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Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 

ISSN : 0971-0426  

CODEN : IJFRET

VOLUME 28

NUMBER 2

JUNE 2003

 

CONTENTS

 

Fiber migration theory of ring-spun yarns
Mishu I Zeidman, Paul S Sawhney & Paul D Herrington

123

Effects of swelling and stretching in water on the properties of cotton fibres and yarns
G F S Hussain & K R Krishna Iyer

134

Processibility of Nigerian kapok fibre
B M D Dauda & E G Kolawole

147

Influence of sheath-core fibre characteristics on the properties of dref-3 friction yarns
R Chattopadhyay & A K Chakrabarti

150

Influence of ring traveller weight and coating on hairiness of acrylic and cotton yarns
İ Usta & S Canoğlu

157

Effect of add-on finish and process variables on properties of air-jet spun polyester yarns
G K Tyagi, Amarjot Singh, Anil Gupta,  A Goyal & K R Salhotra

163

Sheath-slippage resistance and other properties of polyester-viscose MJS core-spun yarns
G K Tyagi ,  A Goyal & K R Salhotra

170

Influence of moisture content and linear density of feed sliver on running performance and yarn quality during rotor spinning of dyed cotton
S M Ishtiaque & A Das

177

Effect of extension rate and specimen length on tenacity and breaking extension of polyester/ viscose twin-spun air-jet yarns
Abhijit Majumdar & Rajarshi Sengupta

182

Mechanics of 1´1 rib loop formation on a dial and cylinder machine: Part I – Modelling of the 1´1 rib loop formation process
Sadhan Chandra Ray & P K Banerjee

185

Evaluation of fabric hand by extraction method
S M Ishtiaque, A Das, V Sharma & A K Jain

197

Spirality of weft knitted fabrics: Part III— An innovative method for the reduction of the effect
A Primentas & C Iype

202

Spirality of weft knitted fabrics: Part IV—Effect of yarn partial detwisting on yarn and fabric properties
A Primentas & C Iype

209

Greener printing of natural colour using microwave fixation
O A Hakeim, S H Nassar & K Haggag

216

Dyeing of red sandalwood on wool and nylon
M L Gulrajani, S Bhaumik, W Oppermann & G Hardtmann

221

Short Communication

 

Quality attributes of double-humped camel hair fibres
M S Sahani,Banamali Yadav, Gorakh Mal & R S Dhillon

227

Corrigendum

230

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 28, June 2003, pp. 123-133

 

 

Fiber migration theory of ring-spun yarns

Mishu I Zeidman, Paul S Sawhney  and Paul D Herrington

 

Received 30 September 2002; revised received and accepted 13 February 2003

 

 

The well-known Treloar-Hearle (T-H) theory of fiber migration, although more realistic in defining the yarn structure than the helical model, suffers from certain internal inconsistencies such as singularities at the yarn core. This paper aims at re-examining the theory of fiber migration and establishing a new basis for the development of an improved model of ring-spun yarn structure with an emphasis on revisiting the fiber migration theory. Accordingly, the existing theories of Treloar and Hearle et al. have been reformulated and combined in a way that is more accurate for predicting the structural dynamics of a yarn. This gives a more acceptable description of yarn structure and, hence, leads to more accurate predictive models of load-deformation behavior of the yarn. A relationship between the process parameters and the yarn structure is also suggested, which is important for the resulting yarn properties such as tensile strength, abrasion resistance and twist torque. Although it is realized that fiber migration and yarn mechanics are complex phenomena, this study is expected to contribute to the analysis and fundamental understanding of the phenomena.

 

Keywords: Bicomponent yarn, Fiber, Fiber migration models, Ring spinning

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 28, June 2003, pp. 134-146

 

 

Effects of swelling and stretching in water on the properties of
cotton fibres and yarns

G F S Hussain  & K R Krishna Iyer

 

Received 12 November 2001; revised received 5 March 2002; accepted 23 April 2002

 

 

The effect of aqueous swelling followed by stretching and drying in taut condition of cotton fibre and yarn on their tensile and rheological features has been studied. Single fibre characteristics such as tenacity, initial modulus, secant modulus and specific work of rupture get enhanced while the extension drops on treatment. Treated fibre is more lustrous and does not undergo any change due to the wetting in water. The treatment of yarn enhances its tenacity, initial modulus, secant modulus and immediate elastic recovery quite significantly. Wetting in water augments the tenacity and decreases the immediate elastic recovery of raw yarn. However, no such changes occur on wetting of treated yarn.

 

Keywards : Aqueous swelling, Cotton, Initial modulus, Rheological features, Secant modulus, Specific work of rupture, Strength-length gradient, Tensile characteristics

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 28, June 2003, pp. 147-149

 

 

Processibility of Nigerian kapok fibre

B M D Dauda  & E G Kolawole

 

Received 19 September 2001; revised received and accepted 22 May 2002

 

 

The spinning of Nigerian kapok fibre and its blend with cotton fibre has been studied. It is observed that the spinning of 100% kapok fibres beyond lap formation stage is not possible, while the spinning of kapok fibre blended with at least 50% cotton fibre is largely successful. The yarn regularity and tenacity decrease while the yarn extensibility increases with the increase in kapok content in the blend. The total cost of production of the yarns decreases significantly as the kapok content in the blend increases.

 

Keyword: Cotton fibre, Kapok fibre, Rotor-spun yarn, Yarn irregularity

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 28, June 2003, pp. 150-156

 

 

Influence of sheath-core fibre characteristics
on the properties of dref-3 friction yarns

R Chattopadhyay  & A K Chakrabarti

 

Received 27 June 2001; revised received 25 February 2002; accepted 30 May 2002

 

 

The effect of sheath fibre fineness and length on the tensile and bending properties of dref-3 friction yarn has been studied using polyester and acrylic fibres. Sheath fibre fineness influences the tenacity of polyester yarns significantly but not of acrylic yarns. With the decrease in fibre fineness the polyester yarn tenacity decreases as the number of sheath fibres declines and the corresponding wrappings become loose. For acrylic yarn, the effect is less pronounced as the fibre fineness was limited to only 2.22 dtex . The sheath fibre length mainly affects tenacity and extension of polyester yarns by changing the sheath fibre extent. However, the acrylic yarns remain unaffected as the sheath fibre extent does not change much with change in sheath fibre length.

 

Keywords: Core-sheath fibres, Dref-3 yarn, Fibre fineness, Fibre length, Friction spinning, Friction yarn

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 28, June 2003, pp. 157-162

 

 

Influence of ring traveller weight and coating on
hairiness of acrylic and cotton yarns

İ Usta & S Canoğlu

 

Received 10 January 2002; revised received 14 March 2002; accepted 11 June 2002

 

 

The influence of ring travellers of different weights, types and coatings on hairiness of 30 tex (atex , 31.6) acrylic yarns spun from microfibres and cotton yarns has been studied. The yarns were also knitted into fabrics to observe and evaluate pilling values. It is observed that the hairiness values of acrylic and cotton yarns decrease as the traveller weight increases, regardless of the type of coating used. The C2f flat travellers cause less hairiness than M2dr half round travellers. Short fibres are found to be the main factor to cause yarn hairiness.

 

Keywords: Acrylic yarn, Cotton yarn, Pilling, Spinning, Yarn hairiness

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 28, June 2003, pp. 163-169

 

 

Effect of add-on finish and process variables on properties of air-jet spun polyester yarns

G K Tyagi, Amarjot Singh, Anil Gupta,  A Goyal  &  K R Salhotra

 

Received 1 January 2002; accepted 14 March 2002

 

 

The effects of add-on finish and some other process variables on mechanical and mass irregularity characteristics of air-jet spun polyester yarns have been studied using the Box-Behnken design. It is observed that the add-on finish plays a dominant role in influencing the yarn properties. The correlations between spinning parameters and mechanical properties are found to be  highly significant. On the other hand, the yarn irregularity exhibits poor correlation with the process variables. Imperfection indices show a general ascending relationship with add-on finish and other process variables studied.

 

Keywords: Add-on finish, Air-jet Spinning, Fibre-to-fibre friction, Flexural rigidity, Murata jet  spinner, Polyester yarn,  Wrapper fibre

 

   

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 28, June 2003, pp. 170-176

 

 

Sheath-slippage resistance and other properties of polyester-viscose
MJS core-spun yarns

G K Tyagi ,  A Goyal  & K R Salhotra

 

Received 8 February 2002; revised received and accepted 5 June 2002

 

 

The impact of some process variables on sheath-slippage resistance and other properties of viscose-covered polyester filament MJS core-spun yarns has been studied. It is observed that the air-jet spinning can be used for producing core yarns after optimizing process parameters. A relatively higher first nozzle pressure is advantageous for improving sheath-slippage resistance. The use of higher spinning speed and wider condenser markedly improves the tenacity, breaking extension, initial modulus and sheath-slippage resistance but adversely affects the yarn hairiness, mass irregularity and flexural rigidity. Such decline in the properties at higher spinning speed is, however, more marked in the fine yarns than in coarse yarns. On the whole, MJS core yarns have hairiness and irregularity characteristics similar to those of 100% viscose yarns, but the mechanical properties of these yarns are better than those of pure viscose yarns, obviously due to the presence of a strong core material.

 

Keywords: Core-spun yarn, Murata-jet spinner, Nozzle pressure, Polyester, Sheath-slippage resistance, Viscose, Wrapper  fibres

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 28, June 2003, pp. 177-181

 

 

Influence of moisture content and linear density of feed sliver
on running performance and yarn quality during
rotor spinning of dyed cotton

S M Ishtiaque & A Das

 

Received 4 December 2001; revised received and accepted 27 February 2002

 

 

The effects of moisture content and linear density of feed sliver on rotor spinning performance and yarn quality of grey and dyed cotton have been studied. It is observed that the high moisture content in the feed sliver decreases the end-breakage rate of grey cotton, but for dyed cotton the running performance deteriorates with the increase in moisture content.  With the increase in the linear density of feed sliver, the end-breakage rate increases for both grey and dyed cotton.  The yarn quality in terms of CSP, irregularity and imperfections, in general, deteriorates with the increase in moisture content and linear density of feed sliver for both grey and dyed cotton.  The cotton dyed with natural indigo shows poor running performance and yarn quality in comparison to grey and reactive black dyed cotton. For all the samples, a heavier sliver with high level of moisture content produces poor quality of yarn.

Keywords: End-breakage rate, Feed sliver, Linear density, Yarn CSP, Yarn imperfections, Yarn irregularity

 

 

  

   

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 28, June 2003, pp. 182-184

 

 

Effect of extension rate and specimen length on tenacity and breaking extension of polyester/ viscose twin-spun air-jet yarns

Abhijit Majumdar  & Rajarshi Sengupta

 

Received 12 September 2001; revised received 15 January 2002; accepted 13 March 2002

 

 

The influence of extension rate and specimen length on tenacity and breaking extension of polyester/ viscose twin-spun air-jet yarns has been studied. It is observed that for long specimen lengths, the yarn tenacity increases steadily with the increase in extension rate. However, for short specimen lengths, the yarn tenacity first increases with the increase in extension rate and then decreases with the further increase in extension rate. The tenacity and breaking extension of twin-spun air-jet yarns decrease steadily with the increase in specimen length.

 

Keywords: Air-jet yarn, Breaking extension, Extension rate, Polyester, Tenacity, Viscose

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 28, June 2003, pp. 185-196

 

 

Mechanics of 1´1 rib loop formation on a dial and cylinder machine:
Part I – Modelling of the 1´1 rib loop formation process

Sadhan Chandra Ray  & P K Banerjee

 

Received 16 July 2001; revised received and accepted 28 June 2002

 

 

The simulation of the 1´1 rib loop formation process on a dial and cylinder machine has been dealt with. Various concepts such as geometry of knitting zone, wrap angles, loop arm configurations under various stages of loop formation, etc. of the 1´1 rib loop formation have been developed. Six different types of loop arm configuration have been observed under both synchronised and two-needle delayed timings. The number of segments in each loop arm varies from 3 to 7 depending upon the stage of loop formation. The conditions of yarn flow, both forward and backward (robbing back), during loop formation have been derived. Finally, the whole process of loop formation under both synchronised and two–needle delayed timings has been modelled with the help of computer using PROFORT. The developed model can predict loop length and yarn tension profile inside knitting zone for any combination of input parameters.

 

Keywords : Cam force, Cylinder knitting point, Cylinder needle, Dial knitting point, Dial needle, Knitting zone, Loop length, 2-Needle delayed timing, Yarn tension

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 28, June 2003, pp. 197-201

 

 

Evaluation of fabric hand by extraction method

S M Ishtiaque, A Das, V Sharma & A K Jain

 

Received 5 October 2001; revised received and accepted 3 January 2002

 

 

A simple nozzle extraction method for measuring objectively the fabric handle has been used. This method is based on the use of a simple attachment fitted to a tensile testing machine and measures the force generated while extracting a circular fabric specimen through a nozzle.  Different testing variables, like presence of supporting plate, extraction speed and shape of the specimen, have significant effect on peak extraction force, whereas the number of pass does not have any specific effect on  the extraction behaviour of fabric. Chemical finishing results in reduction in extraction force and at the same time the traverse-at-peak extraction force also reduces with the chemical finish.

Keywords:  Cotton, Extraction speed, Fabric hand, Peak extraction force, Polyester, Traverse-at-peak force,  Viscose

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 28, June 2003, pp. 202-208

 

 

Spirality of weft knitted fabrics: Part III— An innovative method
for  the reduction of the effect

A Primentas  & C Iype

 

Received 5 October 2001; revised received and accepted 11 March 2002

 

 

The effect of partially detwisting steam-set  yarns on spirality is studied. It is observed that partial detwisting reduces significantly and in some cases eliminates the spirality of weft knitted fabrics produced from singles ring-spun yarns. As this technique is applied, two phenomena appear that disobey the rules concerning the relationship of yarn twist direction, twist liveliness and fabric spirality, indicating that these three factors are inter-related with the yarn torque.

Keywords: Knitted fabric, Spirality, Steam setting, Twist liveliness, Yarn detwisting, Yarn torque

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research Vol. 28, June 2003, pp. 209-215

 

 

Spirality of weft knitted fabrics: Part IV—Effect of yarn partial detwisting on yarn and fabric properties

A Primentas  & C Iype

 

Received 5 October 2001; revised received and accepted 11 March 2002

 

 

The alteration in the yarn properties that possibly occurs during the detwisting process has been experimentally studied. A small reduction in yarn tenacity and hairiness and slight changes in other yarn properties have been observed. It is shown that the yarn steam setting is essential for getting the best results in spirality reduction. The avoidance of any time delay between yarn detwisting and fabric knitting contributes positively to the minimization of fabric spirality.

 

Keywords: Knitted fabric, Spirality, Steam setting, Yarn detwisting

 

   

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research Vol. 28, June 2003, pp. 216-220

 

 

Greener printing of natural colour using microwave fixation

O A Hakeim, S H Nassar & K Haggag

 

Received 17 September 2001; revised received and accepted 12 April 2002

 

 

Wool fabric has been printed with 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoqunione (the main colouring material of henna) using different modes of fixation such as microwave heating, steaming and thermofixation and the effect of printing conditions (dye concentration, pH of printing paste, glycerin concentration, mordant type and thickening agent type) on the colour strength and fastness properties of the printed samples studied. It is observed that the printing paste containing 0.3% dye and 3% glycerin, thickened with CMC, maintained at pH 3 and fixed by microwave heating for 4 min gives the highest K/S value without the need of drying step. The printed samples fixed by the conventional fixation method (steaming or thermofixation) give brownish red shade while those fixed by microwave heating give orange shade. The colour strength and overall fastness properties of the microwave - fixed samples are found to be good and the samples acquire soft handle.

 

Keywords: Carboxymethylcellulose, Lawsone, Microwave fixation, Mordant, Printing

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research Vol. 28, June 2003, pp. 221-226

 

 

Dyeing of red sandalwood on wool and nylon

M L Gulrajani,  S Bhaumik , W Oppermann & G Hardtmann

 

Received 3 May 2001; revised received and accepted 17 June 2002

 

 

The use of red sandalwood (Pterocarpus santalinus) extract as a dye for wool and nylon has been explored. The colouring components were extracted with organic as well as aqueous alkaline solution from the sandalwood and the physico-chemical properties of the dried extracts evaluated. The extracted dye was applied on wool and nylon with and without mordants and the fastness of the dyed samples to light and washing studied. The light fastness of the dyed wool samples improved substantially on mordanting with copper sulphate and ferrous sulphate. The wool and nylon samples dyed and treated with mordants, except copper sulphate, showed good wash fastness

 

Keywords: Nylon, Pterocarpus santalinus, Red sandalwood, Wool

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research Vol. 28, June 2003, pp. 227-229

 

 

Quality attributes of double-humped camel hair fibres

M S Sahani,   Banamali Yadav, Gorakh Mal & R S Dhillon

 

Received  22 October 2001; revised received and accepted 15 March 2002

 

 

The quality attributes of double-humped camel hair fibres collected from shoulder, mid-side and hump regions of both calves and adults have been studied. It is observed that the mid-side region fibres in both calves and adults have better textile properties which make them ideally suitable for apparels, such as sweaters, coats and shawls, and various other domestic utility items (wall hangings and hand-tufted carpets). The comparative analysis of the fibre quality attributes of calves and adults bactrian camels indicates superiority of calves over adults. The fibre quality attributes, especially diameter and per cent pure fibres, support the use of camel fibres for woollen items (sweaters, coats and caps) in pure fibre form as well as in the form of blends with other animal fibres (wool and silk) and synthetic fibres.

 

Keywords: Camelus bactrianus, Hair fibres