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Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 

 

 ISSN : 0971-0426   CODEN : IJFRET

VOLUME 29

NUMBER 4

DECEMBER  2004

 

CONTENTS

 

Low-temperature plasma treatment of wool fabric for its industrial use

C W Kan, K Chan & C W M Yuen

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7  D06B 3/00]

385

 

 

Studies on properties of hollow polyester needle-punched fabrics

Vinay Kumar Midha, R Alagirusamy & V K Kothari

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7  D04H 1/46, D04H 5/02]

391

 

 

Weavability of dref–2 yarns

B K Behera  & V K Joshi

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7  D02G 3/00, G01N 33/36]

400

 

 

Influence of process variables on characteristics of modal siro-spun yarns using Box-Behnken response surface design

R V M Gowda, M Sivakumar & M S Senthil Kannan

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7  D02G 3/00, G01N 33/36]

 

412

 

 

Process-structure-property relationship of polyester-cotton MVS yarns: Part I–Influence of processing variables on yarn structural parameters

G K Tyagi,  Dhirendra Sharma &  K R Salhotra

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7  D01H 4/02, D01H 7/00, D02G 3/00]

 

419

 

 

Process-structure-property relationship of polyester-cotton MVS yarns: Part II– Influence of process variables on yarn characteristics

G K Tyagi,  Dhirendra Sharma &  K R Salhotra

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7  D01H 4/02, D01H 7/00, D02G 3/00]

 

429

 

 

Characteristics of dref-3 yarns with jute in core

S  Mukherjee  & P K  Majumdar 

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7  D01H 13/26,  D02G 3/00, D06H 3/00, G01N 33/36]

436

 

 

Analysis of spinning tension in ring spinning

R S Rengasamy, S M Ishtiaque, A Ghosh, A Patnaik & M Bharati

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7  D01H 3/00, D01H 13/00]

440

 

 

Influence of physical properties of Indian cottons on their bundle tenacity and strength uniformity

Jal Singh & B  S  Sharma

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 G01N 33/36]

 

443

 

Influence of texturing conditions on characteristics and dyeing behaviour of polyamide 66 yarn

B Popović, D Jocić, R S Jovanović & M Filipović

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D02G 3/00, D06P 1/39, G01N 33/36]

 

448

 

 

Sulphur dyeing using non-sulphide reducing agents

S R Shukla & Roshan S Pai

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06P 1/30, D06P 3/60

454

 

 

Substitute products for urea in application of reactive dyes to cotton fabrics

Geeta N Sheth & Aparna A Musale

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 C09B 62/00; D06P 1/38; D06P 3/62]

462

 

Extraction and identification of colour components from the barks of Mimusops elengi and Terminalia arjuna and evaluation of their dyeing characteristics on wool

R Bhuyan & C N Saikia & K K Das

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06P 1/34]

 

 

470

 

 

Short Communications

 

Effect of preparatory process on quality of fibres in milange yarn production

M Tamil Selvan & K Raghunathan

[IPC Code: Int Cl7. D01B 9/00, G01N 33/36]

477

 

 

Pilling of polyester/wool blends

Li  Long   &  Zhou  Wei

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06H 3/00, G01N 33/36]

480

 

 

Review Article

 

Development and processing of lyocell

R B Chavan & A K Patra

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D01F 2/00, D21H 13/08]

483

 

 

Book Review

 

Coated textiles

By A K Sen; reviewed by G S Mukherjee

493

 

 

Annual Index

495

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 29, December 2004, pp. 385-390

 

 Low-temperature plasma treatment of wool fabric for its industrial use

C W Kan, K Chan & C W M Yuen

 

Low-temperature plasma (LTP) treatment using oxygen gas has been applied to wool fabric. The LTP-treated fabric has been tested for its properties, such as tensile strength, elongation, tearing strength, shrinkage and colour fastness, using different international standard testing methods and the results compared with the industrial requirements. It is observed that the LTP-treated wool fabrics meet the industrial requirements. LTP treatment is found to increase extensibility and decrease tearing strength and shrinkage tendency of the fabric with overall improved fastness properties.

 

Keywords: Low-temperature plasma treatment, Wool fabric

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06B 3/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 29, December 2004, pp. 391-399

 

 Studies on properties of hollow polyester needle-punched fabrics

 Vinay Kumar Midha, R Alagirusamy & V K Kothari

 

The individual and interactive effects of needling parameters (depth of penetration and punch density) and web parameters (fibre orientation, fibre linear density and fabric weight) on air permeability, compressibility, compressional recovery and bending length properties of hollow polyester needle-punched nonwoven fabrics have been studied using Box-Behnken experimental design. Needle-punched fabrics have been made from cross-laid as well as parallel-laid webs. It is observed that as the web gets more consolidated, the compressibility decreases, recovery increases and stiffness generally increases. Finer denier fibres and parallel-laid webs lead to more consolidation in the fabric. Cross-laid structures show higher compressibility and lower recovery as compared to parallel-laid structures.

 

Keywords: Air permeability, Bending length, Compressibility, Compressional recovery, Needle-punched fabric, Polyester, Punch density

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D04H 1/46, D04H 5/02

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 29, December 2004, pp. 400-411

 

Weavability of dref-2 yarns

B K Behera & V K Joshi

 

The influence of spinning parameters on the weavability of cotton dref-2 yarn manufactured on dref-3 machine has been studied. It is observed that the maximum weavability is obtained at friction drum speed of 5000 rpm and delivery speed of 100 m/min. Sizing improves the weavability of dref-2 yarn. The improvement in weavability due to sizing is higher for low-weavability grey yarn as compared to that for the high-weavability yarn produced using optimum spinning parameters. However, the absolute weavability cycles of the best grey yarn still remain maximum after sizing.

 

Keywords: Cotton, Dref-2 yarn, Friction drum speed, Friction ratio, Weavability

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D02G 3/00, G01N 33/36

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 Vol. 29, December 2004, pp. 412-418

 

Influence of process variables on characteristics of modal siro-spun yarns using Box-Behnken response surface design

R V M Gowda, M Sivakumar & M S Senthil Kannan

 

The influence of process variables on characteristics of modal siro-spun yarns has been studied using Box-Behnken response surface design. The characteristics of these yarns have been evaluated and compared with those of equivalent double-rove spun yarns. It is observed that the increase in strand spacing from 6 mm to 10 mm increases the unevenness and decreases the hairiness, strength and extension of modal siro-spun yarns. The traveller mass and spindle speed show varying effects on characteristics of siro-spun yarns. Taking the effects of all the three experimental factors into account, it has been found that the yarn unevenness is minimum and elongation is maximum at lower levels of factors while the hairiness is minimum at their higher levels. The yarns exhibit maximum tenacity and fewer imperfections at middle levels of the factors. Hence, the strand spacing of 8 mm, traveller mass of 1/o and spindle speed of 17000 rpm are found to produce siro yarns of nominal count (30 tex) with optimum quality. Further, the siro-spun yarns are found to be relatively inferior in respect of unevenness and superior as regards the hairiness when compared with the equivalent double-rove spun yarn.

 

Keywords: Box-Behnken design, Modal fibre, Siro-spun yarn, Yarn quality

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D02G 3/00, G01N 33/36

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 29, December 2004, pp. 419-428

 

Process-structure-property relationship of polyester-cotton MVS yarns:  Part I–Influence of processing variables on yarn structural parameters

G K Tyagi,  Dhirendra Sharma & K R Salhotra

 

The influence of twisting jet pressure, delivery speed, nozzle distance, yarn linear density and yarn composition on the structural parameters of polyester-cotton yarns spun on Murata Vortex Spinner (MVS 810) has been studied. It is observed that the MVS yarns have about 50 - 60% core fibres and remaining as wrapper or wild fibres. The structure of MVS yarn has been classified into four main categories, viz. tight wrappings, long wrappings, irregular wrappings and unwrapped. The tight wrappings are found to increase with the increase in jet pressure but at very high jet pressure, they get converted into irregular wrappings. The long wrappings increase with the nozzle distance while unwrapped structure decreases with both jet pressure and nozzle distance up to a certain level. The finer yarns have low proportion of core fibres. The wrapper and wild fibres increase with the jet pressure but at very high jet pressure of 6.0 kg/cm2, the wild fibres increase significantly. An increase in delivery speed leads to a further increase in wild fibres.

 

Keywords: Air-jet spinning, Delivery speed, Murata Vortex Spinner, Nozzle distance, Polyester-cotton yarn, Twisting jet pressure

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D01H 4/02, D01H 7/00, D02G 3/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 Vol. 29, December 2004, pp. 429-435

 

Process-structure-property relationship of polyester-cotton MVS yarns: Part II– Influence of process variables on yarn characteristics

G K Tyagi ,  Dhirendra Sharma & K R Salhotra

 

The influence of twisting jet pressure, delivery speed, nozzle distance, yarn linear density and yarn composition on the characteristics of polyester-cotton MVS yarns has been studied. Contrary to MJS yarns, the coarser yarns are stronger than the finer ones due to the higher proportion of load-bearing core fibres. The twisting jet pressure has a direct effect on the tensile characteristics of polyester-cotton MVS yarns and the optimum pressure is dependent on yarn linear density. Moreover, the use of excessive high jet pressure adversely affects yarn tensile characteristics. The use of higher nozzle distance improves the yarn tenacity; the latter, however, deteriorates at very high nozzle distance. A higher delivery speed produces weak, less rigid, less uniform and more hairy yarns.

 

Keywords:   Air-jet spinning, Flexural rigidity, Murata Vortex Spinner, Nozzle distance, Polyester/cotton yarn, Twisting jet pressure

IPC Code:    Int. Cl.7  D01H 4/02, D01H 7/00, D02G 3/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol 29, December 2004, pp. 436-439

 

 Characteristics of dref-3 yarns with jute in core

S Mukherjee  & P K Majumdar

 

The tensile properties of jute-acrylic and jute-cotton dref-3 yarns with jute in core have been studied. The tenacity of dref-3 yarns was found to be lower but the strength translation efficiency of jute fibres was higher when used in the core of jute-acrylic dref-3 yarn as compared to that when used in the flyer yarn structure. Stick-slip pattern of failure was observed in case of dref-3 yarns, whereas catastrophic failure was observed in case of jute flyer yarn. Breaking elongation and specific work of rupture of the dref-3 yarns were higher than those of the jute flyer yarn.

 

Keywords : Dref-3 yarn, Jute-acrylic yarn, Jute-cotton yarn, Modulus ratio, Packing coefficient, Stick-slip pattern, Tensile properties

IPC Code: Int. Cl7. D01H 13/26, D02G 3/00, D06H 3/00, G01N 33/36

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 29, December 2004, pp. 440-442

  

Analysis of spinning tension in ring spinning

R S Rengasamy, S M Ishtiaque, A Ghosh, A Patnaik & M Bharati

 

The fluctuation in spinning tension in ring spinning at different time scales, viz. long term (beginning to end of the cop build up), medium term (for winding a chase) and short term (for one revolution of a traveller) has been studied using Rothschild Tensiometer  2000 and a customized software. It is observed that the spinning tension decreases from the beginning to the end of the cop build up. Traverse of the ring rail and rotation of the traveller introduce periodicity to the spinning tension over which fluctuations arising out of the vibrations from the spindle are superimposed.

 

Keywords: Cotton, Ring spinning, Spinning tension

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7  D01H 3/00, D01H 13/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 29, December 2004, pp. 443-447

 

Influence of physical properties of Indian cottons on their bundle tenacity and strength uniformity

Jal Singh & B S Sharma

 

The fibre bundle tenacity and strength uniformity have been determined at 0, 1.6, 3.2, 4.8 and 6.4 mm gauge lengths for some Indian cottons differing widely in physical characteristics. The results show that the longer and finer cottons are more uniform in strength. Significant positive correlation is found between bundle tenacity and 2.5% span length at higher gauge lengths, while linear density and fibre maturity exhibit significant negative correlation with bundle tenacity at higher gauge lengths.

 

Keywords: Bundle tenacity, Cotton fibre, Physical properties, Strength uniformity ratio

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 G01N 33/36

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 Vol. 29, December 2004, pp. 448-453

 

 Influence of texturing conditions on characteristics and dyeing behaviour of polyamide 66 yarn

B Popović, D Jocić, R S Jovanović & M Filipović

 

The influence of texturing parameters, such as draw ratio and heater temperature, on characteristics and dyeing behaviour of polyamide 66 yarn has been studied. It is observed that the draw ratio and heater temperature have negligible influence on dye exhaustion, but they both markedly influence the dyeing kinetics. This has been measured by apparent diffusion coefficients and discussed on the basis of crystallinity and degree of orientation data.

 

Keywords: Degree of crystallinity, Degree of orientation, Diffusion coefficient, Draw ratio, Polyamide 66 yarn, Texturing

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D02G 3/00, D06P 1/39, G01N 33/36

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 29, December 2004, pp. 454-461

 

 Sulphur dyeing using non-sulphide reducing agents

S R Shukla & Roshan S Pai

 

Cotton hanks were dyed with three different sulphur dyes using non-sulphide reducing agents such as glucose, fructose, invert sugar and molasses. The alkalies employed for reduction were sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide. Invert sugar as a reducing agent and sodium carbonate as alkali proved to be better as this combination gave results comparable to those obtained with the conventional sodium sulphide dyeing with respect to depth and tone of dyeing. The fastness properties were also found to be comparable.

 

Keywords: Cotton, Dyeing, Non-sulphide reducing agent, Sulphur dyes

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06P 1/30, D06P 3/60

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 29, December 2004, pp. 462-469

 

Substitute products for urea in application of reactive dyes to cotton fabrics

Geeta N Sheth  & Aparna A Musale

 

Caprolactam, PEG 400 and PEG 600 have been identified as partial or complete substitutes of urea in the dyeing and printing of reactive dyes on cotton fabrics. It is observed that the caprolactam in many reactive dyes can replace urea while PEG 400 and PEG 600 are effective for replacement to the extent of about 50% of the optimum concentration of urea required for fixation.

 

Keywords: Caprolactam, Cotton, Dyeing, Polyethylene glycol, Printing, Urea

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7: C09B 62/00, D06P 1/38, D06P 3/62

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 29, December 2004, pp. 470-476

 

Extraction and identification of colour components from the barks of Mimusops elengi and Terminalia arjuna and evaluation of their dyeing characteristics on wool

R Bhuyan ,  C N Saikia & K K Das

 

Dyes have been extracted from the barks of Mimusops elengi and Terminalia arjuna and the chemical constituents of the colour components responsible for dyeing identified. The dyeing behaviour of these colour components on wool has also been evaluated. Depending on the concentrations of dye (1-6%) in the dye bath, the dye absorption on the fibre varies from 21.943% to 27.462% and from 5.184% to 10.787% respectively for the dyes extracted from M. elengi and T. arjuna. The colour components isolated from the barks of the two plant varieties mainly contain flavonoid moiety. The dyed and post-mordanted wool exhibits better fastness properties and therefore these dyes might be an alternative to synthetic dyes.

 

Keywords: Dyeing, Mimusops elengi, Terminalia arjuna, Wool fibre

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06P 1/34

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 29, December 2004, pp. 477-479

  

Effect of preparatory process on quality of fibres in milange yarn production

M Tamil Selvan & K Raghunathan

 

The effects of fibre dyeing, drying, opening and carding during milange yarn preparation on length and tensile properties of fibres have been studied using three different varieties of Indian cottons, namely S6, DCH32 and MCU5. It is observed that the dyeing, drying, opening and carding affect the fibre quality; the effect however varies with the fibre variety.

 

Keywords: Dyeing, Fibre strength, Milange yarn

IPC Code: Int Cl7. D01B 9/00, G01N 33/36

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 Vol. 29, December 2004, pp. 480-482

 

 Pilling of polyester/wool blends

Li Long  & Zhou Wei

 

The pilling of a series of worsted fabrics made from wool/polyester fibres has been tested using circular locus pill tester and the mechanism of pilling studied. The process and the mechanism of pilling have been studied through the observation of fibre morphology on fabric surface by using scanning electron microscope. It is observed that the conditions of test, structure of yarn, wool content and property of polyester fibres affect the pilling of worsted fabrics.

 

Keywords: Pilling, Polyester fibre, Wool fibre, Worsted fabric

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06H 3/00, G01N 33/36

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 Vol. 29, December 2004, pp. 483-492

 

 Development and processing of lyocell

R B Chavan & A K Patra

 

An account of lyocell, covering the hindsight of its development and available brands has been reported. This wonder fibre surpasses all other cellulosic fibres in terms of properties, aesthetics and, quite importantly, ecology in manufacturing. Among the various names with which lyocell is available, Tencel and Tencel A 100 are the prominent and widely used. Besides dealing with the various attributes of lyocell, the options for wet treatment of the fibre with reference to steps of processing, suitability of dyes and process parameters have also been addressed.

 

Keywords: Fibrillation, Lyocell, Peach-skin effect, Tencel, Tencel A 100

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D01F 2/00, D21H 13/08