Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Science


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VOLUME 13
CODEN : IEMSEW

NUMBER 2

APRIL 2006
ISSN : 0971-4588

 

CONTENTS 



Engineering

 

Investigations on performance and emissions of a two-stroke SI engine fitted with a manifold injection system

 

95

        M Loganathan, P V Manivannan & A Ramesh

 

        [IPC Code: G01M15/00] 

 

A decision fusion algorithm for tool condition monitoring in drilling using Hidden Markov Model (HMM)

 

103

        U Natarajan, P Arun & V M Periasamy

 

        [IPC Code: B25F, E21B1/00] 

 

Inflation pressure effect on whole tyre hysteresis ratio and radial spring constant

110

        Padmanabha S Pillai

 

        [IPC Code: G01L17/00, B60C]

 

 

Development of correlation equations between different measurements of skid resistance in pavements

 

117

        Marcelo Bustos, Tomas Echaveguren, Hernán de Solminihac & Andrés Caroca

 

        [IPC Code: E01C9/10]

 

 

Influence of strong alkaline substances (sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate) in mixing water on strength and setting properties of concrete

 

123

        V Venkateswara Reddy , H Sudarsana Rao & K N Jayaveera

 

        [IPC Code: C01D7/00, C04B]

 

 

Materials Science

 

 

Sintering of boron carbide under high pressures and temperatures

129

        S K Singhal & B P Singh

 

        [IPC Code: C04B 35/563]

 

 

Studies on Aureobasidium pullulans forming biofilm on high strength aluminium alloy, a structural component, in aircraft fuel tanks

 

135

        R B Srivastava, Meenu Awasthi, M C Upreti & G N Mathur

 

            [IPC Code: C22C 21/00]

 

 

Photoelectrochemical characterization of Bi2S3 thin films deposited by modified chemical bath deposition

 

140

        R R Ahire & R P Sharma

 

            [IPC Code: H01C17/14]

 

 

Analytical modelling of carrier transport through transverse and longitudinal grain boundaries in polysilicon thin-film transistors

 

145

        Navneet Gupta & B P Tyagi

 

        [IPC Code: H01L 21/328]

 

 

Effect of chemical modification with styrene and glycidyl methacrylate on the properties of pinewood

 

149

        Rashmi R Devi & T K Maji

 

        [IPC Code: B27K]

 

 

Synthesis and physico-chemical study of halogenated aromatic cardo polysulfonates

155

        B G Manwar, S H Kavthia, N M Mehta & P H Parsania

 

        [IPC Code: C08F 114/00]

 

 

On imaging metal grains at high temperature: Laser light scattering microscopy

162

        P B V Prasad & P B Shashikanth

 

        [IPC Code: C22F, G01N 13/10]

 

 

 

IPC: International Patent Classification

 

Int. Cl.8: International Classification 8th edition, 2006

 

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 13, April 2006, pp. 95-102

 

  

Investigations on performance and emissions of a two-stroke SI engine
fitted with a manifold injection system

 

M Loganathan, P V Manivannan & A Ramesh

 

Simple and cost effective electronically controlled injection systems have to be developed to combat the problem of urban pollution. In this work an electronically controlled fuel injection system developed in the Internal Combustion Engine Laboratory of Indian Institute of Technology Madras has been tested in detail on a two-stroke SI engine. The system is fitted on the intake manifold of a single cylinder, air cooled two-stroke scooter engine. Tests have been done at 3000 rpm and 4000 rpm at different throttle positions. The optimum injector pulse widths for thermal efficiency, lowest HC emissions and highest power are all different. The maximum brake thermal efficiency values are 22.6% and 23% at 3000 and 4000 rpm respectively. At a power output of 3 kW and 4000 rpm the brake thermal efficiency is about 21% for the carbureted engine. It increases to 23% with the fuel injection system. HC emissions are considerably lower than the carbureted version at all operating conditions and speeds. The engine can work with leaner mixtures with the injection system in general as compared to the carburetor. The maximum power increases with the injection system. The developed system can be used for mapping the engine for the development of software for injection system control.

IPC Code: G01M15/00

 

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 13, April 2006, pp. 103-109

 

 A decision fusion algorithm for tool condition monitoring in drilling using Hidden Markov Model (HMM)

U Natarajan, P Arun & V M Periasamy

 

In today’s world, the leading industries are very much concerned about reducing down-time and  increasing the productivity as well as the quality. To increase the product quality, the tool should have good performance. Drilling process is widely used in the manufacturing operations in all the manufacturing industries. In this study, two Hidden Markov Models (HMM) such as bar-graph method and the multiple modeling methods have been used to determine the tool wear states in drilling operations.  Cutting speed, feed rate, drill diameter and torque are taken as input parameters for the HMM bar-graph method.  Cutting speed, feed rate, drill diameter, thrust force and feed-motor power are taken as input parameters for the HMM multiple modeling methods.  In order to increase the reliability of these outputs, a Decision Fusion Center Algorithm (DFCA) is proposed which combines the outputs of the individual methods to make a global decision about the wear status of the drill tool.

IPC Code: B25F, E21B1/00

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 13, April 2006, pp. 110-116

 

 Inflation pressure effect on whole tyre hysteresis ratio and radial spring constant

Padmanabha S Pillai

 

The basic equation for rolling loss R in terms of the whole tyre hysteresis ratio h is modified by incorporating tyre radial stiffness K and rewritten as R = L2 (h/K). (w/A), where w and A are footprint dimensions. Tyre inflation pressure p influences the magnitude of h and K. The primary objective of the present study is to obtain quantitative expressions relating h versus p and K versus p. Three P195/75R14 size radial tyres are selected for the present investigation. The h and K values of these tyres are measured as a function of p and analyzed by invoking two limiting structural terms, viz., structural hysteresis ratio h(0) and structural radial stiffness K(0). The empirical relation between h and p is found to be inversely related as h = k (1/px). The h(0) values are about 0.38, 0.27 and 0.28 for tyres 1, 2 and 3. The hysteresis ratio reduction factor h(f) is normalized with respect to h(0) and is found to be about 78% of h(0) value of the respective tyre. The K term is partitioned into structural stiffness K(0) and inflation pressure stiffness K(a). The K(0) values are about 60, 25 and 67 N/mm respectively. The K versus p relation can be expressed as K = K(0) + m.p. = K(0) + K(a). The pressure stiffness K(a) is directly proportional to p as K(a) = 0.56.p. These empirical equations with experimentally determined fitting coefficients k, x and m for the three P195/75R14 tyres are presented. This study indicates that the tyre size primarily controls the magnitude in reduction of h, through h(f), and the increase in K, through K(a), with p. The total tyre load of 5337 N is separated into structural load and pressure load; the former load has a direct relationship with R while the latter has an inverse relation. This is a new analytical approach relating tyre load and rolling loss.

IPC Code: G01L17/00, B60C

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 13, April 2006, pp. 117-122

 

 Development of correlation equations between different measurements of skid resistance in pavements

Marcelo Bustos, Tomas Echaveguren, Hernán de Solminihac & Andrés Caroca†

 

Friction is an indicator of the safety level supplied by a pavement. It is obtained by skid resistance and texture measures performed with static and high performance devices. Because the physical principle applied by each equipment differs from one another, it is necessary to harmonize measures in order to compare them. From literature review different harmonization procedures are identified: equipment direct correlations, high scale harmonization experiments and statistical analysis of skid resistance measures. Harmonization based on direct correlations and statistical analysis has the disadvantage that they do not consider texture as a variable, making them applicable only under certain conditions. In this paper, a harmonization methodology is proposed based on the PIARC (the World Road Association) harmonization procedure. The proposed methodology has the advantage that a reduced amount of data is needed and also texture measures are considered. From the application of the methodology under data simulation it is concluded that under a certain texture range the correlation is almost linear. This range depends on the texture measurement device; as, when using accurate equipments non-linear distortions are deduced under low texture levels.

IPC Code: E 01C 9/10

 

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 13, April 2006, pp. 123-128

 

 Influence of strong alkaline substances (sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate) in mixing water on strength and setting properties of concrete

V Venkateswara Reddy , H Sudarsana Rao & K N Jayaveera

 

The quality of mixing and curing water plays a vital role in production and application of concrete. In the present study, the effect of strong alkaline substances like sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on setting time and strength development of concrete is assessed under the laboratory conditions. The results indicate that Na2CO3 in deionised water accelerates the initial as well as final setting times whereas the other compound NaHCO3 retards the initial and final setting times in all concentrations. Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 in deionised water decrease the compressive and tensile strength of concrete specimens significantly at 28 days and 90 days. Comparison of the results of strong alkaline compounds with those of the control mix reveals that both Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 decrease the compressive and tensile strength significantly. The rate of decrease is increasing with the increase in concentration. The present work analyses the hydration characteristics of concrete using the technique of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and useful conclusions are obtained regarding the influence of strong alkaline substances.

IPC Code: C01D 7/00, C04B

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 13, April 2006, pp. 129-134

 

 Sintering of boron carbide under high pressures and temperatures

S K Singhal & B P Singh

 

Sintered compacts of boron carbide were prepared by subjecting fine powder of boron carbide to high pressures and temperatures (5-6 GPa, 1000-1500°C) in the presence of a suitable binding material, namely TiC (5wt.%) or Co (5wt.%). The composites prepared by this method showed a microhardness of about 2800 kg/mm2, which is very close to the microhardness of pure boron carbide. The compacts were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques. SEM study showed that the grains of boron carbide were uniformly distributed throughout the binding material and no grain growth was observed in the composites. Although composites of diameter 6.0 mm and 2-3 mm thickness are synthesized in this method, the process can be up-scaled for producing large size (12 mm diameter) composites required in various cutting tools and other applications.

IPC Code: C04B 35/563

 

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 13, April 2006, pp. 135-139

  

Studies on Aureobasidium pullulans forming biofilm on high strength aluminium alloy, a structural component, in aircraft fuel tanks

R B Srivastava, Meenu Awasthi, M C Upreti & G N Mathur

 

The present investigation focuses on the effect of Aureobasidium pullulans on the behaviour of aluminium alloy. This fuel resident fungal species has been isolated frequently from the contaminated aviation turbine fuel (ATF) alongwith other microorganisms under Indian tropical conditions. This microbial culture was observed to have the ability to produce extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which help in securing firm adhesion of biogrowth on aluminium alloy forming biofilm ultimately leading to accelerated corrosion. This work reports the characteristics of the biofilm generated, nature of EPS secreted and the ability of A. pullulans to influence the surface structure of aluminium alloy due to the presence of corrosion enhancing metabolites and subsequent formation of corrosion products.

IPC Code: C22C 21/00

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 13, April; 2006, pp. 140-144

 

Photoelectrochemical characterization of Bi2S3 thin films deposited by modified chemical bath deposition

R  R  Ahire  &  R P Sharma

 

For the photoelectrochemical (PEC) solar cell, the prime requirement is that photoelectrode/ photoanode should have bandgap close to the maximum in the visible spectrum. Bismuth sulphide (Bi2S3) is challenging material because of its mid-way bandgap (Eg = 1.74 eV) and absorption coefficient of the order of 104 cm-1. In the present investigation, bismuth sulphide (Bi2S3) thin films of thickness about 0.14 mm have been prepared by using modified chemical bath deposition method onto glass and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrate under optimized conditions.  The films are annealed at 200ºC for 2 h in air.  It is found that deposited films turn from amorphous to polycrystalline after annealing.  The Bi2S3/NaOH-S-Na2S/C cell has been fabricated by using Bi2S3 annealed films and their photoelectrochemical performance has been studied.  It is found that Bi2S3 films are photoactive.  However, conversion efficiency is low (0.056%) due to low series and high shunts resistance of Bi2S3 films.

IPC Code: H01C17/14

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 13, April 2006, pp. 145-148

 

Analytical modelling of carrier transport through transverse and longitudinal
grain boundaries in polysilicon thin-film transistors

Navneet Gupta  & B P Tyagi

 

Carrier transport through transverse and longitudinal grain boundaries (GBs) in polysilicon thin film transistors (poly-Si TFTs) has been studied. The model considers an array of square grains in the channel of poly-Si TFT in which current flows along the longitudinal GBs and through the grains and the transverse GBs. The variation of field-effect mobility (mFE) and drain current (ID) is computed for different values of grain size. This study reveals that at low gate voltage the longitudinal GBs are seen to influence the field-effect mobility and drain current. As gate voltage increases, the effect of transverse GBs is found to account for experimental results. This is attributed to the fact that at low gate voltage, the carriers moving through longitudinal GBs have more opportunities to be trapped at the trapping sites and as gate voltage increases the carriers have sufficient energy to bypass the longitudinal GBs and obstructed by transverse GBs alone. This may be the reason that the calculated effects of longitudinal GBs do not appear in the experimental results at high gate voltage.

IPC Code: H01L21/328

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 13 April 2006, pp. 149-154

 

 Effect of chemical modification with styrene and glycidyl methacrylate
on the properties of pinewood

 

Rashmi R Devi & T K Maji

 

Pinewood was impregnated with styrene and in combination with glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) as a cross-linking monomer. After the impregnation polymerization was accomplished by catalyst heat treatment. The conditions of impregnation such as monomer concentration, initiator concentration, time of impregnation and vacuum were varied to get the optimum polymer loading. Impregnation with styrene-GMA improved physical properties such as water absorption, swelling and hardness, compared to those of styrene alone. Water vapour absorption and swelling in water vapour at 90% RH also improved on treatment. FT-IR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies of fractured wood samples showed the interaction between wood and the polymers.

IPC Code: B27K

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 13, April 2006, pp. 155-161

  

Synthesis and physico-chemical study of halogenated aromatic cardo polysulfonates

B G Manwar, S H Kavthia, N M Mehta & P H Parsania

 

Poly(R, R′, 4, 4′-cyclohexylidene diphenylene-2, 4-toluene disulfonate) (PS-3: R=R′=C1 and PS-4: R=CH3 and R′=C1) have been synthesized by interfacial polycondensation technique by using water-chloroform (4:1 v/v) as an interphase, alkali (0.12 mol) as an acid acceptor and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide as an emulsifier. The reaction time and temperature are 3½ h and 0ºC, respectively. The structure of PS-3 and PS-4 are supported by IR and NMR spectral data. The intrinsic viscosities of the said polymers are determined in different solvents at three different temperatures 30, 35 and 40ºC. The calculated and experimental (floatation method) densities are found in good agreement with small fractional free volume. PS-3 and PS-4 possess excellent resistance to hydrolytic attack against water, acids, alkalis and salt, moderate tensile strength (15.6-17.0 N/mm2), excellent volume resistivity (1.1 to 3.9 ´ 1015 W cm), high electric strength (33.9-32.9 kV/mm) and low dielectric constant (1.36), good thermal stability (360ºC and 340ºC) and high Tg (143.5oC and 134.3ºC). DSC and DTA endo/exothermic transitions have supported physico-chemical changes. No change in tensile strength is observed but volume resistivity has increased 1.5 to 54.2 times, while electric strength has increased 2.5 to 3.5 times upon introducing methyl and chlorine groups alone or in combination. The improvement in volume resistivity and dielectric constant is due to cancellation of partial charges present on the polymer molecules.

IPC Code: C08F 114/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 13, April 2006, pp. 162-166

 

On imaging metal grains at high temperature: Laser light scattering microscopy

P B V Prasad & P B Shashikanth

 

A simple device has been developed to meet the need of a base that is free from thermal expansion and is required in certain hot-stage microscopy studies. Further, images of sub-millimeter sized metal grains at high temperatures are noticed to under go vibration-like motion. In order to achieve stabilization of images, a unit called beam path cooler has been devised and its effect is examined.

IPC Code: C22F, G01N 13/10