nutraceutical Plants from 25-27 November, 2009, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi (India), Contact: Dr SC Mahapatra, Nutrition and Phytomedicine Laboratory, Department of Physiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 110 029,Indi; Tele-Fax: +91-11-26546461, Fax: +91-11-26588641, 26588663; Email: ismnp2009@gmail.com, scmahapatra@gmail.com

 

The Society for Ethnomusicology – 2009; 54th Annual Meeting, Mexico City, Mexico, November 19-22, 2009, Visit: "http://www.ethnomusicology.org; www.ethnomusicology.org