Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

 

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VOLUME 12

CODEN : IEMSEW

NUMBER 3

JUNE 2005

ISSN : 0971-4588

 

CONTENTS

 

Engineering

 

Optimizing diesel engine parameters for low emissions using Taguchi method: variation risk analysis approach – Part I

 

169

        M Nataraj, V P Arunachalam & N Dhandapani

 

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 F02B]

 

 

 

On the jitter performance of a quantizer based modified DPLL

182

        T Banerjee & B C Sarkar

 

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 H03L 7/00]

 

 

 

An investigation on high speed drilling of glass fibre reinforced plastic (GFRP)

189

        V Krishnaraj, S Vijayarangan & G Suresh

 

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 B23B]

 

 

 

Simple analytical solution for active vibration control of intelligent composite and sandwich plates

 

196

        R Suresh & G Venkateswara Rao

 

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 H01H 35/24, G05D 19/00]

 

 

 

Effect of anisotropy on laminated composite plates containing circular holes

207

        H Murat Arslan

 

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 E04C 2/00]

 

 

 

Materials Science

 

 

 

A study on cement mortars incorporating plain Portland cement (PPC), ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBFS) and basaltic pumice

 

214

        Hanifi Binici, Orhan Aksogan & Hasan Kaplan

 

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 C04B 26/00]

 

 

 

Ballistic impact testing of AA2219 aluminium alloy welded plates and their metallurgical characterization

 

221

        Abhay K Jha, Naga Shiresha, S V S N Murty, V Diwakar & K SreeKumar

 

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 C22C 21/00]

 

 

 

Synthesis and characterization of NaX and Cu-exchanged NaX zeolites

 

        from silica obtained from rice husk ash

227

        Ajay K Dalai, Narayan C Pradhan, Musti S Rao & K V G K Gokhale

 

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 C01B 39/50]

 

Studies on electrochemical cells based on polymer composites of charge-transfer materials

 

235

        R K Gupta, N Srivastava & R A Singh

 

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 H01M 6/00]

 

 

 

Biosusceptibility evaluations of protective sealants used in aircraft fuel tanks

241

        R B Srivastava, Meenu Awasthi, M C Upreti & G N Mathur

 

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 C21D 1/72, C23F 11/00]

 

 

 

Removal of Ni, Cd, Pb, Zn and colour from aqueous solution using potential low cost adsorbent

 

248

        Hamidi A Aziz, Mohd N Adlan, Chieng S Hui, M S M Zahari & B H Hameed

 

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 C02F 9/04]

 

 

 

Curing and thermal behaviour of epoxy resin in the presence of aromatic imide-amines

259

        Pooja Sharma, Parveen Kukreja, Veena Choudhary & A.K. Narula

 

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 C08L 63/00]

 

 

 

___________

IPC: International Patent Classification

Int. Cl.7: International Classification 7th edition, 1999

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 12, June 2005, pp. 169-181

 

 

Optimizing diesel engine parameters for low emissions using Taguchi method: variation risk analysis approach—Part I

 

M Nataraj, V P Arunachalam & N Dhandapani

 

An experimental study has been carried out to simultaneously optimize several diesel engine designs and operating parameters for low exhaust emissions using Taguchi method. A single cylinder (DPF make) diesel engine equipped with a high pressure, cam driven mechanical injector has been used in this experiment. The effects of changes in engine design/operating parameters–nozzle spray holes, piston–to–head clearance, nozzle protrusion, injection control pressure, start of injection timing and swirl level on diesel engine emissions have been investigated at two engine operating conditions, i.e., 40% of maximum load and 80% of maximum load using Taguchi design of experiment methods. Emissions are quantified and optimum parameter setting has been arrived. Measurement of exhaust emissions for the optimized engine showed that CO, HC and smoke emissions are significantly lower than those obtained for the baseline engine. Taguchi method has been found to be a useful technique for the simultaneous optimization of several engine parameters and also for predicting the effect of various design parameters on diesel exhaust emissions.

IPC Code: F02B

 

 

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 12, June 2005, pp. 182-188

 

On the jitter performance of a quantizer based modified DPLL

 

T Banerjee & B C Sarkar

 

The paper examines the effect of an additional derivative control signal (ADCS) on the steady state phase jitter characteristics of first and second order digital phase locked loops (DPLLs) having a finite level quantizer. It has been shown that the ADCS reduces the steady state phase jitter variance particularly when the DPLL gain parameters are high and the input signal has large frequency detuning. Further, a prefixed amount of SSPJ variance can be achieved in presence of the ADCS for a loop with a quantizer having lesser number of levels. The simulation results obtained have been qualitatively interpreted.

IPC Code: H03L7/00

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 12, June 2005, pp. 189-195

 

An investigation on high speed drilling of glass fibre

reinforced plastic (GFRP)

 

V Krishnaraj, S Vijayarangan & G Suresh

 

High speed machining is now recognised as one of the key manufacturing technologies for higher productivity and throughput. An experimental investigation has been performed on GFRP using carbide drill with different drill geometries, namely standard twist drill, double cone drill, Zhirov-point drill and multifacet drill. A series of experiments are conducted using wide range of cutting parameters namely, speed and feed rate. Thrust force and surface roughness are measured and studied in the test trials. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique is employed to investigate the cutting characteristics of different drilling geometries. Relation between spindle speed and feed rate on thrust force and surface roughness is established. It is found that Zhirov point drill and multifacet drill could be used at high spindle speed which generates less thrust force. Surface finish of the drilled hole could be achieved to 2-6.1 μm with Zhirov drill. The investigation reveals the use of special geometry drills which improve the hole quality in GFRP composites drilled at high spindle speed.

IPC Code: B23B

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 12, June 2005, pp. 196-206

 

Simple analytical solution for active vibration control of intelligent

composite and sandwich plates

 

R Suresh & G Venkateswara Rao

 

A simple analytical formulation of laminated composite plates with integrated piezoelectric layer, used as sensor and actuators for the vibration suppression of intelligent composite and sandwich plates is presented. The first order shear deformation theory is employed to account for the transverse shear deformation. The equations are transformed into the state space form and solved by the linear quadratic regulator (LQR) based control algorithm. The effect of the state and control parameters on the system response is studied. The effect of the thickness ratio of the intelligent plate is also investigated.

IPC Code: H01H35/14; G05D19/00

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 12, June 2005, pp. 207-213

 

Effect of anisotropy on laminated composite plates containing circular holes

H Murat Arslan

 

In this study, an analysis of fibre reinforced, multi-layered composite plates, containing circular holes, has been carried out. First, stress concentrations around a circular hole are studied. A number of diagrams are drawn to show stress concentrations around a hole, for each layer, using different material pairs with different E1/E2 ratios (ratio of elasticity modulus of fibre direction to that of transverse direction). The graphs are given, for various E1/E2 values, for the circumferential stress values around the hole versus angular location of points, for two different fibre orientation angles. Second, the failure of the laminated composite plate is studied. For this purpose Tsai-Hill failure criterion and Hoffman failure criterion are introduced. To determine the “first-ply failure” of a laminated plate, these two failure criteria are employed. Finally, to show the effect of E1/E2 ratio on the failure of plates a number of tables are given for different fibre orientation angles.

IPC Code: E04C2/00

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 12, June 2005, pp. 214-220

 

A study on cement mortars incorporating plain Portland cement (PPC), ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBFS) and basaltic pumice

 

Hanifi Binici,Orhan Aksogan Hasan Kaplan

 

In this paper, an experimental investigation on the effect of ternary blending on the various properties of cement paste and mortar has been reported. The ternary blended cements have been prepared by using one type of clinker and two types of pozzolans. Two types of grinding techniques, two different fineness values and varying amounts of additives have been employed. Besides these, control pastes and mortars are prepared. The influence of fineness, different grinding techniques and other parameters on the strength of the ternary blended cements has been evaluated. The chemical compositions of the pozzolans are consistent with the requirements given in both the TS 25 (a Turkish standard) and ASTM C 168 standards. The results indicate that the basaltic pumice used in this study, taken from the Osmaniye-Adana province (Southern Turkey), can be used as an admixture in cement production. SEM, XRD and thin section analyses showed that a large quantity of sheet-like CSH was formed when a combination of basaltic pumice and slag were incorporated in the mortar.

IPC Code: C04B26/00

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 12, June 2005, pp. 221-226

 

Ballistic impact testing of AA2219 aluminium alloy welded plates and their metallurgical characterisation

Abhay K Jha, Naga Shiresha, S V S N Murty, V Diwakar & K SreeKumar

 

Ballistic impact experiments were conducted on 6.4 mm and 7.8 mm thick aluminium alloy AA 2219 sheets using cylindrical ballistic projectiles made of hard steel. The impact velocities varied between 380 ms-1 and 890 ms-1 and flash infra red technique was used to determine projectile velocity and to assure the normality of impact. The microstructural damage associated with impact was analyzed by optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The microstructure consisted of adiabatic shear bands formed in an extremely short time by the combined effects of the highly localized shear deformation and the high temperature rise that occurred within the shear bands. Scanning electron microscopy revealed features of typical melting within the band.

IPC Code: C22C 21/00

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 12, June 2005, pp. 227-234

 

Synthesis and characterization of NaX and Cu-exchanged NaX zeolites from silica obtained from rice husk ash

Ajay K Dalai, Narayan C Pradhan, Musti S Rao & K V G K Gokhale

 

Sodium X zeolite and a number of other zeolites such as PC, HS and analcime were synthesized using rice-husk ash as a source of silica. Also, a number of NaCuX zeolites were prepared by ion-exchange method with copper contents from 2.8 to 10.5 wt%. The products were characterized using X-ray diffraction analysis. The morphological characteristics of the prepared zeolites were also studied. The NaX zeolite exhibits typical octahedral form whereas analcime and zeolite PC have trapezohedral and spheroid forms, respectively. Differential thermal patterns of NaCuX zeolites revealed the presence of an initial sharp and intense endotherm for dehydration around 190-220oC followed by an exotherm around 830-860oC representing structural change and dissociation

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 12, June 2005, pp. 235-240

 

Studies on electrochemical cells based on polymer composites of

charge-transfer materials

 

R K Gupta, N Srivastava & R A Singh

 

The low mechanical strengths of the charge-transfer materials have restricted their applications as cathode materials in the solid-state batteries. To improve the mechanical strengths, the polymer composites of these materials have been prepared and used in the fabrication of solid-state electrochemical cells. The pressed pellets of the polymer composite of o-tolidine-iodine charge-transfer complex in poly (vinyl chloride) and polystyrene have been used as cathodes in contact with zinc as anode metal. The electrochemical characterization of these cells such as open circuit voltages, short circuit currents, their time and temperature dependence charge-discharge characteristics and rechargeability of these cells have been studied. The impedance and dielectric behaviour of these cells have been studied to understand the nature of the electrode reactions.

IPC Code: H01M6/00

 

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 12, June 2005, pp. 241-247

 

 

Biosusceptibility evaluations of protective sealants used in aircraft fuel tanks

R B Srivastava, Meenu Awasthi, M C Upreti & G N Mathur

 

The microbial attack on coatings used in aircraft fuel tanks has important implications because such coatings or sealants must remain intact for effective corrosion protection. In general, all the polysulphide based sealants under test were found to be very effective against individual cultures, viz. sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) and Aureobasidium pullulans. However, when the cultures were introduced collectively (viz. mixed and combination), growth of microorganisms resulted in degradation of coatings to a greater extent. Analysis of electrochemical data reveals that sealant RDL-854 can be used as a broad-spectrum sealant as it was found effective not only against single cultures but also when cultures were introduced collectively.

IPC Code: C21D1/72, C23F11/00

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 12, June 2005, pp. 248-258

 

Removal of Ni, Cd, Pb, Zn and colour from aqueous solution using potential low cost adsorbent

Hamidi A Aziz, Mohd N Adlan, Chieng S Hui, M S M Zahari & B H Hameed

 

A study was conducted to determine the removal efficiency of heavy metals (Ni, Cd, Pb and Zn) and colour from wastewater using cheap available materials in Malaysia such as charcoal, coconut shell carbon and a mixture of these carbons with limestone. As activated carbon is quite expensive, this study attempts to investigate the possibility of mixing activated carbon with these materials for cost saving. The suitability of using coconut shell after heating at 500°C in treating wastewater also formed the basis of the study. Batch studies were carried out in the laboratory with an initial concentration of heavy metals generally found in final effluents at 2 mg/L and colour at 400-ptCo. The results indicated that a mixture of activated carbon and limestone had removed 92% of heavy metals and 85% of colour from synthetic wastewater at a wide range of pH. When activated carbon was only used, 85% of heavy metals and 99% of colour were removed. For a mixture of charcoal with limestone, the removal efficiencies for heavy metals and colour were at 65% and 35%, respectively. The removal efficiency for heavy metals was further improved to 80% when charcoal was used, but for colour removal it was only 30%. The results of the study suggested that a mixture of activated carbon with limestone had significantly removed the amount of heavy metals and colour. Thus, the cost of the overall process can be reduced. This study also indicated that there is possibility of using coconut carbon and charcoal as an alternative absorbents for removing heavy metals and colour from wastewater. However, improvement on activation process is required.

IPC Code: C02F 9/04

 

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 12, June 2005, pp. 259-264

 

Curing and thermal behaviour of epoxy resin in the presence of
aromatic imide-amines

Pooja Sharma, Parveen Kukreja, Veena Choudhary & A K Narula

 

The paper describes the synthesis and characterization of aromatic imide-amines obtained by reacting pyromellitic dianhydride (P)/or benzophenone 3,3′, 4,4′-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (B) (1 mol) with excess of 4,4¢-diaminodiphenyl ether [E]/or 4,4′-diaminodiphenyl methane [M]/or 4,4′-diaminodiphenyl sulfone [S] and their use as curing agents for diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA). Structural characterization of imide-amines was done using FTIR, 1H-NMR,13C-NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. These aromatic imide-amines were used as curing agents in order to investigate the effect of structure on the curing and thermal behaviour of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA). Curing behaviour of DGEBA in the presence of stoichiometric amounts of aromatic imide-amines was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A broad exothermic transition in the temperature range of 180-230°C was observed in all the samples. The peak exotherm temperature (Tp) was lowest in case of imide-amines based on B and M and highest in case of imide-amines based on P/or B and S. Thermal stability of the isothermally cured resins was investigated using dynamic thermogravimetry in nitrogen atmosphere. The char yield was highest for resin cured with imide-amines based on B and E.

IPC Code: C08L63/00