Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

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VOLUME 35

NUMBER 1

MARCH 2010

CODEN: IJFRET

 

ISSN: 0971-0426 (Print); 0975-1025 (Online)

 

CONTENTS 


Plasma induced graft polymerization of acrylic acid onto poly(ethylene terephthalate) monofilament

      Bhuvanesh Gupta, Ankita Srivastava, Navdeep Grover & Shalini Saxena

 

9

Studies on fibre openness using image analysis technique

      Dipayan Das, S M Ishtiaque & Pankaj Mishra

 

15

Effect of spinning conditions on mechanical and performance characteristics of cotton ring- and

compact-spun yarns

      G K Tyagi, Manik Bhowmick, S Bhattacharyya & R Kumar

 

21

Study on physiological comfort of fabrics made up of structurally modified friction-spun yarns:

PartI – Vapour transmission

      K V P Singh, A Chatterjee & A Das

 

31

Thermal insulation, compression and air permeability of polyester needle-punched nonwoven

      Sanjoy Debnath & M Madhusoothanan

 

38

Study of cotton ring- and compact-spun yarn fabrics: Part I –Effects of spinning variables on

hand-related characteristics

      G K Tyagi, S Bhattacharyya, M Bhowmick & R Narang

 

45

antibacterial finish for cotton fabric from herbal products

      M P Sathianarayanan, N V Bhat, S S Kokate & V E Walunj

 

50

Synthesis of spray dried polyvinyl pyrrolidone coated silver nanopowder and its application on wool

and cotton for microbial resistance

      A S M Raja, G Thilagavathi & T Kannaian

59

 

 

Short Communications

 

Design of sewing thread tension measuring device

      A N Sai Krishnan & L Ashok Kumar

 

65

Effect of silicone nano-emulsion softener on physical properties of cotton fabric

      D P Chattopadhyay & D D Vyas

68

 

 

A novel method for scouring textile cotton

      Meena Sharma & R P Nachane

 

72

Review Articles

 

Soft computing in textiles

      R Guruprasad & B K Behera

 

75

Recent innovations in loom shedding mechanisms

      N Gokarneshan, N Jegadeesan & P Dhanapal

85

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 35, March 2010, pp. 9-14

 

Plasma induced graft polymerization of acrylic acid onto poly(ethylene terephthalate) monofilament

Bhuvanesh Gupta, Ankita Srivastava, Navdeep Grover & Shalini Saxena

Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110 016, India

Received 9 February 2009; revised received and accepted 28 July 2009

The graft polymerization of acrylic acid has been carried out on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) monofilament to introduce carboxylic acid groups. The filament is treated with oxygen plasma for the introduction of peroxides and subsequently grafted with acrylic acid. The influence of monomer concentration, plasma exposure time and reaction temperature on the degree of grafting has been investigated. The grafted filament is subsequently immobilized with chitosan. ATR-FTIR confirms the immobilization of chitosan. The contact angle decreases from 72° for virgin PET to 38° for 180s plasma exposured sample, 42° for the grafted and 36° for the chitosan immobilized sample which shows significant improvement in the wettability. The surface topography of filaments is characterized by atomic force microscopy.

Keywords: Acrylic acid, Graft polymerization, Plasma, Poly(ethylene terephthalate)

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 35, March 2010, pp. 15-20

 

Studies on fibre openness using image analysis technique

Dipayan Das, S M Ishtiaque & Pankaj Mishra

Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110 016, India

Received 23 June 2009; accepted 24 July 2009

A newly developed methodology based on image analysis technique has been used to measure fibre openness and the results are compared with those of the traditional method of measurement of fibre openness. The role of different opening process parameters in deciding the openness of fibres has been examined and the effect of fibre openness on the quality of fibres, slivers and yarns discussed. The openness of fibres obtained by image analysis technique is found to be much higher than that obtained by beaker test method. It is found that the higher speed of opening rollers and higher angle of grid bars improve fibre openness appreciably, but with little deterioration in fibre quality. The higher fibre openness ultimately results into more regular and less imperfect yarn. With the increase in fibre openness, yarn strength and yarn breaking elongation increase initially and then decrease. Yarn hairiness remains almost unchanged with the increase in fibre openness.

Keywords: Fibre openness, Image analysis technique, Sliver, Yarn

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 35, March 2010, pp. 21-30

 

Effect of spinning conditions on mechanical and performance characteristics of cotton ring- and compact-spun yarns

G K Tyagi, Manik Bhowmick, S Bhattacharyya & R Kumar

The Technological Institute of Textile & Sciences, Bhiwani 127 021, India

Received 1 May 2009; accepted 15 June 2009

The effect of spinning conditions on the structural, mechanical and low -stress response of cotton ring- and compact-spun yarns has been studied. Spinning conditions include spinning draft, twist factor, yarn tex and spindle speed. Generally, the compact- spun yarns display higher mean migration intensity and lower values of mean fibre position, helix angle and helix diameter. It is also observed that the yarn structures produced under various spinning conditions yield different performance characteristics and the differences are quite meaningful; however, using appropriate twist factor and varying spindle speed, one can successfully spun yarns with less hairiness, better abrasion resistance, and quite sufficient structural integrity and compressional energy. An optimal spinning draft is required if the optimum level of structural integrity, compressional energy, compressional resilience and abrasion resistance of a yarn needs to be achieved for a specific end-use. The behaviour of compact-spun yarns is noticeably better in respect of tensile strength, work of rupture, abrasion resistance, hairiness and mass irregularity.

Keywords: Abrasion resistance, Compressional energy, Compact-spun yarn, Cotton, Ring-spun yarn, Structural integrity


Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 35, March 2010, pp. 31-37

 

Study on physiological comfort of fabrics made up of structurally modified friction-spun yarns: Part I – Vapour transmission

K V P Singh & A Chatterjee

Department of Textile Technology, National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar 144 011, India
and
A Das

Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110 016, India

Received 3 January 2009; revised received and accepted 5 March 2009

The effect of sheath fibre proportion, fibre fineness, and yarn fineness on physiological comfort related properties such as air permeability, water vapour permeability and thermal conductivity of Dref-III friction-spun yarn fabrics has been studied with an objective to analyse the feasibility of modified yarns for apparel end use. Samples have been prepared using polyester filament fibre as core, viscose staple fibre as secondary core and water soluble polyvinyl alcohol as sheath. It is observed that the structural modification of yarn influences the comfort related properties, effecting the vapour transmission behavior.

Keywords: Air permeability, Friction-spun yarn, Thermal conductivity, Vapour transmission, Water vapour permeability

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol.35, March 2010, pp 38-44

 

Thermal insulation, compression and air permeability of polyester needle-punched nonwoven

Sanjoy Debnath

National Institute of Research on Jute & Allied Fibre Technology, 12 Regent Park, Kolkata 700 040, India

and

M Madhusoothanan

Department of Textile Technology, Anna University, Chennai 600 025, India

Received 12 February 2009; revised received and accepted 11 May 2009

The normal round, circular hollow and trilobal cross-sectional shaped polyester fibres have been used to prepare needle-punched nonwoven fabrics for technical textile application. Effects of fabric weight and fibre cross-sectional shapes on thermal insulation value (TIV), fabric thickness, density, percentage compression, air permeability and sectional air permeability (SAP) have been studied. Comparison between Marsh and plate methods of TIV measurement has also been studied along with the inter-relation and grouping of parameters using correlation matrix and cluster analysis approach respectively. The TIV, thickness, density, air permeability and SAP fall under different sub-cluster but all these parameters are dependent on fabric weight. Plate method of TIV measurement is preferred over Marsh TIV measurement because of the easy preparation of samples and the reason that the samples retain their original properties and it gives more accurate results. Trilobal fabric sample shows highest TIV, thickness and percentage compression followed by regular and hollow polyester needle-punched fabrics. Thermal insulation value, thickness and density of the fabric increase but percentage compression, air permeability and SAP decrease with the increase in fabric weight. The fabric thickness is significantly correlated with fabric weight and TIV. Fabric weight versus air permeability and fabric density versus SAP are negatively correlated with significant correlation coefficient.

Keywords: Air permeability, Cluster analysis, Compression, Cotton, Fibre cross-sectional shape, Needle-punched nonwoven, Polyester fibre, Thermal insulation value

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol.35, March 2010, pp 45-49

 

Study of cotton ring-and compact-spun yarn fabrics: Part I –Effects of spinning variables on hand-related characteristics

G K Tyagi, S Bhattacharyya, M Bhowmick & R Narang

The Technological Institute of Textile & Sciences, Bhiwani 127 021, India

Received 25 March 2009; revised received and accepted 27 August 2009

The importance of yarn structural variants such as spinning draft, twist factor, yarn structure, and spindle speed in deciding the hand-related characteristics of woven cotton fabrics has been investigated using FAST evaluation system. The data indicate that the processing differences of each yarn type confer different extensibility, bending rigidity and shear rigidity values, and the differences in the yarn structure affect the fabric formability and other low deformation characteristics. Effects obtained by changing twist factor and spinning draft are found to be significant; however, by using an optimum spinning draft and varying twist factor, one can successfully produce fabrics with low rigidities and quite sufficient extensibility and formability. The spindle speed does not seem to affect the coercive shear rigidity in either ring- or compact-spun yarn fabrics. The handle response of fabrics woven with compact-spun yarns is quite satisfactory in many respects.

Keywords: Compact - spun yarn, Extensibility, Formability, Ring-spun yarn, Shear rigidity

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 35, March 2010, pp. 50-58

 

Antibacterial finish for cotton fabric from herbal products

M P Sathianarayanan, N V Bhat, S S Kokate & V E Walunj

The Bombay Textile Research Association, L.B.S. Marg, Ghatkopar (West), Mumbai 400 086, India

Received 23 March 2009; accepted 14 July 2009

An ecofriendly natural antibacterial finish has been prepared from the plant extracts for textile application. Herbal extracts from Ocimum sanctum (tulsi leaf) and rind of Punica granatum (pomegranate) have been applied to cotton fabric by the method of direct application, micro-encapsulation, resin cross-linking and their combinations. All the treatments show good antibacterial properties for the fabrics. Except the method of direct application, all other treatments show good washing durability up to 15 washes. The surface morphological studies using SEM show the surface coating, microcapsules and some fibrillation. The GC-MS studies reveal that the major components responsible for the antibacterial properties are Eugenol, Germacrene and Phytol. A small decrease in tensile strength and crease recovery angle is observed for resin treated and micro-encapsulated fabrics respectively. But in the combined processes no significant changes are observed.

Keywords: Antibacterial, Cross-linking, Eugenol, Micro-encapsulation, Pomegranate, Phytol, Tulsi

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 35, March 2010, pp. 59-64

 

Synthesis of spray dried polyvinyl pyrrolidone coated silver nanopowder and its application on wool and cotton for microbial resistance

A S M Raja & G Thilagavathi

Department of Textile Technology, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore 641 004, India

and

T Kannaian

Department of Electronics, PSG College of Arts & Science, Coimbatore 641 014, India

Received 9 January 2009; revised received and accepted 28 May 2009

Silver nanoparticle - polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) composite containing 100 ppm of silver has been synthesized in powder form for textile applications, using sono-chemical method comprising sonication and reduction with trisodium citrate followed by spray drying. The synthesized PVP coated silver nanopowder is then characterized by UV-Visible spectra, atomic absorption spectra, transmission electron microscope and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays. The results indicate the presence of silver particle of the size 50-60 nm in the synthesized powder. The silver nanopowder has been applied on cotton and wool to impart antimicrobial efficacy by exhaustion method. The treated cotton fabric shows a clear microbial resistance with 35-40 mm zone of inhibition in the agar diffusion test against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The treated wool fabric shows 100%, 97% and 99% antimicrobial efficacy in the quantitative AATCC 100 test against the above-mentioned microorganisms respectively.

Keywords: Antimicrobial finish, Cotton, Polyvinyl pyrrolidone, Silver nanoparticle, Sonication, Spray drying, Wool

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 35, March 2010, pp. 65-67

 

Design of sewing thread tension measuring device

A N Sai Krishnan

Department of Apparel Technology, PSG Polytechnic College, Coimbatore 641 004, India

and

L Ashok Kumar

Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore 641 004 India

Received 1 July 2009; revised received and accepted 18 August 2009

A sewing thread tension measuring device has been developed and incorporated in the high speed lock stitch sewing machine. The construction of woven and knitted fabrics has tremendous influence on needle thread tension. It is observed that the fabric yield and thickness show high correlation with needle thread tension and less correlation with thread ticket number.

Keywords:   Load cell, Microcontroller, Polyester, Seam puckering, Sewing thread tension

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 35, March 2010, pp. 68-71

 

Effect of silicone nano-emulsion softener on physical properties of cotton fabric

D P Chattopadhyay & D D Vyas

Department of Textile Chemistry, Faculty of Technology &
Engineering, The M S University of Baroda,
Vadodara 390 001, India

Received 15 April 2009; revised received and accepted 8 July 2009

The effect of silicone nano-emulsion softener against silicone conventional emulsion softener on the physical properties of cotton fabric has been studied. It is observed that the nano-emulsion softener improves the feel, softness and crease recovery to a higher extent compared to the conventional emulsion softener. However, the nano form of emulsion causes higher loss in strength with increased elongation-at-break. The water absorbency of nano-emulsion treated fabric is found to be poorer than that of the conventional emulsion.

Keywords: Bending length, Cotton, Conventional emulsion, Crease recovery angle, Nano emulsion, Silicone


Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 35, March 2010, pp. 72-74

 

A novel method for scouring textile cotton

Meena Sharma & R P Nachane

Central Institute for Research on Cotton Technology, Matunga, Mumbai 400 019, India

Received 1 January 2009; revised received and  accepted 15 July 2009

A simple novel method has been developed for scouring different varieties of cotton fibres and fabrics using non-ionic surfactant and the results are compared with those of the conventional method. It is observed that the novel method does not affect the 2.5% span length, micronaire and tenacity of the cotton. However, the uniformity ratio is found to decrease on treatment. Sinking time for the treated cotton remains within the standard limits, thus making it suitable as absorbent. On comparing with conventional method, it is found that the dye uptake, and colour fastness to washing and perspiration of cotton fabrics treated with the new method are equal to or better than those of the fabrics treated with conventional method. The new method is not only simple to operate but also ecofriendly and economic.

Keywords: Colour fastness, Cotton, Dye uptake, Non-ionic surfactant, Scouring, Tenacity

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 35, March 2010, pp. 75-84

 

Soft computing in textiles

R Guruprasad & B K Behera

Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi 110 016, India

Received 9 March 2009; revised received and accepted 30 July 2009

This paper reviews the application of principal soft computing techniques for the study of textile processes and products. Soft computing suggests a new computing methodology that is both flexible and easy. Three major branches of soft computing, namely fuzzy logic, neural networks, and genetic algorithms, are discussed in detail with respect to their applications in solving variety of textile problems ranging from fibre classification, color grading, yarn and fabric property prediction, to the optimization of products and processes and even to search for a pleasing garment design. These tools of soft computing are complementary rather than competitive. Number of prediction models of ‘hybrid type’ are being developed combining the merits of each of these techniques. These hybrid models will help in establishing a prediction system that is more intelligent and effective in problem solving.

Keywords: Fuzzy logic, Genetic algorithm, Hybrid modelling, Neural networks, Soft computing

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 35, March 2010, pp. 85-94

 

Recent innovations in loom shedding mechanisms

N Gokarneshan, N Jegadeesan & P Dhanapal

Department of Textile Technology, Kumaraguru College of Technology, Coimbatore 641 006, India

Received 1 September 2008; revised received and accepted 9 July 2009

The critical analysis of the recent research developments in the loom shedding mechanisms has been reported. The use of angle shedding disks without dynamic warp loading in multi-phase weaving machines enables to weave higher pick densities and difficult varieties of fabrics. Other researches have been directed towards more effective heald movements and better design of shedding cams. The paper also highlights the various developments related to these areas and provides scope for further research in the shedding mechanisms.

Keywords: Cycloidal, Loom, Microprocessor, Pressure angle, Shedding mechanism