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Indian Journal of

Engineering & Materials Sciences

http : // www.niscair.res.in

Total visitors: 1,160  since 25-06-07

 

VOLUME 14

CODEN : IEMSEW

NUMBER 3

JUNE 2007

ISSN : 0971-4588

 

CONTENTS

 

Engineering

 

 

Determination of submerged arc welding process parameters using Taguchi method and regression analysis

 

177

        S Kumanan, J Edwin Raja Dhas & K Gowthaman

 

        [IPC Code: B23K 9/18]

 

 

A study of barreling profile and effect of aspect ratio on material flow in lateral extrusion of gear-like forms

 

184

        Tahir Altinbalik

 

        [IPC Code: B21C]

 

 

Development of micro alloyed structural steels in secondary steel sector using induction melting furnace and controlled rolling route

 

193

        Robin K Bagchi, Rakesh Sehgal & Suresh Dhiman

 

        [IPC Code: C22C 38/00]

 

 

Design of gear-form electrode and ultrasonic-aid in electrochemical finishing of SNC236 surface

 

202

        P S Pa

 

        [IPC Code: B23F 19/00]

 

 

Performance testing of indigenously developed DC conduction pump  for sodium cooled fast reactor

 

209

        B K Nashine, S K Dash, K Gurumurthy, U Kale, VD Sharma, R Prabhakar, M Rajan &  G Vaidyanathan

 

        [IPC Code: H01F]

 

 

Elasto-plastic analysis of stress around square hole

215

        Murat Yazici

 

        [IPC Code: B29C 61/00]

 

 

Evaluation of Turkish seismic code for mass irregular buildings

220

        Kamil Aydin

 

        [IPC Code: G01V 1/00]

 

 

Design and development of flame reactor unit for carbon nanorods (CNRs) production

235

        Vivek Dhand, J S Prasad, M Venkateswara Rao, K Naga Mahesh, L Anupama,
V Himabindu, Y Anjaneyulu, V S Raju & A A Sukumar

 

        [IPC Code: B82B]

 

Analysis of structural parameters of acid and alkali treated polyester fibers using SAXS and other techniques

 

240

        S Bal & R C Behera

 

        [IPC Code: C08G]

 

 

Rutherford back scattering and optical band gap of In/Sb thin films

253

        R K Mangal, Y K Vijay, D K Avasthi & B R Shekhar

 

        [IPC Code: H01C 17/075]

 

 

Chloride resisting concrete containing rice husk ash and bagasse ash

257

        K Ganesan , K Rajagopal & K Thangavel

 

        [IPC Code: C04B 18/24]

 

 

Strength prediction of silica fume concrete by accelerated warm-water curing method

266

        Cengiz Duran Atiş

 

        [IPC Code: C04B 14/04]

 

_____________

 

IPC: International Patent Classification

 

Int. Cl.8: International Classification 8th edition, 2006

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 14, June 2007, pp. 177-183

 

 

Determination of submerged arc welding process parameters using Taguchi method and regression analysis

S Kumanan, J Edwin Raja Dhas & K Gowthaman

 

This paper details the application of Taguchi technique and regression analysis to determine the optimal process parameters for submerged arc welding (SAW). The planned experiments are conducted in the semiautomatic submerged arc welding machine and the signal-to-noise ratios are computed to determine the optimum parameters. The percentage contribution of each factor is validated by analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique. Multiple regression analysis (MRA) is conducted using statistical package for social science (SPSS) software and the mathematical model is build to predict the bead geometry for any given welding conditions.

IPC Code:  B23K9/18

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 14, June 2007, pp. 184-192

 

 

A study of barreling profile and effect of aspect ratio on material flow in lateral extrusion of gear-like forms

 

Tahir Altinbalik

 

The aim of this study is to investigate the lateral extrusion of tapered in terms of die filling and barrel formation at the front of tooth. A series of experiments has been carried out using solid lead billets with two different billet diameters and three different billet heights of each diameter. Metal flow in the tooth region is not uniform and barreling occurs due to frictional resistance between the workpiece and the die gap surface. The barrel profile is assumed as a second order polynomial and a simple empirical relationship between the tooth dimensions and the barrel profile has been given using experimental data. Bulging profile of the tooth was measured and simulated by CAD/CAM software. Load-stroke relations and die filling ratios are obtained. In addition, Microsoft Visual Basic was coded and also magnitude and the position of the maximum stresses in the die chamber were determined by using CATIA.

IPC Code: B21C

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 14, June 2007, pp. 193-201

 

Development of micro alloyed structural steels in secondary steel sector using induction melting furnace and controlled rolling route

 

Robin K Bagchi, Rakesh Sehgal & Suresh Dhiman

 

Micro alloyed steels with mild steel base were produced through induction furnace and controlled rolling route to produce ribbed bars used in constructions. The aim was to introduce micro alloyed steels in the secondary steel sector to produce all sections of structural steels, thus countering the limitation of TMT process which is considered to be suitable only for round sections. Mainly, % vanadium and % niobium were varied in trial heats. Combinations of vanadium-nitrogen were also tried. Total 12 heats were made using induction melting furnace. Castings in the form of ingots of 88´112´1400 mm were made which were further rolled to 12 mm bars with different cooling parameters. Commonly, 12 mm CTD bars result on 450 N-mm-2 UTS and 15% EL, while standard 12 mm TMT bar produces 650 N-mm-2 UTS and 25%EL. Micro alloyed steels with vanadium and niobium employing conventional air cooling on bed produced better results for strength and ductility values as compared to TMT bars. Neither twisting nor water cooling/quenching was required. The best cost effective combination of 790 N-mm-2 UTS, 590 N-mm-2 YS, 23% EL and 59% RA was obtained with low % vanadium.

IPC Code: C22C38/00

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 14, June 2007, pp. 202-208

 

Design of gear-form electrode and ultrasonic-aid in electrochemical
finishing of SNC236 surface

 

P S Pa

 

It is very difficult to execute the finishing process of the complex surface of gears. The current study offers a design of gear-form electrode and a new area-finishing process using ultrasonic energy transmitted into the electrolyte to assist in the process of electrochemical finishing on the surface of nickel chromium steels beyond traditional process of gear machining instead of conventional hand or machine polishing. The surface of the gears is electrochemically finished by different types of feeding electrodes as a finishing operation. In the experiment, three types of electrodes are used with continuous direct current and axial electrode feed applied. The controlled factors include the chemical composition and concentration of the electrolyte, die material, initial gap width, and flow rate of electrolyte. The experimental parameters are current rating, feed rate of electrode, frequency and power level of ultrasonics, and electrode geometry. To feed gear-form electrodes, an electrode with one-side borer tip with a small base area yields the best polishing effect in the current investigation. For the design electrodes, a thin plate with small end radius and small wedge angle are associated with higher current density and provides larger discharge space and better polishing effect. The electrode with a spherical head performs the best. The higher current rating with ultrasonic assistance can avoid the difficulty of dreg discharge, thus reducing the finishing time. It is a great contribution that the ultrasonic-aided electrochemical finishing after gear machining needs a much shorter time than manual or machine polishing to make the surface of gears smooth and bright. An effective and low-cost finishing of the surface of castings is presented.

IPC Code: B23F19/00

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 14, June 2007, pp. 209-214

 

 

Performance testing of indigenously developed DC conduction pump
for sodium cooled fast reactor

B K Nashine, S K Dash, K Gurumurthy, U Kale, V D Sharma, R Prabhakar, M Rajan & G Vaidyanathan

 

Liquid sodium is a good electrical conductor and this property enables utilization of electro-magnetic (EM) pump for sodium service. Being non-intrusive EM pumps are well suited to sodium system as the chance of any sodium leak is minimized. However, EM pump utilization is restricted to auxiliary sodium circuit and centrifugal pumps are preferred for main circuits in view of their higher efficiency. DC conduction type EM pump is utilized for low flow and high temperature application. It comprises of stainless steel duct through which sodium passes and the magnetic field is produced by an electromagnet covering the duct. A DC conduction pump has been designed, built and tested for its performance in sodium before putting in the reactor. This paper presents the design approach and the performance vis-a-vis prediction.

IPC Code: H01F

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 14, June 2007, pp. 215-219

 

 

Elasto-plastic analysis of stress around square hole

 

Murat Yazici

 

An elasto-plastic theoretical analysis of stresses around a square perforated isotropic plate is studied. The boundary of the plastic stress field around the conformally mapped square holes is obtained by using Savin’s complex elastic equations. ANSYSâ Finite Element Code is used to find out numerical solutions. The elasto-plastic theoretical and FE solutions are compared for isotropic plates, with rounded corner square openings. Both solution results are in good agreement with each other.

IPC Code: B29C61/00

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 14, June 2007, pp. 220-234

 

 

Evaluation of Turkish seismic code for mass irregular buildings

 

Kamil Aydin

 

Several earthquake-prone countries including Turkey do not consider vertical mass discontinuity as a type of structural irregularity in their seismic codes. However, other earthquake prone countries clearly explain the mass irregularity and have limitations on the use of approximate methods to determine the earthquake forces developed in an irregular structure. The applicability of equivalent lateral force procedure of the Turkish earthquake code for mass irregular buildings is examined in this study. This is achieved by comparing the approximate results to those obtained by linear and non-linear time history analyses. 75 real and 100 simulated earthquake records are used in time history analyses. Two-dimensional 5, 10, and
20-story structures idealized as shear and frame buildings are studied. Mass irregularity is resulted from varying the mass of one floor and keeping the other story masses constant. Effect of altering the mass of different floors is also investigated. The comparison of the analysis results shows that the approximate method always overestimates the linear behaviour regardless of structure height, building rigidity and degree of mass irregularity. The method, however, underestimates the non-linear response of story columns. In light of the results obtained in this study, the inclusion of mass irregularity to the code appears appropriate.

IPC Code: G01V1/00

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 14, June 2007, pp. 235-239

 

 

Design and development of flame reactor unit for
carbon nanorods (CNRs) production

 

Vivek Dhand, J S Prasad, M Venkateswara Rao, K Naga Mahesh, L Anupama, V Himabindu
Y Anjaneyulu, V S Raju & A A Sukumar

 

 

A pilot scale flame reactor has been designed and developed successfully for producing carbon nanorods by using methane, acetylene as the source of carbon in the oxygen atmosphere under atmospheric conditions without catalyst. The present paper discuses the designing of the flame reactor and the studies carried out on the flame reactor for producing carbon nanorods using methane, acetylene and oxygen gas-system. The carbon nanorods produced using this reactor are in the range of 150-600 nm.

IPC Code: B82B

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 14, June 2007, pp. 240-252

 

Analysis of structural parameters of acid and alkali treated polyester fibers using SAXS and other techniques

S Bal & R C Behera

 

Analysis of structural parameters of normal and chemical (acid and alkali) treated polyester fibers has been done using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) technique. Average diameters have been calculated from scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs and mechanical parameters have been estimated using Instron. Further, crystallinity parameters of the same fibers have been determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal analysis. These results supplement the findings of SAXS, SEM and Instron. Comparison and analysis of results confirm some changes in the microstructure of fiber after chemical treatment due to readjustment of macromolecules. The findings conclude that degradation of fiber treated in strong acid is more prominent than other treated fibers. No specific changes are observed in case of sample treated in weak acid. Increase in crystalline parameters of fibers treated in weak alkali indicates cross-linking.

IPC Code:C08G

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 14, June 2007, pp. 253-256

 

 

Rutherford back scattering and optical band gap of In/Sb thin films

R K Mangal, Y K Vijay, D K Avasthi & B R Shekhar

 

Thin films having constant thickness of indium over varying thickness of antimony are deposited on glass substrates using vacuum evaporation method. Films are irradiated by Ag12+ heavy ions of energy 160 MeV at the fluence 2.2×1013 ions/cm2. The optical absorption spectra have been recorded at room temperature of as-deposited and Ag12+ ion beam irradiated samples which show mixing of In/Sb bilayer. Rutherford back scattering (RBS) spectra also carried out using α-particles of energy 3 MeV. The optical band gap data of irradiated films found in the range of In/Sb semiconductor. RBS spectra also support mixing of bilayer. These results show mixing of In/Sb bilayer by swift heavy ion beam irradiation processes.

IPC Code: H01C17/075         

 

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 14, June 2007, pp. 257-265

 

 

Chloride resisting concrete containing rice husk ash and bagasse ash

 

K Ganesan, K Rajagopal & K Thangavel

 

In this paper, the effects of rice husk ash (RHA) and bagasse ash (BA) as cement replacement materials on the chloride resisting properties, important to durability of concrete structures have been studied. RHA and BA have been used up to 30% replacement by weight of cement with fixed water to binder ratio of 0.55. The properties of concrete investigated include water absorption, permeability, sorptivity, resistance to chloride ion penetration in terms of total charge passed in coulombs and chloride diffusion coefficient. The compressive strength of concretes containing RHA and BA were also supplemented. The specimens incorporating RHA or BA, when exposed to chloride solution exhibit significantly lower charge passed value and lesser chloride diffusion for all cement replacement levels (CRL). Overall results indicate that RHA (25-30% CRL) and BA (15-20% CRL) blended concretes showed superior durability properties.

IPC Code: C04B18/24

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 14, June 2007, pp. 266-270

 

 

Strength prediction of silica fume concrete by accelerated warm-water
curing method

Cengiz Duran Atiş

 

In this paper, the results of a laboratory work predicting the compressive strength of silica fume (SF) concrete by accelerated warm-water curing method (WWM) have been presented. A parametric study has been carried out by producing a total of 48 concrete mixtures with three different cement dosages (350 kg/m3, 400 kg/m3, 450 kg/m3), four different water-cement ratios (0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6) and four SF replacement ratios with cement (0%, 10%, 15%, 20%) on mass basis. Control normal Portland cement (NPC) concrete and SF concrete are cured with accelerated WWM in accordance with ASTM and Turkish standards. The linear relations have been established between accelerated WWM compressive strength and 28-day compressive strength for NPC concrete and SF concrete, separately. Although, the inclusion of SF influences the parameter of prediction equation when compared to NPC concrete, the analyses of the results indicate that prediction of SF concrete compressive strength by accelerated warm-water curing is possible with correlation coefficient (R2) higher than 90%.

IPC Code: C04B14/04