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Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 

ISSN : 0971-0426   CODEN : IJFRET ISSN : 0971-0426
VOLUME 28

NUMBER 3

SEPTEMBER 2003

 

CONTENTS

 

Mechanics of 11 rib loop formation on a dial and cylinder machine:
Part IIMeasurement of cam force
Sadhan Chandra Ray & P K Banerjee

239

Mechanics of 11 rib loop formation on a dial and cylinder machine:
Part III Validation of the model
Sadhan Chandra Ray & P K Banerjee

246

Properties of woven fabrics containing core-sheath DREF-III yarn in weft
S M Ishtiaque, A Das & P Yadav

260

Effect of phase change material content on properties of heat-storage and
thermo-regulated fibres nonwoven
X X Zhang, X C Wang, H Zhang, J J Niu & R B Yin

265

Using the FAST system to establish translation equations for the drape coefficient
Lai Sang-Song

270

A new type of microprocessor controlled positive dobby
Guo Yueyang & Chen Ruiqi

275

Studies on air-jet textured sewing threads
R S Rengasamy, V K Kothari, R Alagirusamy & S Modi

281

Lint shedding propensity of cotton and blended yarns
Arindam Basu & Rajanna L Gotipamul

288

Influence of thermal treatment on properties of friction-spun core yarns
S M Ishtiaque, A Das & P Yadav

295

Influence of draw-off nozzle profile on bulk and related properties of
acrylic-cotton OE rotor-spun yarns
G K Tyagi, Anil Gupta & Amarjot Singh

301

Coil length of binder and covering components of complex structure yarns
Salvinija Petrulyte & Donatas Petrulis

308

Effect of solvent pretreatment and selective dye bath additives on physical properties and dyeing behaviour of microdenier polyester fabric
A K Samanta, A Konar, D Ghosh & S Acharya

312

Bacteria-resist finish on cotton fabrics using natural herbal extracts
R K Sarkar, Purushottam De & P D Chauhan

322

Neutral dyeing of polyacrylamide - hydrazine treated cotton with reactive dyes
S D Bhattacharya & B J Agarwal

332

Dyeing of jute with natural dyes
N C Pan, S N Chattopadhyay & A Day

339

Alkali deweighting of acid-modified multicomponent copolyester fibre
Ruxin Yang

343

Review Article

 

Structure and structure-property relationship in native cotton :
Some challenges to breeders
A V Moharir

348

Short Communication
 

Irregularity and imperfections in ring-spun yarns
R V Mahendra Gowda

363

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 28, September 2003, pp. 239-245

 

 

Mechanics of 11 rib loop formation on a dial and cylinder machine: Part IIMeasurement of cam force

Sadhan Chandra Ray & P K Banerjee

 

 

The cam force, i.e. the yarn tension, inside the knitting zone for a complete loop forming cycle has been measured on a dial and cylinder machine equipped with 1x1 rib gating to validate the model developed for the purpose and to understand the mechanics of loop formation. A separate cam track has been designed for running the isolated measuring needle and other necessary modifications have been made on the cam jacket for installation of the quartz force link. The cam force signals generated by the quartz force link fitted on the stitch cam are recorded in computer through analog-to-digital convertor. The recorded digital values are then plotted with the help of available software for getting cam force curves which have, in general, four peaks.

 

Keywords : Analog-to-digital convertor, Cam force, Knitting force, Quartz force link,  Transducer

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 28, September 2003, pp. 246-259

 

 

Mechanics of 11 rib loop formation on a dial and cylinder machine: Part III Validation of the model

Sadhan Chandra Ray  & P K Banerjee

 

 

The loop length which is decided during the knitting process and the yarn tension developed inside the knitting zone are the two crucial output variables of the loop forming system and hence used to validate the proposed model of 11 rib loop formation on a dial and cylinder machine. For the purpose, 66 fabric samples have been produced with known input variables. The loop length of the dry-relaxed fabrics has been measured in first 50 samples and the cam force during knitting has been measured in last 16 samples. These measured values have been compared with the predicted values of the model generated, employing the same input variables. Barring a few cases, there is a reasonable agreement between measured and predicted values. The causes of disagreement are also traced wherever possible. The actual amount of overestimation/underestimation of the model is also calculated. The model , in general, slightly underestimates the loop length. The peak cam force also tends to be underestimated at CKP2 and overestimated at CKP.

 

Keywords : Cam force, Cylinder knitting point, Knitting zone, Loop length

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 28, September 2003, pp. 260-264

 

 

Properties of woven fabrics containing core-sheath DREF-III yarn in weft

S M Ishtiaque, A Das  & P Yadav

 

 

The properties of plain woven fabrics made of DREF-III yarns having staple fibre core-sheath yarn, twistless core component and hollow sheath component in weft and 2-ply cotton ring-spun yarn in warp have been studied. Three different types of weft yarn, namely 59 tex yarn with staple viscose fibre in both core and sheath, 118 tex yarn with staple viscose fibre in core and water-soluble staple PVA fibre in sheath, and 118 tex yarn with PVA in core and viscose in sheath, were prepared on DREF-III system using 50:50 core-sheath ratio. It is observed that the fabric made from twistless core component in weft shows very good tensile strength, tear strength, crease recovery and abrasion resistance, whereas the fabric with hollow sheath component in weft shows bulky and compressible structure.

 

Keywords: Abrasion resistance, Cotton fibre, Crease recovery, DREF-III yarn, Tear strength, Tensile strength, Viscose fibre

  

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 28, September 2003, pp. 265-269

 

Effect of phase change material content on properties of heat-storage and thermo-regulated fibres nonwoven

X X Zhang, X C Wang, H Zhang, J J Niu & R B Yin

 

 

The composition and properties of a series of sheath/core composite polypropylene fibres nonwovens with different phase change material (PCM) contents in the core have been studied using SEM, DSC and temperature sensors. It is observed that the PCM content in the fibre, sheath/core ratio and the content of 4-hole spiral crimp PET fibre affect the temperature regulating ability of the nonwoven. The temperature regulating ability has no truck with the fibre titer in the experimental scale. There can be a maximum temperature difference of 9.3C between the nonwovens made from composites and control (polypropylene) fibres during temperature rising, and 10.2C between control and composite samples during temperature dropping.

 

Keywords: Heat-storage fibre, Phase change material, Polypropylene fibre, Smart fibre, Thermo-regulated fibre

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 28, September 2003, pp. 270-274

 

 

Using the FAST system to establish translation equations for the drape coefficient

Lai Sang-Song

 

 

The regression and neural network methods have been used to develop new translation equations for calculating the drape coefficient of fabric using three fabric mechanical properties, namely bending rigidity, shear rigidity and formability, by the FAST system. Fabric mechanical properties show significant correlations with drape coefficient. Both regression models and neural network models have high correlation coefficients and low mean absolute values. It is observed that the neural network method has better ability of fitting than regression analysis.

 

Keywords: Drape coefficient, FAST system, Neural network, Polyester fabric, Regression method

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 28, September 2003, pp. 275-280

 

A new type of microprocessor controlled positive dobby

Guo Yueyang & Chen Ruiqi

 

 

A new microprocessor controlled positive dobby has been developed which is converted from model Staubli 2521, a negative mechanical control dobby. The new model has been proved to be practicable by motion simulation and a prototype. The main construction is simpler than that of many present positive dobbies, such as Staubli 2232 and Staubli 2600 series. The new model is expected to perform better than Staubli 2232.

 

Keywords: Kinematic analysis, Microprocessor, Motion simulation, Positive dobby

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 28, September 2003, pp. 281-287

 

 

Studies on air-jet textured sewing threads

R S Rengasamy, V K Kothari, R Alagirusamy & S Modi

 

 

Air-jet textured, textured-twisted and textured-plied yarns have been made from apparel-grade polyester flat yarns and compared with commercial cotton and spun polyester sewing threads for properties and seam efficiency. The uniformity characteristics of air-jet textured sewing threads are far superior to those of cotton and spun polyester threads. The tenacity, loop strength and knot strength of textured sewing threads are lower than those of spun polyester threads but slightly better than those of cotton threads. Textured threads have high friction values than commercial threads. The seam efficiency of fabrics stitched with textured threads is higher compared to that of fabrics stitched with cotton threads and close to that of fabrics stitched with spun polyester threads. Minimum knot strength has a good correlation with seam efficiency.

 

Keywords: Air-jet textured yarn, Coefficient of friction, Knot strength, Loop strength, Seam efficiency

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 28, September 2003, pp. 288-294

 

 

Lint shedding propensity of cotton and blended yarns

Arindam Basu & Rajanna L Gotipamul

 

 

The influence of fibre and yarn parameters on lint shedding propensity has been studied. The lint shedding propensity is influenced by fibre length parameters and short fibre content. Amongst the yarn parameters, the yarn fineness, twist and hairiness influence lint shedding. The waxing of yarn does not reduce the lint shedding propensity despite reduction in yarn-to-metal friction. Blending of polyester with cotton reduces the lint shedding of cotton yarns. The spinning system and yarn structure play a significant role in determining the lint shedding propensity of yarns. Compact yarns and rotor yarns show lower lint shedding propensity as compared to equivalent ring-spun yarns.

 

Keywords: Compact yarn, : Cotton, Yarn hairiness, Lint shedding propensity, Polyester/cotton blend, Singeing

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 28, September 2003, pp. 295-300

 

 

Influence of thermal treatment on properties of friction-spun core yarns

S M Ishtiaque, A Das  & P Yadav

 

 

The influence of proportion of sheath content and thermal treatment under the relaxed condition on thermal shrinkage, sheath-slipping resistance and tensile properties of DREF-III friction-spun core yarns made of polyester multifilament core and cotton sheath has been studied both in dry and wet state. It is observed that the thermal treatment markedly increases the thermal shrinkage and sheath-slipping resistance. The sheath-slipping resistance of wet treated yarns is found to be higher than that of dry treated yarns. Breaking elongation increases with the increase in treatment temperature. The increase in proportion of sheath fibre content decreases the thermal shrinkage and increases the sheath-slipping resistance and breaking strength.

 

Keywords: Breaking elongation, Breaking strength, Core-sheath ratio, Friction-spun core yarn, Sheath-slipping resistance, Thermal shrinkage

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 28, September 2003, pp. 301-307

 

Influence of draw-off nozzle profile on bulk and related properties of acrylic-cotton OE rotor-spun yarns

G K Tyagi , Anil Gupta & Amarjot Singh

 

 

The knitting potential of acrylic-cotton OE rotor-spun yarns has been assessed. The knot strength ratio and loop strength ratio have been used as important factors in evaluating the knittability. Both the ratios increase with the increase in acrylic content and exceed the performance requirement limit for knitting. The knittability of acrylic-majority yarns is superior to that of cotton-majority yarns, although the acrylic- majority yarns are more stiffer. Additional advantages of acrylic-majority yarns are their lower twist liveliness, higher elongation, higher bulk and lower hairiness.

 

Keywords: Acrylic-cotton yarn, Draw-off nozzle, Flexural  rigidity, Knot strength ratio, Loop strength ratio, Rotor-spun yarn, Yarn bulk

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 28, September 2003, pp. 308-311

 

 

Coil length of binder and covering components of complex structure yarns

Salvinija Petrulyte & Donatas Petrulis

 

 

Theoretical methods for predicting the coil length of the binder component in fancy yarn and the coil length of the covering component in covered yarn have been developed on the basis of geometrical models of both these complex structure yarns produced by hollow spindles technology. The structural indices of initial components as well as the technological parameters of yarn manufacturing which influence the geometry of complex structure yarns are also discussed. The comparison of theoretical and experimental results shows rather good coincidence.

 

Keywords: Coil length, Covered yarn, Fancy yarn, Hollow spindles technology

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 28, September 2003, pp. 312-321

 

 

Effect of solvent pretreatment and selective dye bath additives on physical properties and dyeing behaviour of microdenier polyester fabric

A K Samanta, A Konar, D Ghosh & S Acharya

 

 

Polyester microdenier (0.8 dpf) and normal denier (2.17 dpf) multifilament fabrics have been subjected to swelling pretreatment in single and mixed solvents of varying ratio at room temperature for different durations prior to dyeing with disperse dye.  The treated fabrics have been evaluated for changes in denier, weight loss, area shrinkage, breaking tenacity, breaking elongation, critical dissolution time, surface depth of colour, dye uniformity and light fastness. Among the three single solvents used,the pretreatment with  100% xylene for 60 min at room temperature shows significant improvement in surface depth of colour and better balance of above properties for both microdenier and normal denier polyester fabrics. The use of a mixture of xylene and dimethyl formamide in the ratio of 1:2 for 60 min at room temperature shows the highest increase in surface depth of colour without much affecting the above physical properties. Dye bath additives like antioxidant and UV absorber were used and UV absorbers are proved to be beneficial for improving light fastness. Among all the UV absorbers used, benzophenone shows the best results even at a very low dose( 0.5%).

 

Keywords : Critical dissolution time, Dye uniformity, Light fastness, Microdenier polyester fabric, Polyester fabric, Solvent pretreatment

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 28, September 2003, pp. 322-331

 

 

Bacteria-resist finish on cotton fabrics using natural herbal extracts

 R K Sarkar, Purushottam De & P D Chauhan

 

 

The bacteria-resist properties of various natural medicinal products, like clove oil, neem oil, tulsi oil and karanja oil, have been studied. Among these products, the  clove  and neem oils show good anti-bacterial property; clove oil shows excellent anti-bacterial property on cotton fabric. The wash fastness of finished cotton fabric can be improved by using KVSI (Dimethylol dihydroxyethylene urea based in-built catalyst) as cross-linking agent. The effect of anti-bacterial finish on other functional fabric properties has also been studied and it is observed that 1% clove oil +  KVSI treatment gives the optimum results.

 

Keywords: Bacteria-resist finish, Clove oil, Cotton  fabric, Karanja oil, Neem oil, Tulsi oil

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 28, September 2003, pp. 332-338

 

 

Neutral dyeing of polyacrylamide - hydrazine treated cotton with reactive dyes

S D Bhattacharya & B J Agarwal

 

 

Cotton fabric was treated with the optimum concentrations of polyacrylamide and hydrazine, dried and cured. The morphological changes occurred were investigated. The pretreated fabric was then dyed with commercial reactive dyes under neutral pH in the absence of any electrolyte. Such dyeing was also carried out with various reactive dyes using different dyeing sequences. The dyeability and fastness properties of the modified and dyed samples were assessed and compared with those of the conventionally dyed sample. It is observed that the simultaneous polyacrylamide-hydrazine treatment and dyeing enhances the dyeability of cotton at neutral pH with a series of commercial reactive dyes. Polymer-aided reactive dyeing improves the wrinkle recovery and may eliminate the subsequent wash-n-wear treatment. A probable mechanism for dye fixation is proposed.

 

Keywords : Cotton, Dyeing, Hydrazine, Polyacrylamide, Reactive dye

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 28, September 2003, pp. 339-342

 

Dyeing of jute with natural dyes

 

N C Pan, S N Chattopadhyay & A Day

 

 

Grey jute fabric was bleached with hydrogen peroxide (1 vol.) by the conventional method, mordanted with different concentrations of ferrous sulphate and dyed separately with natural dyes extracted from deodara leaf (Cedrus deodara L.), jackfruit leaf (Artocarpus integrifolia L.) and eucalyptus leaf (Eucalyptus globulus L.). Lighter shades were obtained after dyeing of bleached jute fabric with the above extracts without applying mordant. Dye uptake increased with the increase in mordant concentration. The use of mordant in the dyeing of jute fabric resulted in deeper shade with good wash fastness.

 

Keywords : Bleaching, Deodara leaf, Dyeing , Eucalyptus leaf, Jackfruit leaf, Jute, Mordant, Natural dye

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 28, September 2003, pp. 343-347

 

 

Alkali deweighting of acid-modified multi
component copolyester fibre

Ruxin Yang

 

 

The treatment conditions for alkali deweighting of acid-modified multicomponent copolyester fibres have been optimized. The satisfactory silk-like effect is observed under the specific treatment conditions [7.5g/L NaOH, 85C temperature, 40 min treatment time, 1:40 material-to-liquor ratio, and 1.0g/L promoter]. After alkali deweighting, the special micro-pit structure occurs on the surface of acid-modified fibres which enhances the fibre permeability, adhesion regain, capability of colouring and feel. The X-ray diffraction patterns show that the degree of crystallization of fibre decreases after alkali peeling.

 

Keywords: Multicomponent copolyester fibre, Alkali peeling, Alkali deweighting, Copolyester fibre

 

 

  

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 28, September 2003, pp. 348-362

 

Structure and structure-property relationship in native
cotton : Some challenges to breeders

A V Moharir

 

 

This paper presents a brief review of the literature on the current status of the supra molecular structure of native cotton fibre and of the experimental data on the physical properties and cellulose crystallite X-ray orientation parameters in respect of a large number of the same cotton varieties, belonging to different species of cotton grown at widely different agro-climatic locations, namely Coimbatore, Nagpur, New Delhi and Sirsa, between 11.0 0 and 29.0 0 North latitudes in India. Also presented and discussed are the data on cellulose synthesis in sixteen cotton varieties grown under identical agro-climatic conditions at one location. Possible reasons for the variations in the physical and technological properties of fibres have been observed and the implications of these as challenges to cotton breeders in India are foreseen in the light of the demand of the modern cotton processing technologies.

 

Keywords: Cotton, Structure-property relationship, Cellulose synthesis

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 28, September 2003, pp. 363-366

 

Irregularity and imperfections in ring-spun yarns

R V Mahendra Gowda

 

 

Ring-spun yarns of different counts and fibrous materials have been studied for irregularity and imperfections. The irregularity-length equations have been developed using five different cut lengths (10, 100, 1000, 10000, and 100000 mm) to deduce irregularity-length indices (m and a). The values of m and a for all the yarns are found to be -0.25 and 22.5-29.7 respectively. The irregularity is found to be correlated highly, fairly and poorly with thin places (-30%), thick places (+50%) and neps (+200%) respectively for various yarns studied

 

 

Keywords: Irregularity-length indices, Ring-spun yarns, Yarn  imperfections, Yarn irregularity