Indian Journal of
Engineering & Materials Sciences

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VOLUME 15
CODEN : IEMSEW

NUMBER 6

DECEMBER 2008
ISSN : 0971-4588

 

CONTENTS

 

Engineering

 

Order reduction using the advantages of differentiation method and factor division

447

            algorithm

 

            C B Vishwakarma & R Prasad

 

 

 

Effect of fibre orientation on stress concentration factor in a laminate with central

452

            circular hole under transverse static loading

 

            N D Mittal & N K Jain

 

 

 

Computations of flow field over Apollo and OREX reentry modules at high speed

459

            R C Mehta

 

 

 

Experimental investigation of tensile behaviour of high strength concrete

467

            Selim Pul

 

 

 

A novel quick response charge pump phase locked loop

473

            B De & B C Sarkar

 

 

 

Materials Science

 

 

 

Effect of environment on the mechanical properties of fly ash-jute-polymer composite

483

            S K Acharya, P Mishra & S C Mishra

 

 

 

Optical, electrical and structural studies of nickel-cobalt oxide nanoparticles

489

            Nisha J Tharayil, R Raveendran, Alexander Varghese Vaidyan & P G Chithra

 

 

 

Thermal, spectroscopic and electrical transport properties of processable

497

            poly(aniline-co-alkylaniline) copolymers

 

            Parveen Saini, Hema Bhandari, Veena Choudhary & S K Dhawan

 

 

 

A simple way to predict electric spark sensitivity of nitramines

505

            M H Keshavarz, H R Pouretedal & A Semnani

 

 

 

Acknowledgement to Reviewers

511

 

 

Annual Index

 

 

 

Subject Index

515

 

 

Author Index

521

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 15, December 2008, pp. 447-451

 

 

Order reduction using the advantages of differentiation method and
factor division algorithm

 

C B Vishwakarm  & R Prasad

 

The authors present a combined method for order reduction of linear dynamic high order systems using the advantages of the differentiation method and factor division algorithm. The denominator of the reduced order model is obtained by the differentiation method and the numerator coefficients of the reduced order model are determined by the factor division algorithm. The reduction procedure is simple and efficient. The proposed algorithm has been extended for the order reduction of linear stable multivariable system. Two numerical examples are solved to illustrate the proposed combined method and integral square error is calculated between original and reduced order models using MATLAB software.

Keywords: Model, Order reduction, Differentiation Method, Factor Division Algorithm, Stability

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 15, December 2008, pp. 452-458

 

 

Effect of fibre orientation on stress concentration factor in a laminate with central circular hole under transverse static loading

N D Mittal  & N K Jain

 

The effect of fibre orientation (θ) on stress concentration factor (SCF) in a rectangular composite laminate with central circular hole under transverse static loading has been studied by using finite element method. The percent variations in deflection with fibre orientation are also compared with deflection in laminate without hole. Studies are carried out for three D/A ratios (where D is hole diameter and A is plate width). The results are obtained for four different boundary conditions. Three different types of materials are used for whole analysis to find the sensitivity of stress concentration with elastic constants. A finite element study is made for whole analysis of laminate with a central hole under transverse static loading.

Keywords: Finite element method, Stress concentration factor, Composite, Laminate, material properties, Fibre orientation,
                    Transverse loading

 

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 15, December 2008, pp. 459-466

 

 

 

Computations of flow field over Apollo and OREX reentry modules at high speed

R C Mehta

 

The paper describes a numerical simulation of the viscous flow past the Apollo and the OREX (Orbital Reentry EXperiments) configurations for freestream Mach numbers range of 1.2-5.0. The flow fields over the reentry module are obtained by solving time-dependent, axisymmetric, compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The fluid mechanics equations are discretized in spatial coordinate employing a finite volume method, which reduces the governing equations to semi-discretized ordinary differential equations. Temporal integration is carried out using a two-stage Runge-Kutta time-stepping scheme. A local time-stepping is used to obtain the steady state solution. The numerical simulation is done on a single-blocked structured grid. The flow field features around the reentry capsules such as bow shock wave, sonic line, expansion fan and recirculating flow in the base-shell region are well captured by the present numerical computation. A low pressure is observed immediately downstream of the base which is characterized by a low-speed recirculating flow region, which can be attributed to fill-up in the growing space between the shock wave and the reentry module. The effects of the module geometrical parameters, such as radius of the spherical cap radius, shoulder radius, cone angle and back shell inclination angle on the flow field, which will provide a useful input for the optimization of the reentry module.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 15 December 2008, pp. 467-472

 

 

 

Experimental investigation of tensile behaviour of high strength concrete

 

Selim Pul

 

In the design of structures, it is necessary to know about the tensile strength as well as the compressive strength and durability, which are considered to be the most important properties of concrete. In this study, 44-81 MPa high strength concretes are produced. The uniaxial tensile, split tensile and flexural tensile tests are conducted and the relationships between the respective tensile strengths are investigated.

Keywords:   High strength concrete, Uniaxial tensile strength, Splitting tensile strength, Flexural tensile strength, Compressive strength.

 

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 15 December 2008, pp. 473-482

 

 

A novel quick response charge pump phase locked loop

 

B De  & B C Sarkar

 

In this paper a new modification algorithm has been proposed to improve the transient response of the conventional second order CP-PLL system. The performances of the proposed system have been examined by solving the system equations numerically. Some analytical results are incorporated to confirm the performance enhancement of the conventional system by this proposed modified algorithm. Theoretical stability and overload limit are determined. Tracking and noise performances of the modified CP-PLL in the face of noisy input signal are also presented.

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 15, December 2008, pp 483-488

 

 

 

Effect of environment on the mechanical properties of
fly ash-jute-polymer composite

S K Acharya, P Mishra & S C Mishra

 

 

The present investigation is aimed at processing a composite using fly ash, jute with epoxy (binder) and to study its weathering behaviour on mechanical properties such as flexural strength. The fracture surfaces of the specimen are examined under scanning electron microscope. From the study, it appears that fiber pullout is the predominant mode of failure. The cracking of the fiber structure is avoided due to adherence of fly ash particles which indicates the increase in strength of interfacial bonding. It can be concluded that this composite can be successfully used as a structural material in household and automobile application and as a low cost building material.

Keyword: Fly ash, Epoxy, Reinforcement, Environment, Flexural strength

 

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 15, December 2008, pp. 489-496

 

 

Optical, electrical and structural studies of nickel-cobalt oxide nanoparticles

 

Nisha J Tharayil, R Raveendran, Alexander Varghese Vaidyan & P G Chithra

 

 

Nanoparticles of nickel-cobalt oxide are prepared by chemical co-precipitation method. The particle size is determined from X-ray diffraction studies and TEM image. The surface morphology is revealed by SEM image. The effect of sintering on the particle size is analyzed. The FTIR studies have been used to confirm the formation of metal oxide. The characteristic stretching and bending frequencies of the sample is analyzed. The absorption spectra of the material in the UV-Vis–NIR range are recorded. An absorption band is observed to occur at 350 nm and another one around 650 nm. From the analysis of absorption spectra, the nickel-cobalt oxide (sintered at 500°C, 700°C and 900°C) are found to have direct band gaps ranging from 1.827 to 1.61 eV. Electrons are highly localized in nanoparticles and interaction between these localized states give rise to the observed band gap. The effect of temperature and frequency on the dielectric behaviour and ac electrical conductivity have been studied for nanosized samples of nickel cobalt spinel oxide prepared by chemical co-precipitation method. The dielectric permittivity of nanosized nickel cobalt spinel oxide sample is evaluated from the observed capacitance values in the frequency range 100 kHz-5 MHz and in the temperature range of 300-403 K. It is seen that with decreasing frequency, the dielectric constant increases much more obviously than that of conventional materials. As the temperature increases more and more dipoles are oriented resulting in an increase in the values of dipole moment. Space charge polarization and rotation direction polarization play a crucial role in the dielectric behaviour of this nanosized material. Further from the permittivity studies ac conductivity is evaluated.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Arrested precipitation, Calcination temperature, Fourier transform infrared spectrum, Absorption spectra, Optical band gap, AC conductivity, Dielectric permittivity

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 15, December 2008, pp. 497-504

 

 

Thermal, spectroscopic and electrical transport properties of processable poly(aniline-co-alkylaniline) copolymers

Parveen Saini, Hema Bhandari, Veena Choudhary & S K Dhawan

 

 

Aniline has been copolymerized in the presence of substituted anilines as comonomers to prepare conducting copolymers of poly(aniline-co-alkylaniline) type, via the chemical oxidative polymerization route. Their thermal stabilities and conductivities are slightly less than pure polyaniline but processabilities have been improved significantly. These copolymers exhibit improved solubility in organic solvents like 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), dimethyl sulpohxide (DMSO), and dimethyl formamide (DMF). Conduction mechanism has been found to be 3-D VRH in case of pure HCl-doped polyaniline and 1-D VRH for copolymers. Coating of these polymers on insulating surfaces can be used for ESD protection and corrosion prevention of iron and mild steel under hostile conditions.

Keywords: Polyaniline, Copolymers, Variable range hopping (VRH), Poly(aniline-co-isopropyl aniline), Poly (aniline-co-2-secbutyl aniline), Conductivity, TGA, FTIR, XRD.

 

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 15, December 2008, pp. 505-509

 

 

A simple way to predict electric spark sensitivity of nitramines

M H Keshavarz, H R Pouretedal & A Semnani

 

 

This work presents a new simple method for predicting electric spark sensitivity of nitramine energetic compounds. This method is based on the calculated detonation velocity at maximum nominal density (theoretical maximum density) and then corrected for some nitramines which have some specific molecular structure. The predicted electric spark sensitivity by new method are compared with calculated results on the basis of quantum mechanical computations for 17 nitramines so that the root mean square (rms) deviations from experiment for new and complicated quantum mechanical methods are 1.23 and 4.02 J, respectively. The new model is also used for two new nitamine explosives TNAZ [1,3,3-trinitroazatidine] and TEX [4,10-dinitro-2,6,8,10-tetraoxa-4,10-diazaisowurtzitane] in which predicted results are close to measured values.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences

Vol. 15 December 2008, pp. 511-514

 

 

Acknowledgement to Reviewers

 

 

The Publisher and the Editor of Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences gratefully acknowledge the honorary services rendered by the following experts in reviewing the papers during 2008.

 

 


Agarwal S K

CBRI, Roorkee, India

 

Ahmadi Goodarz

Clarkson Univ, USA

 

Airey G D

Univ Nottingham,U K

 

Amirkhania Serji N

Clemson Univ, USA

 

Arif Mohammed

AMU, Aligarh, India

 

Atis Cengiz Duran

Erciyes Univ, Turkey

 

Bajpai P K

G G Univ, Bilaspur, India

 

Banerjee P

IIT, Kharagpur, India

 

Banerjee S

IIT, Kharagpur, India

 

Banys Juras

Univ Tech, Vilinius, Lithuania

 

Barluenga G

Univ Alcala, Madrid, Spain

 

Bauhofer W

Tech Univ Hamburg, Germany

 

Bazant Zdenek

NWETI, Evanston, USA

 

Bellare Jayesh

IIT, Bombay, India

 

Benini Ernesto

Univ Padava, Italy

 

Bentz D P

NIST, USA

 

Bhosale C H

Shivaji Univ, Kolhapur, India

 

Boncia P

Terra Univ, Italy

 

Ceccarelli Marco

Univ Cassino, Italy

 

Chakkingal Uday

IIT, Chennai, India

 

Chang Ta-Peng

Nat Taiwan Univ S & T, Taipei, Taiwan

 

Chaparro Antonio M

CIEMAT, Madrid, Spain

 

Chatterjee R

IIT, New Delhi, India

 

Chaudhary R N P

IIT, Kharagpur, India

 

Chen Y

Australian Nat Univ, Australia 

 

Civalek O

Akdeniz Univ, Antalya, Turkey

 

Danieli G A

Univ Calabria, Italy

 

Davidson M Joseph

NIT, Warangal, India

 

Davim J Paulo

Univ Aveiro, Portugal

 

Dean T A

Univ Birmingham, UK

 

Dotcheva Marina

Univ Wale Inst, Cardiff, U K

 

Dwivedi D K

IIT, Roorkee, India

 

Ellyin F

Univ Alberta, Canada

 

Fei Sheng-Wei

Nanjing Univ S & T, China

 

Franco P

Univ Polytech Cartagena, Spain

 

Fu Song

Wayne State Univ, USA

 

Gabrovsek Roman

Nat Inst Chem, Hajdrihova, Slovenia

 

Galvan Maria Consuelo Alvarez

CSIC, Madrid, Spain

 

Gandhi O P

IIT, New Delhi, India

 

Ganesan V

 IGCAR, Kalpakkam, India

 

Gao Feng

NWPU, Xian, China

 

Ghosh Siddhartha

IIT, Mumbai, India

 

Gift S J G

Univ West Indies, Trinided, WI

 

 

Gorninski J P

Univ Rio, UNISINOS, Brazil

 

Gupta N

Polytech Univ, NY, USA

 

Hossain K M A

Ryerson Univ, Toranto, Canada

 

Hu Zhenglong

Huwei Univ, Wuhan, China

 

Huang Shin-Che

Univ Wyoming, Laramie, USA

 

Husain Zahir

RMIT Univ, Australia

 

Iqbal N

Delft Univ Technol, Netherland

 

Ishikawa Y C

Kyoto Inst Tech, Japan

 

Islam Mazharul

Winsor Univ, Canada

 

Iyer Nagesh R

SERC, Chennai, India

 

Jaafar M S

Univ Putra, Malaysia

 

Jagadeesh H S

BMS College Eng, Bangalore, India

 

Jain Jayesh

IIT, New Delhi, India

 

Jain Sanjeev

IIT, New Delhi, India

 

Jain V K

IIT, Kanpur, India

 

 

James Raju K C

Univ, Hyderabad, India

 

Jarali Chetan S

NAL, Bangalore, India

 

Jha R

NIT, Jalandhar, India

 

Kang J H

Valeo Electrical System, Kyongju, Korea

 

Katiyar R S

Univ Puerto Rico, USA

 

Keller Thomas

Swiss Fed Inst Tech,Lausanne, Switzerland

 

Kim Chun-Go

KAIST, Taejon, Korea

 

Kim G B

DFC, Seoul, Korea

 

Kim Heung Soo

Inha Univ, Korea

 

Kisi Ozgur

Erciyes Univ, Turkey

 

Kotnala R K

NPL, New Delhi, India

 

Kowandy C

Univ Tech Compiegne, France

 

Kumar D

DCE, Delhi, India

 

Kus Hulya

Univ Gavle, Sweden

 

Lai Xin Min

Shanghai Jiao Univ, China

 

Lakshmisha K N

IISc, Bengalore, India

 

Le Khoa N

Griffith Univ, QLD, Australia

 

Lee E S

Kansas State Univ, USA

 

Lee Liang-The

Tatung Univ, Taipei, Taiwan

 

Lee Tzen-Chin

Nat United Univ, Taiwan

 

Lee Yen Jung

Nat Chiao Tung Univ, Taiwan

 

Li Liang

NUAA, Nanjing, China

 

Lin Shou-Sheu

Nat Kaohsiung First Univ S & T, Taiwan

 

Lingling Xu

Nanjing Univ, PRC

 

Liu Day Shan

Nat Formosa Univ, Taiwan

 

Liu Xingbo

West Virginia Univ, USA

 

Liu Xiu-Bo

Zhongyaun Inst Tech, China

 

Liu Yong

Beijing Univ Chem Tech, China

 

Lu Xiaohu

Nynas Bitumen, Sweden

 

Lu Yi

Yanshan Univ, Hebei, China

 

Lu Yun

Nanjing Univ, China

 

Lumeau Julien

Univ Central Florida, USA

 

Ma Z Y

IMR, CAS, Shengang, China

 

Mahapatra K P Sinha

IIT, Kharagpur, India

 

Maitra S

WB Univ Tech, Kolkatta

 

Mann A S

M D Univ, Rohtak, India

 

Martin-Martinez J Ml

Univ Alicante, Spain

 

Masood S H

Swinburne Univ, Australlia

 

Mathews Vincent

S T College, Palai, India

 

Mayaram Kartikeya

Oregon State Univ, USA

 

McCarthy M J

Univ Dundee, UK

 

Mehta Rajeev

TIET, Patiala, India

 

Messina M

Univ Catania, Italy

 

Mirza J

Res Inst Hydro, Quebec, Canada

 

Mishra P C

Loughborough Univ, UK

 

 

Mohanta D K

BIT, Mesara, India

 

Mukherjee C

CAT, Indore, India

 

Murali K R

CECRI, Karaikudi,  India

 

Murthy V R K

IIT, Chennai, India

 

Nagar S K

BHU, Varanasi, India

 

Narayanasamy R

NIT, Tiruchirappalli, India

 

Oehring Michael

GKSS Res Ctr, Germany

 

Oh Je Hoon

Nanyang Univ, Korea

 

OJha S N

IT, BHU, Varanasi, India

 

Ozyurt Nilufer,

Istanbul Tech Univ, Turkey

 

Pal A K

Jadavpur Univ, Kolkata

 

Pandey Pulak M

HBTI, Kanpur, India

 

Paradkar Archana

DMRL, Hyderabad, India

 

Patel Nirmal

Univ North Florida, USA

 

Pei Z J

Kansas State Univ, USA

 

Piquet H

Laplace Univ, France

 

Ponnambalam V

Clemson Univ, USA

 

Prakash Chandra

SSPL, New Delhi, India

 

Prasad N Eswara

DMRL,Hyderabad,India

 

Prasad S

Patna Univ, Patna, India

 

Rafiuddin

AMU, Aligarh, India

 

Rahman M

NUS, Singapore

 

Raina K K

TIET, Patiala, India

 

Rajamane N P

SERC, Chennai, India

 

Rajarajan A K

BARC, Mumbai, India

 

Ram S

IIT, Kharagpur, India

 

Ramamurthy K

IIT, Chennai, India

 

Ramesh K P

IISc, Bangalore, India

 

Rao K Sambasiva

Osmania Univ, Hyderabad, India

 

Ravi Shankar B

NIT, Tiruchirappalli, India

 

Rodopoulos C A

Sheffield Hallam Univ, UK

 

Rothberg S J

Loughborough Univ, Leicestershire,

UK

 

Rubio J Campos

Federal Univ Minas, Brazil

 

Sahoo N K

BARC, Mumbai, India

 

Saraswathy Velu

Yonsei Univ, Korea

 

Sasikala G

IGCAR, Kalpakkam, India

 

Schubert Andreas

Fraunhofer IWU, Germany

 

Seshadri V

IIT, New Delhi, India

 

Sharma I B

Jammu Univ, Jammu, India

 

Sharma Seema

M U, Patna, India

 

Sheeba V S

NIT, Calicut, India

 

Shokrollahi H

Shiraz Univ, Iran

 

Siddaramaiah

S J College Eng, Mysore,

India

 

Sikder A K

HEMRL, Pune, India

 

Singh I

IIT, Roorkee, India

 

Singh Parmanand

IIT, Chennai, India

 

Sinha Mahapatra K P

IIT, Kharagpur, India

 

Sivakumar Manickam

NIAIST, Nagoya, Japan

 

Slatineanu Laurentiu

Tech Univ “Gh.Asachi” Lasi, Romania

 

Song Li

Xiang Univ, Xiang, China

 

Srinivas V

IIT, Kharagpur, India

 

Srivastava V C

NML, Jamshedpur, India

 

Steglich Dirk

GKSS Res Ctr, Germany

 

Su R K L

Univ Hong Kong, Hong Kong

 

Subrahmaniam V

IIT, Chennai, India

 

Tan Xiao.Yao

Shandong Univ Tech, Zibo, China

 

Tang Cheng Chun

NIMS, Ibaraki, Japan

 

Teng X

MIT, Cambridge, USA

 

Thachil E T

CUSAT, Kochi, India

 

Thakur A K

IIT, Kharagpur, India

 

Thakur Sanjay Kumar

DASSPL, Singapore

 

Theethayi Nelson

Uppsala Univ, Sweden

 

Thiemig Denny

Tech Univ Dresden, Germany

 

Tmoko Iswandaru Widya

Scott Wilson, UK

 

Tormos B

Univ Politec Valencia, Spain

 

Tsimas S

Nat Tech Univ Athens, Greece

 

Veeraiah N

Acharya Nagarjuna Univ, Nuzvid,

India

 

Veeraragavan A

IIT, Madras, India

 

Vikan Hedda

Norway

 

Wang Hao

Beijing Univ Tech, Beijing, China

 

Wanger H E

Univ Greifswald, Germany

 

Wong Wing-Gun

H K Polytech Univ, Hong Kong

 

Wong Wing-Gun

Hong Kong Polytech Univ, China

 

Wu Pu-Wei

Shandong Univ Tech,Zibo, China

 

Wu Ying

Norwegian Univ S & T, Norway

 

Xiang Ping Huo

NIAIST, Nagoya, Japan

 

Xiong G J

Shantou Univ, Guangdong, China

 

Xu Jiuhua

NUAA, Nanjing, China

 

Xue Piang

SINOTECH, Taiwan

 

Yadav K L

IIT, Roorkee, India

 

Yan Dongming

Dalian Univ Tech, China

 

Yang Beifang F

Univ Sci & Tech China, Hefei, China

 

Yang Chieng-Hsing

Nat Univ Kaohsiung, Taiwan

 

Yang Tian- Zu

Central South Univ, Changsa, China

 

 

Yazici Halit

Dokuz Eylul Univ, Turkey

 

Ye Jun

College Arts& Sci, Zhejiang, China

 

Ye Qunshan

Wuhan Univ Tech, China

 

Yeh C L

Da-Yeh Univ, Changhua, Taiwan

 

Zain M F M

Univ Kebangsaan, Malaysia

 

Zeman Svatopluk

Univ Pardubice, Czech Republic

 

Zhai Jianping

Nanjing Univ, China

 

Zhang Daming

Nanyan Tech Univ, Singapore

 

Zhang Julie Z

Univ North Lowa, USA

 

Zhang Yi-He

Tech Inst Phys & Chem, CAS, China

 

Zoltowski Mariusz

Poland