Indian Journal of

 Engineering & Materials Sciences

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VOLUME 17

NUMBER  4

AUGUST 2010

CODEN : IEMSEW 

ISSN : 0971-4588

 

CONTENTS

 

Engineering

 

Prediction of multi-component effects on ignition delay of oxygenated diesel
  fuel blends

243

  Laurencas Raslavičius & Žilvinas Bazaras

 

 

 

Experimental investigation of performance and emission characteristics of
  oxygenated compounds in a DI diesel engine using split injection method

251

  M Kumaresan & G Devaradjane

 

 

 

Calculation of Lankford coefficient from orientation distribution function and
  modelling of forming limit diagram using Marcniak-Kuczynski hypothesis
  of geometric instability

256

  A Kanni Raj

 

 

 

Determination of optimum parameters on delamination in drilling of GFRP

  composites by Taguchi method

265

  Erol Kilickap

 

 

 

Frequency response enhancement of variable valve system by employing

  peak and hold method

275

  Xie Yingjun, Gao Zhen, Jin Bo & Liu Jinrong

 

 

 

Materials Science

 

Effect of basalt on the burnability of raw meal of Portland cement clinker    

282

  H El-Didamony, A Abdel Rahman, F Nassar & M Saraya

 

 

 

Microstructure of 2 and 28-day cured Portland limestone cement pastes

289

  Gözde İnan Sezer, Oğuzhan Çopuroğlu & Kambiz Ramyar

 

 

 

Preparation and studies of chemically deposited Cu4SnS4 thin films in the

  presence of complexing agent Na2EDTA

295

  Anuar Kassim, Zulkefly Kuang, Atan Sharif, Tan Wee Tee, Ho Soon Min &

Saravanan Nagalingam

 

 

 

Characterization, dielectric and optical studies of nano-cerium phospho iodate

  synthesized by chemical co-precipitation method

299

  C R Indulal, A V Vaidyan, G Sajeev Kumar & R Raveendran

 

 

 

Synthesis, characterization and thermal decomposition of di-(2,4,6-

  trimethylanilinium) sulphate

305

  Inder Pal Singh Kapoor, Manisha Kapoor, Gurdip Singh & Roland Fröhlich

 

 

 

 

 

 

AUTHOR INDEX

 

 


Bazaras Žilvinas

243

Bo Jin

275

 

 

Çopuroğlu Oğuzhan

289

 

 

Devaradjane G

251

 

 

El-Didamony H

282

 

 

Fröhlich Roland

305

 

 

Indulal C R

299

 

 

Jinrong Liu

275

 

 

Kanni Raj A

256

Kapoor Inder Pal Singh

305

Kapoor Manisha

305

Kassim Anuar

295

Kilickap Erol

265

Kuang Zulkefly

295

Kumaresan M

251

Min Ho Soon

295

 

 

Nagalingam Saravanan

295

Nassar F

282

 

 

Rahman A Abdel

282

Ramyar Kambiz

289

Raslavičius Laurencas

243

Raveendran R

299

 

 

Sajeev Kumar G

299

Saraya M

282

Sezer Gözde İnan

289

Sharif Atan

295

Singh Gurdip

305

 

 

Tee Tan Wee

295

 

 

Vaidyan A V

299

 

 

Yingjun Xie

275

 

 

Zhen Gao

275


 

 

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 17, August 2010, pp. 243-250

 

 

 

Prediction of multi-component effects on ignition delay of
oxygenated diesel fuel blends

 

Laurencas Raslavičius & Žilvinas Bazaras

 

The quasi-stationary (Q-S), spherically symmetric combustion of the isolated multi-component droplets of oxygenated diesel fuel has been modelled using a variable mechanism, which has been developed and validated against several independent data sets. The composition of three-component motor fuel, consisting of fossil diesel (DF), rapeseed oil methyl ester (hereinafter RME; B100) and dehydrated ethyl alcohol (DEA), closing to DF by its ignition delay characteristic is established. Numerical simulation results show that in contrast to RME, the additive of dehydrated ethyl alcohol to DF/RME blend tends to increase a time of ignition delay. Striving for improving of the combustion process strained by bigger volumes of fossil diesel being replaced by oxygenated biofuels to meet ecological behavior and economical independence on imported fuels, as well as simultaneously omitting any regulatory adjustment, leads to combining of dehydrated ethyl alcohol and rapeseed oil methyl ester to compound the conventional diesel fuel.

Keywords:   Multi-component effects, Ignition delay, Fuel droplet, Biofuel combustion, Quasi-stationary combustion, Combustion modelling

 

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol.17, August 2010, pp. 251-255

 

 

Experimental investigation of performance and emission characteristics of oxygenated compounds in a DI diesel engine using split injection method

M Kumaresan & G Devaradjane

 

One of the important roles in diesel engine research is the development of a means to reduce the emission of oxides of nitrogen (NOx). An experimental study has been carried out to investigate the performance and emission characteristics of a direct injection (DI) single cylinder diesel engine using split injection method involving double lobed cam. The present results show that NOx can be reduced considerably while causing a minor decrease in engine efficiency. Hence to offset the reduction of Brake thermal efficiency blends of diesel and oxygenated compounds have also been tried and analyzed.

Keywords: Diesel engine, Single injection, Split injection, Double lobed cam, Oxygenated compound blends, Emission parameters

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 17, August 2010, pp. 256-264

 

Calculation of Lankford coefficient from orientation distribution function and modelling of forming limit diagram using Marcniak-Kuczynski hypothesis of geometric instability

A Kanni Raj

 

Complex stampings are developed with the aid of data obtained from laboratory tensile test and average plastic strain ratio that enables the press formability of sheet metals to be reliably predicted. Formability is best assessed by Hecker’s method of punch stretching and drawing the forming limit diagrams. Analytically, the forming limit diagrams are modeled by geometric instability analyses based on Marciniak & Kuczynski with a high degree of accuracy. Also, texture analysis is used to get average plastic anisotropic ratio input parameter to the above model. In the present research, texture is determined by measuring four incomplete pole figures of the planes {110}, {200}, {112} and {103} using Schulze back reflection technique. This analysis provided orientation distribution function which is in turn used to calculate average plastic anisotropic ratio. The data from texture and others experiments, such as tensile test, roughness measurement and density measurement are used in the analytical model to get forming limit diagrams. The theoretical forming limit diagrams obtained show significant departure from the experimentally evaluated ones only in plain strain condition.

Keywords:  Orientation distribution function (ODF),  Aluminium killed extra deep drawing (AK-EDD) steel sheet,                                    Forming limit diagram (FLD),  Texture,  Formability,  Instability,  Anisotropy

 

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 17, August 2010, pp. 265-274

 

 

Determination of optimum parameters on delamination in drilling of GFRP composites by Taguchi method

Erol Kilickap

 

Drilling is one of the important machining processes in hole making operations. Delamination is a vital problem during any drilling operation. It causes structural integrity reduction and poor assembly tolerance as well as potential for long-term performance deterioration. As a result, drilling of any material requires dimensional stability and interface quality. In this study, glass fibre reinforced plastic composite is selected as experimental material for investigation of cutting parameters (cutting speed, feed rate and tool geometry) affecting delamination in drilling operation. Moreover, the Taguchi method is used to determine optimal cutting parameters for damage-free drilling material. A plan of experiments, based on L’16 Taguchi design method, is performed drilling with cutting parameters in a GFRP composite. The orthogonal array, signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and analysis of variance (ANOVA) are employed to investigate the optimal drilling parameters of GFRP composites using four different drills. The experimental results demonstrate that the feed rate is the major parameter among the controllable factors that influence the delamination. Additionally, the optimal combinations of the cutting parameters are determined.

Keywords: Taguchi method, Analysis of variance, Design optimization, Drilling, Delamination, Glass fibre reinforced plastic composites

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 17, August 2010, pp. 275-281

 

 

Frequency response enhancement of variable valve system by employing
peak and hold method

 

Xie Yingjun, Gao Zhen, Jin Bo & Liu Jinrong

 

 

A control method based on peak and hold technique is applied to variable valve system to prompt its response rate. The proposed method is characterized by a significantly higher response rate compared with the standard control method. Different from the standard control method, which provides the coil with a constant voltage proportional to the target lift, the control system based on PH method provides the coil with higher voltage during the rising stage of the valve to prompt its response rate. The mathematical model of the system is derived to establish the transfer function of the system. The optimal duration of peak voltage is obtained by simulink models. The experimental results indicate that much higher frequency response can be guaranteed by employing PH method. The maximal frequency that the system can achieve is 51 Hz, which is greatly enhanced from 25 Hz by employing the standard control method.

KeywordsPeak and hold method, Frequency response, Variable valve system, Proportional pressure reducing valve

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 17, August 2010, pp. 282-288

 

 

Effect of basalt on the burnability of raw meal of Portland cement clinker

H El-Didamony, A Abdel Rahman, F Nassar & M Saraya

 

This study presents the effect of basalt as a flux and mineralizer on the formation of Portland cement clinker fired at different temperatures. Five mixtures are prepared by addition of different amounts of basalt such as 0.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 mass % to the kiln feed prepared for the ordinary Portland cement clinker manufacture. Each mixture from the above mixes is molded in one inch cylindrical bar under 300 kg/cm2 and fired in muffle furnace at different firing temperatures such as 1200ºC, 1300ºC and 1350ºC for 2 h as soaking time. The fired clinker is quenched in the air to prevent the dissociation of the formed clinker. The degree of clinkerization is studied by the determination of insoluble residue, free lime contents and the identification of mineralogical phases such as C3S, β-C2S, C3A and C4AF by XRD analysis. The potential phase composition of clinker is also calculated by the modified Bogue formulae. The hydration characteristics are investigated by the determination of free lime, combined water contents, total porosity, bulk density and compressive strength for all clinkers fired at different temperatures. In addition, IR spectra of hydrated cement pastes of some selected samples are studied.

Keywords: Basalt, Burnability, Portland cement clinker

 

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 17, August 2010, pp. 289-294

 

 

Microstructure of 2 and 28-day cured Portland limestone cement pastes

Gözde İnan Sezer, Oğuzhan Çopuroğlu & Kambiz Ramyar

 

In this study, microstructures of limestone cement pastes cured for 2 and 28 days are investigated. For this purpose, limestone and clinker are separately ground in a ball-mill until obtained a given constant 32 µm sieve residue. The gypsum is kept constant as 5% by weight of cement. Cement pastes with 0.5 water/binder ratios and 0, 6, 35% limestone/clinker ratios are prepared. After 2 and 28 days standard curing, ESEM investigations are carried out on these specimens. It is found that hydration products are accumulated around limestone particles. In 2 days, compared to the control specimen, pore percentages of cements containing 6% limestone are decreased whereas pore percentages of cement pastes containing
35% limestone are increased. The difference between porosities of the control paste and limestone cement paste is decreased at 28 days.

Keywords: Limestone, clinker, hardened cement paste microstructure

 

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 17, August 2010, pp. 295-298

 

 

Preparation and studies of chemically deposited Cu4SnS4 thin films in the presence of complexing agent Na2EDTA

Anuar Kassim, Zulkefly Kuang, Atan Sharif, Tan Wee Tee, Ho Soon Min & Saravanan Nagalingam

 

The Cu4SnS4 thin films are deposited onto indium tin oxide glass substrate by chemical bath deposition method. The disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid is used as a complexing agent during deposition process. The structural, morphological and optical properties of the deposited films have been studied using X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and UV-Vis spectrophotometer, respectively. The presence of Na2EDTA promotes the deposition of better quality films. The XRD analysis shows that these films have a high crystallinity with orthorhombic structure. The AFM images indicated that these films are uniform, compact with larger grains. The absorption spectra confirmed that the thicker film has higher absorption properties. The band gap of 1.6 eV with direct transition is observed.

Keywords: Chemical bath deposition, Semiconducting material, Solar cells, Thin films

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 17, August 2010, pp. 299-304

 

Characterization, dielectric and optical studies of nano-cerium phospho iodate synthesized by chemical co-precipitation method

C R Indulal, A V Vaidyan, G Sajeev Kumar & R Raveendran

 

Nanoparticles of cerium phospho iodate belong to the class of tetravalent metal acid (TMA) salt are synthesized by chemical co-precipitation method. The particle size obtained from X-ray diffraction spectrum is found to be in the range of 30 nm. Surface morphology is studied from SEM images. The chemical composition of the sample has been verified using EDAX. The optical studies are carried out using FTIR and UV techniques. The stretching and bending frequencies of the sample are studied using the FTIR spectrum. The optical direct band gap of the material calculated using the Tauc’s relation is found to be 3.4 eV. The dielectric behaviour of the samples is studied at various temperatures and frequencies and ac electrical conductivity is also calculated. It is found that dielectric constant decreases with increase in frequency.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, XRD, Optical band gap

 

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 17, August 2010, pp. 305-310

 

Synthesis, characterization and thermal decomposition of
di-(2,4,6-trimethylanilinium) sulphate

Inder Pal Singh Kapoor, Manisha Kapoor, Gurdip Singh & Roland Fröhlich

 

Di-(2,4,6-trimethylanilinium) sulphate [2,4,6-TMAS] was synthesized by reaction of 2,4,6-trimethylaniline with concentrated sulphuric acid at room temperature. The crystal structure of this salt was determined using single crystal X-ray diffraction. It crystallizes in orthorhombic space group Pna21, a= 7.7115(1) Å, b= 30.3746 (6) Å, c=16.9251 (3)Å , α==[°]=90°, V=3964.43 (12)A and Z=8. The structure contains 2,4,6-trimethylanilinium ions that share vertices through intermolecular H- bonds with sulphate ions and a water molecule. Notably thermal and microwave heatings of di-(2,4,6-TMA)S have afforded 3-amino-2,4,6-trimethylbenzenesulphonic acid (3-A-2,4,6-TMBSA) with release of a molecule of amine and water. It has been suggested that the proton transfer from anilinium to SO42- ion is a primary and rate controlling step. Further di-(2,4,6-TMA)S and 3-A-2,4,6-TMBSA were characterized by infrared, mass spectrometry, elemental and thermogravimetric- differential scanning calorimetric (TG-DSC) analyses. The mean value for the energy of activation (83.0 kJ mol-1) for the conversion of di-(2,4,6-TMA)S to 3-A-2,4,6-TMBSA has been determined from isothermal thermogravimetry data.

Keywords: 2,4,6-trimethylaniline, X-ray diffraction, Thermal, Microwave, 3-Amino-2,4,6-trimethylbenzenesulphonic acid