Indian Journal of

Engineering & Materials Sciences

 

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VOLUME 17

NUMBER 5

OCTOBER 2010

CODEN : IEMSEW

ISSN : 0971-4588

 

Special Issue

on

Multifunctional Carbon Materials for 21st Century

 

cover page-IJEMS October 2010

 

 

 

 

CONTENTS

 

 

Preface

 

 

 

O P Bahl & Vinay Gupta

313

 

 

Papers

 

 

 

Carbon nanotubes: State-of-the-art technology and safety for success

317

Morinobu Endo

 

 

 

Carbon based materials applications in high temperature nuclear reactors

321

R K Sinha & I V Dulera

 

 

 

Pt-Ru Bimetallic nanoparticles loading on activated carbon fibers without
using reducing agents

327

Jaeyoung Lee, Daewoong Pyo, Youngseak Lee, Xiaoping Yang & Seungkon Ryu

 

 

 

Mechanical properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes reinforced polymer nanocomposites

331

G Venkata Ramana, Balaji Padya, R Naresh Kumar, K V P Prabhakar & P K Jain

 

 

 

Development of carbon foam from phenolic resin via template route

338

Satish M Manocha, Kalpesh Patel & L M Manocha

 

 

 

Pyrolytic carbon derived from sorona as anode materials for Li ion batteries

343

Maria Christy, M R Jisha, Ae Rhan Kim, Kee Suk Nahm, Dong Jin Yoo & E K Suh

 

 

 

 

 

Development of pyrolytic carbon coated zirconia pebbles in a high
temperature spouted bed

349

D Sathiyamoorthy, V Govardhana Rao, P T Rao & P K Mollick

 

 

 

Effect of incorporating nano silicon carbide on the properties of green coke based monolithic carbon

353

Anil Kumar, Mandeep Kaur, Rajeev Kumar, Pinaki Ranjan Sengupta, Vasantha Raman & Gopal Bhatia

 

 

 

Temperature effect on the performance of phthalocyanine based photovoltaic devices

358

Hemant Kumar, Pankaj Kumar, Neeraj Chaudhary, Ramil Bhardwaj, G D Sharma, P Venkatesu & Suresh Chand

 

 

 

Investigation on magnetic carbon nanofoam composites

363

R P Pant, Manju Arora, Chhotey Lal, Annveer, Sukhvir Singh & R B Mathur

 

 

 

Dynamic adsorption of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution using activated carbon beds

367

Meenakshi Goyal & Mamta Bhagat

 

 

 

Uptake of toxic metals from wastewater by activated carbon from agro industrial by-product

373

M Hema & K Srinivasan

 

 

 

Phosphorylated tamarind nut carbon for the removal of cadmium ions from aqueous solutions

382

N Suganthi & K Srinivasan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Preface

 

 

Carbon, in its various manifestations, is one of the most important industries of the modern civilization. A wide variety of carbon products can be prepared which can offer quite contrasting and sometimes even contradicting functional properties. In India, we have many National Programmes such as Inter Continental Ballistic Missiles, Light Combat Aircraft, Nuclear Energy and Space programme. All these programmes need special forms of carbon which are not available off the shelf and need to be developed within the country through indigenous R&D.

 

 As far as conventional carbon products are concerned, India is in a good position with a global share of about 10% in case of graphite electrodes alone. In fact, India exports graphite electrodes to all countries in the world including USA, Germany, France, Korea, China, etc. However, the current carbon nanotubes has come a long way since the days of carbon fibers. The advent of fullerenes, carbon nantoube and graphene has changed the course of carbon research. Therefore, there is a strong need to give a push to these modern carbon products development followed by their production in the country. In order to achieve this, the Indian Carbon Society has been promoting carbon science and organizing seminars/workshops/symposia at regular intervals.

 

 First Asian Carbon Conference (FACC 2009), has been a land mark in terms of giving exposure to young carbon researchers to the area experts who were specially invited from all over Asia to participate and give invited talks in their respective area of specialization. There were special talks on carbon nanotubes, their production as well as specific application in the area of hydrogen adsorption.

 

 This special issue of Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences (IJEMS) contains 13 selected and refereed papers which have been presented during FACC 2009. The articles included in this volume cover a fairly large spectrum on current research activities on various aspects of carbon starting from the basic concept to advanced applications like photovoltaic devices. This volume will provide the readers with a broad overview and sampling of the innovative research in the field of carbon materials. This will also boost the researchers to contribute with quality research in the field.

 

 We are extremely grateful to the contributors as well as the reviewers for their whole hearted cooperation in this venture. We are also thankful to the Director NISCAIR for having agreed to bring out a special issue containing selected papers presented during FACC 2009. Finally, we would like to express our special gratitude to Dr R S Beniwal and Ms. Kanika Malik, Editors, Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences, NISCAIR (CSIR), whose active interest and untiring efforts have culminated in bringing out this special volume of IJEMS on Multifunctional Carbon Materials for 21st Century.

 

O P Bahl

Vinay Gupta

Guest Editors

National Physical Laboratory

New Delhi 110 012, India


 

  

 

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 17, October 2010, pp. 317-320

 

 

Carbon nanotubes: State-of-the-art technology and safety for success

Morinobu Endo

 

Carbon nanotubes, consisting of rolled graphene layer built from sp2 units, have attracted intense attention from scientists and engineers having different scientific backgrounds and their unusual physical and chemical properties make them promising in the fabrication of nanocomposites, nano-electronic devices and sensors. The current status and prospect of carbon nanotubes are described with a special emphasis on the safety issue of carbon nanotubes. Though many challenges need to be solved, extensive and intensive efforts in both academy and industry will clear out those problems soon and finally enable carbon nanotubes to play a key innovative material of 21st century in numerous industrial processes.

Keywords: Carbon nanotubes, Toxicity, Applications

 

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 17, October 2010, pp. 321-326

 

 

Carbon based materials applications in high temperature nuclear reactors

R K Sinha & I V Dulera

 

Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) is currently developing concepts of high temperature nuclear reactors capable of supplying process heat at temperatures around 1000C. These reactors would provide energy to facilitate production of hydrogen by a suitable high efficiency water splitting process. Currently a compact high temperature reactor is being developed as a technology demonstrator for associated technologies. Design and development has been also initiated for a 600 MWth Innovative High Temperature Reactor. Carbon based materials have important applications in these reactors. Nuclear fuel retaining elements in the form of fuel compacts and fuel pebbles, as well as neutron moderators and reflectors use carbon based materials. These materials are required to survive under extreme environmental conditions such as neutron irradiation, high temperatures around 1000C and corrosive environment of liquid metal/salt based coolant. R & D issues involve design methodology for carbon-based components, compatibility with other materials and coolant, creep, and degradation under reactor conditions. Induced dimensional changes, irradiation creep, and degradation of thermal and mechanical properties are important factors to be considered in the design of these components. The paper highlights design of these high temperature reactors in general and their carbon based material related requirements in particular.

 

  

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 17, October 2010, pp. 327-330

 

 

Pt-Ru Bimetallic nanoparticles loading on activated carbon fibers without using reducing agents

Jaeyoung Lee, Daewoong Pyo, Youngseak Lee, Xiaoping Yang & Seungkon Ryu

 

Platinum-ruthenium(Pt-Ru) bimetallic catalyst system is being used as catalyst materials of DMFCs anode due to its high tolerance for carbon monoxide poisoning. Recently, activated carbon fiber (ACF) is reported as a useful catalyst support because it has several advantages such as high dispersion of impregnated metals and low mass transfer resistance due to its uniformly developed micropores. Therefore, Pt-Ru nanoparticles loading on ACF without using reducing agents is carried out to develop an effective bimetallic catalyst. PtCl62- and Ru3+ are impregnated on ACF, and heated up to 800C in N2. TG, XRD, TEM and EDS analyses are carried out to confirm Pt/Ru particles loading and distribution on ACF. The amount of PtCl62- impregnation is average 75% larger than that of Ru3+ at pH upto 3.5 and increases after pH 3.5 by crossing that of PtCl62-, while Ru3+ impregnation is much affected by pH. There are uniformly distributed Pt and Ru nanoparticles, which means simple impregnation and heating the PtCl62- and Ru3+ complexes up to 400C is enough to obtain pure Pt-Ru nanoparticles on ACF without using reducing agents.

Keywords: Platinum-ruthenium alloyed nanopaticles, Activated carbon fiber, Co-impregnation

 

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 17, October 2010, pp. 331-337

 

 

Mechanical properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes reinforced
polymer nanocomposites

 

G Venkata Ramana, Balaji Padya, R Naresh Kumar, K V P Prabhakar & P K Jain

 

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs ) are considered to be one of the novel reinforcement for developing advanced nanocomposites due to their outstanding thermo-mechanical properties. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs ) are developed by arc discharge method. To enhance the dispersion of CNTs in polymer matrix, CNTs are modified with chemical treatment and processed by ultrasonication process. Surface characterization of CNTs is examined by XPS technique to confirm the different functional groups attached to the surface. Epoxy based polymer composites are developed by dispersing of pristine and surface modified CNTs as reinforcement in different concentrations varying from 0.2 to 1.0 wt% and found that with 1 wt% gives the best result. Detailed rheological studies are carried out to know the dispersion of CNTs in matrix. FESEM studies are carried out to observe the morphology of reinforcing materials as well as its dispersion in the polymer matrix and the effect of reinforcement on fractography is also investigated. The thermal stability of the composites is measured using thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and observed that composites made with surface modified CNT showed higher thermal stability as compared with pure epoxy and pristine CNTs. Enhancement in flexural properties is observed with surface modified CNTs.

Keywords: Carbon nanotubes, Dispersion, Flexural properties, Nanocomposites

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 17, October 2010, pp. 338-342

 

 

Development of carbon foam from phenolic resin via template route

Satish M Manocha, Kalpesh Patel & L M Manocha

 

Carbon foams fall in the class of porous, cellular high temperature non-metallic materials with interconnected porosity. In present work, carbon foams have been prepared using commercially available polymeric foams as templates and thermosetting phenolic resin as carbon source. The prepared preform has been carbonized at different temperatures up to 1400C in inert atmosphere to form carbon foam with interconnected porosity. The removal of volatiles at different temperatures has been studied using FTIR. The effect of heat treatment temperature on density and volume shrinkage has been studied. Thermal stability of carbon foam has been examined by TGA. The porosity of carbon foam has been measured using water porosity and kerosene porosity. Surface morphological studies have been carried out using SEM, which showed that the pores are uniformly distributed and highly interconnected throughout the structure. Compressive strength of the foam has been found to increase with heat treatment temperature.

Keywords: Carbon foam, Template, Resin, Carbonization, Porosity, Surface morphology, Compressive strength

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 17, October 2010, pp. 343-348

 

 

Pyrolytic carbon derived from sorona as anode materials for Li ion batteries

Maria Christy, M R Jisha, Ae Rhan Kim, Kee Suk Nahm, Dong Jin Yoo & E K Suh

 

Carbonaceous materials are derived by the pyrolysis of sorona at 900C. The structure and morphology of the materials are analyzed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveals the porogen free carbon show flake-like disordered materials. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential temperature analysis (DTA) of samples show the weight loss at around 100C and 400C attributed to loss of superficial moisture and destructive distillation of sorona. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies of the pyrolytic carbon indicate the presence of small domains of coherent and parallel stacking of the graphene sheets. N2 adsorption analysis reveals an average Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) surface area 3.59 m2/g for non-porogen sorona carbon. The prepared porogen sorona carbon is used as the anode materials for Li ion battery and electrochemical behavior is investigated. Charge-discharge test and cycling studies give good capacitive properties. The use of pyrolytic carbon derived from sorona as anode materials for lithium batteries is novel, inexpensive and simple.

Keyword: Pyrolyzed carbon, Sorona, Anode material, Bateries

 

 

  

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 17, October 2010, pp. 349-352

 

 

Development of pyrolytic carbon coated zirconia pebbles in a high temperature spouted bed

 

D Sathiyamoorthy, V Govardhana Rao, P T Rao & P K Mollick

 

Pyrocarbon (PyC) coating is deposited on spherical zirconia particles (size 480 μm, density 6300 kg/m3). The coating is carried out at 1350 1C in a spouted bed reactor (height 0.3 m, dia 0.06 m) using acetylene and argon gas mixture. The PyC coating is uniformly deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on the surface of the pebbles where the precursor (acetylene) undergoes chemical bond dissociation. The spouted bed reactor is characterized for its stable solid circulation which is responsible to enhance heat and mass transfer. Therefore, it is expected that the properties of the coated layer should be affected by critical parameters of the bed during its high temperature operations. It was found that both the thickness and density of PyC coated layer change with static height of the bed as well as with the spouting gas velocity. With the increase in spouting gas velocity the coating thickness decreased whereas, the density of the coated material increased. On the other hand it is found that up to a critical static bed height the coating rate increased beyond which it started decreasing and the coating density remains almost unchanged up to that critical static bed height and marginally decreased beyond this height. This paper discusses the issues that affect spouted bed performance with respect to its stability during PyC coating by CVD.

Keywords: Pyrocarbon coating, Zirconia particles, Chemical vapor deposition, Spouted bed reactor

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol.17, October 2010, pp. 353-357

 

 

Effect of incorporating nano silicon carbide on the properties of
green coke based monolithic carbon

Anil Kumar, Mandeep Kaur, Rajeev Kumar, Pinaki Ranjan Sengupta, Vasantha Raman &

Gopal Bhatia

 

Carbon monolith and carbon-nano silicon carbide composites are developed at a heat treatment temperature of 1400C in inert atmosphere using coal tar pitch derived green coke as such and green coke mixed with 5, 10 and 15% of nano silicon carbide powder respectively. The nano silicon carbide used is derived by the reaction between silicon and carbon black at temperature of 1400C. The density, flexural strength and scleroscopic hardness of the carbon-nano silicon carbide composites are found to be higher as compared to the carbon monolith. The bending strength and scleroscopic hardness increased up to 29.2% and 22.2% respectively.

Keywords: Coal tar pitch, Carbon monolith, Nano silicon carbide, Flexural strength, Porosity

 

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 17, October 2010, pp. 358-362

 

 

Temperature effect on the performance of phthalocyanine based
photovoltaic devices

 

Hemant Kumar, Pankaj Kumar, Neeraj Chaudhary, Ramil Bhardwaj, G D Sharma,
P Venkatesu & Suresh Chand

 

In this paper, the effect of temperature on performance of phthalocyanine based photovoltaic devices is investigated. Zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) and metal free phthalocyanine (H2Pc) are used as donor whereas fullerene (C60) is used as an acceptor. Prior to these investigations, the thicknesses of the active layers are optimized to get the optimum performance. The optimised device has an efficiency of ~1.4% for ZnPc and ~0.5% for H2Pc at room temperature. Investigations on the optimized device show that temperature has significant effect on the photovoltaic performance. Short circuit current density (Jsc) and fill factor (FF) decrease whereas open circuit voltage (Voc) increases with reduction in temperature. The reduction in Jsc has been attributed to the temperature dependent electronic properties of the active organic layers while the increment in the Voc has been attributed to the reduction in band bending and increment in built in voltage (Vbi) on lowering of temperature. In overall the efficiency first increases and then decreases with reduction in temperature.

Keywords: Organic photovoltaic, Phthalocyanine, Electronic properties, Fill factor, Short circuit current density, Open circuit voltage

 

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol.17, October 2010, pp. 363-366

 

 

Investigation on magnetic carbon nanofoam composites

R P Pant, Manju Arora, Chhotey Lal, Annveer, Sukhvir Singh & R B Mathur

 

Magnetic carbon nanofoam composites have been synthesized by employing electric arc discharge using nano-crystalline 1% by weight cobalt ferrite particles as catalyst. The material formed is a short-range fluffy type arrangement of carbon embedded with nano-magnetic particles. The volume percent of carbon is ~ 85% in the composite material and the density is ~ 0.8 g/cm3. Material has been characterized for its physical properties like structural, magnetic, shape and size distribution by XRD, TEM, SAXS, EPR and VSM measurement techniques. The prepared composite has low density, electrically conducting and soft magnetic properties. The developmental studies of magnetic carbon nanofoam process
have been described.

Keywords: Magnetic carbon nanofoam composites, electric arc discharge, nano-crystalline, cobalt ferrite particles

 

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 17, October 2010, pp. 367-372

 

 

Dynamic adsorption of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution using activated carbon beds

Meenakshi Goyal & Mamta Bhagat

 

The dynamic adsorption of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions using a granulated activated carbon and an activated carbon cloth has been studied using fixed bed adsorption column. The breakthrough curves at different hydraulic loading rates (HLR), bed depth and feed concentration (Co) have been examined. The breakthrough time at any given concentration of the effluent decreases with increasing hydraulic loading rate and feed concentration but increases with increasing bed depth. The adsorption capacity of the carbon bed increases with increasing HLR and attains a maximum value at HLR of 1.22 m3/h/m2. The adsorption zone parameters and column design parameters have been determined using BDST, Yoon-Nelson and Wolborska models. The experimental values obtained from column experiments agree fairly with the theoretical values obtained using different equations. The design parameters obtained from one column experiment have been used to design adsorption column for any other flow rate and feed concentration.

 

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 17, October 2010, pp. 373-381

 

 

Uptake of toxic metals from wastewater by activated carbon from
agro industrial by-product

 

M Hema & K Srinivasan

 

Activated carbon prepared from neem oilcake, by pyrolysis accompanied with microwave oven activation is evaluated for the adsorption of Cd(II) and Ni(II) from wastewater. Parameters such as pH, agitation time, metal ion concentration and adsorbent dose are studied. The percent removal increased with pH from 2.0 to 7.0. The adsorption data fit well with Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. The adsorption capacity (qe) calculated from Langmuir isotherm are 54.95 mg Ni(II)/g and 23.70 mg Cd(II)/g at an optimal pH of 7.0 at 30C for the particle size 0.120-0.075 mm. Adsorption of Cd(II) and Ni(II) by activated carbon from neem oilcake follows pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Desorption studies with dilute hydrochloric acid indicate that quantitative recovery of cadmium and nickel ions are possible. The mechanism of adsorption seems to follow ion exchange process. As neem oilcake is discarded as waste from oil processing industries, the carbon could be exploited for metal ions recovery from wastewater.

Keywords: Activated carbon, Toxic metal, Wastewater, Neem oilcake

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 17, October 2010, pp. 382-388

 

 

Phosphorylated tamarind nut carbon for the removal of cadmium ions from aqueous solutions

 

N Suganthi & K Srinivasan

 

Activated carbon prepared from phosphoric acid treatment of Tamarind nuts (seeds) is investigated for the removal of cadmium ions from aqueous solutions. Carbon granules of 300 to 800 m particle size are chosen for all studies. The characteristics of the phosphorylated tamarind nut carbon (PTNC) are evaluated for porosity, surface area, iodine number, phenol number, moisture content and decolorizing power. PTNC is subjected to the adsorption of cadmium ions from aqueous solution. The effects of pH, contact time, metal ion concentration and carbon dosage are studied to evaluate the potential applicability of carbon produced as an adsorbent for wastewater treatment. The adsorption data are modeled by using Langmuir and Freundlich classical adsorptions isotherms. Kinetic studies fitted best with pseudo-second order model. Desorption studies indicated that ion-exchange mechanism is operating. Column studies are conducted in 2.5 cm diameter columns. Under optimum conditions of flow rate and bed height, breakthrough capacities are found out. The mechanism of adsorption for cadmium on PTNC is found to follow ion exchange process predominantly and supported by FTIR. The cadmium removal and the surface modification are also confirmed by SEM studies.

Keywords: Activated carbon, Phosphorylated tamarind nut carbon, Carbon granules