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Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 

 

ISSN : 0971-0426

 

CODEN : IJFRET
 

VOLUME 28

NUMBER 4

DECEMBER 2003

 


 

CONTENTS

 

Roller and beater speed combinations for higher lint out-turn in double roller gin
S B Jadhav, S Vancheswaran, N C Vizia & K R K Iyer

377

Deformation micromechanics of lyocell fibres subjected to tensile strain
F Dadashian & M A Wilding

385

Studies on mass distribution profile of detached fibre fringe in a comber
R Chattopadhyay & R Ghosh

393

Influence of fibre openness on processibility of cotton and yarn quality:
Part I Effect of blow room parameters
S M Ishtiaque, S Chaudhuri & A Das

399

Influence of fibre openness on processibility of cotton and yarn quality:
Part II Effect of  carding parameters
S M Ishtiaque, S Chaudhuri & A Das

405

Effect of fibre profile, spin finish and opening roller speed on properties of polyester OE rotor-spun yarns
G K Tyagi

411

Measurement of yarn tension and its on-line monitoring
Satyaki Bhattacharyya, S Mondal & S Pal

418

Impact of lycra filament on extension and recovery characteristics of cotton knitted fabric
A Mukhopadhyay , I C Sharma & A Mohanty

423

Effect of dyes and finishes on UV protection of jute/cotton fabrics
S B Ghosh, P Bajaj & V K Kothari

431

Combined desizing, scouring and bleaching of cotton using ozone
M Prabaharan & J Venkata Rao

437

Catalytic activation of peracetic acid using chitosan-metal complex for
low-temperature bleaching of cotton fabric
M Hashem, M El-Bisi & A Hebeish

444

Pseudo single-bath process for ambient temperature bleaching and reactive dyeing of jute
S N Chattopadhyay, N C Pan & A Day

 

450

In-situ peracetic acid bleaching of jute
D P Chattopadhyay  J K Sharma & R B Chavan

456

Low-temperature dyeing of cotton by direct dyes
S K Malik, S Bhaumik & R N Mukherjee

462

Application of natural dyes on bleached coir yarn
M L Gulrajani, Deepti Gupta & Priyanka Gupta

466

 
Review Article

 

Characterization of fabric bending behavior: A review of measurement principles
Tushar K Ghosh & Naiyue Zhou

471

 
Short Communication

 

Dyeing behaviour of nitrogen low-temperature glow discharge treated wool
Junchao Jin & Jinjin Dai

477

 

Annual Index

480

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 28, December 2003, pp. 377-384

 

Roller and beater speed combinations for higher lint
out-turn in double roller gin

S B Jadhav, S Vancheswaran, N C Vizia & K R K Iyer

 

The conventional double roller gin (DR) has been modified to have separate drives for roller and beater. The improvements relate to modification in the gear system of DR gin for permitting independent control on the speed of roller and the oscillation frequency of beater. The modification leads to desired flexibility while ginning cottons with different staple lengths. This modified gin has increased the lint output by 50-80% when appropriate speeds are chosen to suit the different staple lengths. The important fibre parameters remain unaffected.

 

Keywords: Cotton, Double roller gin, Fibre parameters, Ginning out-turn, Variable speed gin

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 28, December 2003, pp. 385-392

 

Deformation micromechanics of lyocell fibres subjected
to tensile strain

F Dadashian  & M A Wilding

 

The deformation micromechanics of strained lyocell fibres has been studied using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) technique. For  applied strain of up to 10%, the FTIR study shows effects across the entire spectral range, particularly in the frequency regions corresponding to O-H stretching and C-O-C deformation. The recorded features include changes in both relative intensities and band position. The data   suggest that the deformation micromechanics may involve H-bond deformation, rupture and re-formation. The WAXD study does not reveal any measurable crystal strain corresponding to the applied strain, indicating that at the micro-level the deformation is concentrated in the inter-fibrillar regions. On the other hand, the WAXD data show a decrease in crystallinity upon stretching the fibres.

 

Keywords: Cellulose, FTIR micro-spectroscopy, Lyocell fibre

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 28, December 2003, pp. 393-398

 

 

Studies on mass distribution profile of detached
fibre fringe in a comber

R Chattopadhyay & R Ghosh

 

The mass distribution characteristics of detached combed fringes along their length  after collecting them from detaching roller nip have been studied. The distribution profile reveals valuable information regarding the way the profile changes with combing parameters such as piecing index, feed / nip, and type of feed (forward or backward). The mass distribution profile of single as well as overlapped double and triple fringes has also been studied.  The mass profile of individual fringes is found to be  close to skewed bell shaped curve that changes with process parameters.

 

Keywords: Comber, Piecing index, Forward feed, Backward feed, Fibre fringe

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 28, December 2003, pp. 399-404

 

Influence of fibre openness on processibility of cotton and yarn quality: Part I Effect of blow room parameters

S M Ishtiaque, S Chaudhuri & A Das

 

The influence of fibre openness in the blow room on processibility of cotton and yarn quality has been studied. The change in the settings of beaters at three different stages of blow room changes the openness of fibres. It is observed that the blow room cleaning efficiency changes with the openness of fibre and the manner in which opening takes place is also important. The changes in fibre openness at blow room do not appreciably influence the yarn irregularity. With the increase in openness at blow room the yarn tenacity and total imperfections improve but at a very high openness, these parameters deteriorate sharply. The optimum degree of opening is found to be 0.622, which has been obtained through, the settings of 7 mm, 6 mm and 6 mm at porcupine, fine kirschner and scutcher kirschner beater respectively.

 

Keywords: Beater setting, Cotton, Fibre openness, Kirschner beater, Yarn imperfections, Yarn irregularity

 

 

  

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 28, December 2003, pp. 405-410

 

Influence of fibre openness on processibility of cotton and yarn quality: Part II Effect of  carding parameters

S M Ishtiaque, S Chaudhuri  & A Das

 

The influence of fibre openness at carding on processibility of cotton and yarn quality has been studied. It is observed that the openness at card increases with the decrease in feed plate to licker-in and cylinder to flat settings and with the increase in licker-in speed. A steady increase in card cleaning efficiency is observed with the increase in openness of card web which is due to the fact that the better opening creates more scope for trash to get exposed and released easily from the fibre. Yarn irregularity and tenacity improve with the increase in openness only up to a certain extent and then deteriorate.

 

Keywords: Carding, Cotton, Fibre openness, Yarn irregularity, Yarn imperfections

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 28, December 2003, pp. 411-417

 

Effect of fibre profile, spin finish and opening roller speed on properties of polyester OE rotor-spun yarns

G K Tyagi

 

The influence of fibre profile, spin finish and opening roller speed on quality of polyester OE rotor-spun yarns has been studied. The spin finish and opening roller interact with each other to determine yarn properties. This is because the inter-fibre friction, which depends to a large extent on the combined influence of fibre structural variants and spin finish, plays an important role in influencing fibre separation by opening roller. It is observed that the yarns made from a trilobal fibre are inferior to the yarns made from a circular fibre spun under the same condition in terms of tenacity, breaking extension, work of rupture, hairiness and regularity. The yarn tensile properties generally show a descending trend with increasing opening roller speed. The drop in tensile properties, however, depends on the level of add-on finish. The yarn regularity is also highly dependent on the add-on finish and opening roller speed. The yarns produced with higher opening roller speed show lower unevenness and fewer imperfections, particularly at higher level of add-on finish.

 

Keywords: Circular fibre , Fibre friction , Opening roller speed , Polyester yarn , Spin finish , Trilobal fibre

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 28, December 2003, pp. 418-422

 

Measurement of yarn tension and its on-line monitoring

Satyaki Bhattacharyya, S Mondal & S Pal

 

Yarn tension in winding zone of dref-III machine has been measured by interfacing the Rothschild tensiometer with computer. A software in Qbasic has been developed for on-line measurement of yarn tension. The yarn tension variation during yarn forming in dref-III friction spinning by placing the sensor at the appropriate place has also been evaluated. It is observed that in certain zone where the tension variation is very high, it is convenient to use the software by changing the resolution of AD card. The average tension increases with the increase in spinning drum speed and the on-line graphical representation of the same can be obtained by computer programming using the Qbasic language.

 

Keywords: Dref- III yarn, Qbasic,  Tensiometer, Yarn tension

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 28, December 2003, pp. 423-430

 

Impact of lycra filament on extension and recovery characteristics of cotton knitted fabric

A Mukhopadhyay, I C Sharma & A Mohanty

 

The effect of lycra filament and full relaxation finish on the extension at peak load, immediate recovery, delayed recovery, permanent set and resiliency of cotton-lycra blended knitted fabric has been studied. It is observed that for lycra blended fabric, the immediate recovery, extension and resiliency are higher but delayed recovery and permanent set are lower than those of 100% cotton fabric. Effect of full relaxation treatment is found to be useful in case of all-cotton fabric. On the application of external load, both lycra and non-lycra fabrics show higher extension at peak load along course direction than that along the other directions of fabric. However, the biased direction of 100% cotton fabric shows significantly higher immediate recovery and resiliency but lower delayed recovery and permanent set. In general, with repeated load cycles, the extension at peak load increases marginally but immediate recovery and resiliency change considerably during initial number of cycles. Laundering reduces the extension at peak load, immediate recovery and resiliency, whereas delayed recovery and permanent set become higher.

 

Keywords : Cotton fabric, Delayed recovery, Extension at peak load, Full relaxation, Immediate recovery, Lycra filament, Permanent set, Resiliency

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 28, December 2003, pp. 431-436

 

Effect of dyes and finishes on UV protection of
jute/cotton fabrics

S B Ghosh, P Bajaj & V K Kothari

 

The effect of different dyes and finishes on UV protection property of jute/cotton union fabrics has been studied. Bleaching with H2O2 makes the fabrics more permeable to UV rays. It is observed from spectral analysis that the monochlorotriazinyl reactive dye with cyanuric chloride nucleus, such as Cibacron Red FAL, is quite effective in UV protection. From the UV-visible spectral analysis, Cibatex UPF is found to be a suitable finishing agent for rendering sufficient UV protection to the jute/cotton fabric. Simultaneous dyeing and finishing with Cibacron Red FAL and Cibatex UPF provides higher UV protection. The treatment of jute/cotton fabric with titanium dioxide also provides satisfactory protection against UV rays.

 

Keywords: Dyes, Jute/cotton union fabrics, UV absorbers, UV protection

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 28, December 2003, pp. 437-443

  

Combined desizing, scouring and bleaching of
cotton using ozone

M Prabaharan  & J Venkata Rao

 

An attempt has been made to desize, scour and bleach grey cotton fabric simultaneously using ozone. The mechanical, chemical and dyeing properties of the ozonized fabric have been compared with those of the fabric subjected to conventional desizing, scouring and hydrogen peroxide bleaching. To achieve a high degree of whiteness with minimum damage to cellulose, a two-stage process is suggested wherein the ozonized fabric is further treated with hydrogen peroxide. An acceptable degree of whiteness (ready for dyeing) can be obtained by using ozone in a very short time. This process has additional advantages such as savings in thermal energy, water and chemicals.

 

Keywords: Bleaching, Cotton, Desizing, Dyeing, Scouring

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 28, December 2003, pp. 444-449

 

Catalytic activation of peracetic acid using chitosan-metal complex for low-temperature bleaching of cotton fabric

M Hashem, M El-Bisi & A Hebeish

 

A novel approach for bleaching of cotton fabric has been used and the most appropriate conditions for bleaching established. The technique adopted is based on the utilization of tetraacetylethylenediamine (TAED) along with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) where in-situ peracetic acid (PAA) formation takes place via reaction of TAED and H2O2. Decomposition of the so created PAA to enhance its bleaching effect has been induced by using chitosan-Mo complex or chitosan-Co complex as a catalyst. Regulation of the reaction of H2O2 with TAED has been achieved using sodium silicate whereas the regulation of the decomposition of PAA and, therefore, its bleaching action has been achieved using sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS). Replacement of H2O2 with other oxidizing agents, namely ammonium persulphate and potassium bromate, was not successful. In contrast, the perborate did succeed but with lower efficiency when compared with H2O2.

 

Keywords: Bleaching, Chitosan, Cotton fabric, Peracetic acid

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 28, December 2003, pp. 450-455

 

Pseudo single-bath process for ambient temperature bleaching and reactive dyeing of jute

S N Chattopadhyay, N C Pan & A Day

 

Grey jute fibre has been bleached at ambient temperature using hydrogen peroxide and then cold dyed with Procion Red M8B and Remazol Yellow FG dyes by four different process sequences, namely conventional two-step process, true single-bath process, pseudo single-bath process and pseudo single-bath process using spent bleach bath. The effect of process sequences on colour yield of dyed jute fibre has been evaluated using computer colour matching system. It is observed that the colour yield by pseudo single-bath process is well comparable with that of the conventional two-step ambient temperature bleaching and cold reactive dyeing process. It is also observed that the colour yield is maximum in case of pseudo single-bath process and minimum in case of true single-bath process. The process of dyeing has no effect on l max value which confirms no alteration in the hue and tone of any sample dyed with reactive dye by different single-bath processes. The wash fastness is satisfactory in all the processes.

 

Keywords :Ambient temperature bleaching, Jute fibre, Pseudo single-bath process, Reactive dyeing

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 28, December 2003, pp. 456-461

 

In-situ peracetic acid bleaching of jute

D P Chattopadhyay ,  J K Sharma  & R B Chavan

 

Bleaching of jute with peracetic acid formed in-situ in bleach bath has been studied. It is observed that in an unbuffered system, the bleach bath pH drops from its initial set value. This drop in pH is found to be maximum for initial bath pH of 7. This suggests that a buffer medium is required for the bleaching of jute with peracetic formed in-situ by the reaction of acetic anhydride and hydrogen peroxide. Excellent bleaching of jute with relatively higher loss in strength is possible by peracetic acid bleaching followed by bleaching with unreacted hydrogen peroxide of in-situ peracetic acid bleach bath. A low temperature (30C) peracetic acid bleaching using 68 m moles / L acetic acid and 74 m moles/L hydrogen peroxide (30%) shows quite high degree of whiteness in jute with lesser damage.

 

Keywords : Bleaching, Jute, Peracetic acid, Whiteness index

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 28, December 2003, pp. 462-465

 

Low-temperature dyeing of cotton by direct dyes

S K Malik, S Bhaumik & R N Mukherjee

 

The feasibility of dyeing of cotton using three different direct dyes at low temperature in the presence of organic base triethanolamine (TEA) has been studied. It is observed that the extent of dyeing depends upon the temperature of dyeing, TEA concentration and dye concentration. This method gives dyeing comparable to that of the conventional method at relatively very low temperature (50oC). The fastness properties of the samples dyed using TEA are also comparable with those of the samples dyed in conventional manner and the dyeing cost is considerably less.

 

Keywords: Cotton, Direct dyes, Low-temperature dyeing, Solar dyes, Triethanolamine

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 28, December 2003, pp. 466-470

 

Application of natural dyes on bleached coir yarn

M L Gulrajani ,  Deepti Gupta & Priyanka Gupta

 

Coir yarns have been dyed with different purified commercial natural dye powders. It is observed that almost all the dyes have very good wash fastness ranging from 4 to 5 and some dyes have light fastness rating of  3 . By using the dyeing combination shades of dyes having good fastness properties, a large number of shades with reasonably good fastness properties can be obtained.

 

Keywords: Coir, Natural dyes,  Colour gamut

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 28, December 2003, pp. 471-476

 

Characterization of fabric bending behavior: A review of measurement principles

Tushar K Ghosh & Naiyue Zhou

 

Various methods and the underlying principles to evaluate the bending characteristics of fabrics and fabric-like membranes are described.  In comparing various methods, their limitations as well as utilities are also discussed. It has been observed that a number of relatively simpler methods produce a wealth of information useful in designing fabric structures and determining their appropriate applications.

 

Keywords: Bending hysteresis, Bending length, Bending rigidity,  Cantilever bending test, Pure bending test

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 28, December 2003, pp. 477-479

 

Dyeing behaviour of nitrogen low-temperature glow discharge treated wool

Junchao Jin & Jinjin Dai

 

The wool fabrics have been treated under different low-temperature glow discharge conditions (25-200W, 20-100Pa and 0.5-30min), dyed with reactive dye at a constant dyeing temperature and then studied for the dyeing behaviour based on dye uptake and fixation. It is observed that the treated wool fabrics can be dyed quickly and a higher dye uptake can be obtained at 80oC. It is also shown that the plasma treating time, power and pressure also influence the dyeing behaviour of treated wool greatly.

 

Keywords: Low-temperature glow discharge, Plasma treatment, Reactive dyeing, Wool