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Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research


 

 ISSN : 0971-0426   CODEN : IJFRET

VOLUME 29

NUMBER 3

SEPTEMBER 2004

 

 

CONTENTS

 

Effect of suture structure on knot performance of polyamide sutures

A S Hockenberger & E Karaca

[IPC Code: Int. Cl7. D02G 3/00, A61L 17/00]

 

271

Polyester textured yarn fabricated spun-like filament by rotor twister

J H Lin, C H Chang, H C Chen & C W Lou

[IPC Code: Int. Cl7. D02G 3/22, D01H 7/00, D01D 5/00]

 

278

Stress-strain characteristics of air-jet textured polyester yarns

R S Rengasamy, V K Kothari & Asis Patnaik

[IPC Code: Int. Cl7. D02G 3/22, D06H 3/00]

 

283

Migratory behaviour of core and sheath fibres in dref-III friction-spun acrylic yarns

S Dhamija, S Sambari & R Chattopadhyay

[IPC Code: Int. Cl7. D02G 3/00]

 

290

Performance and low-stress characteristics of polyester-cotton MVS yarns

G K Tyagi & Dhirendra Sharma

[IPC Code: Int. Cl7. D02G 3/00, D06H 3/00, G01N 33/36]

 

301

Study on drafting force of roving: Part III – Effect of process parameters and roving irregularity on drafting force variability

A Das, S M Ishtiaque & Rajesh Kumar

[IPC Code: Int. Cl7. D02G 3/00, D01H 13/26, G01N 33/36]

 

 

308

Study on drafting force of roving: Part IV – Correlation between drafting force, roving strength and yarn quality

A Das, S M Ishtiaque & Rajesh Kumar

[IPC Code: Int. Cl7. D02G 3/00, D01H 13/26, G01N 33/36]

 

 

313

Studies on characteristics of flyer and dref-3 spun jute yarns texturized by sodium hydroxide solution

S Mukherjee & P K Majumdar

[IPC Code: Int. Cl7. D02G 3/00, D01H 13/26, D06H 3/00, G01N 33/36]

 

 

318

Influence of cocoon spinning conditions on reeling performance and quality of raw silk of multibivoltine cocoons

Subhas V Naik & T H Somashekar

[IPC Code: Int. Cl7. D01B 7/00]

 

 

324

A new method to evaluate low-stress shearing behaviour of woven fabrics

A Alamdar-Yazdi

[IPC Code: Int. Cl7. D06C 13/00, D06H 3/00, G01N 33/36]

 

333

Effect of loom settings on fabric cover and beat-up force

B M D Dauda & M P U Bandara

[IPC Code: Int. Cl7. D03D 23/00, D03D 51/00]

 

339

Process optimization in tetraacetyl ethylenediamine activated sodium perborate bleaching of cotton

M Prabaharan & L Almeida

[IPC Code: Int. Cl7. D06L 3/00, D06B 3/00]

 

 

343

Dyeing of wool with Acacia pennata

S R Shukla, S C Shinde, A S Banye & Swati M Patil

[IPC Code: Int. Cl7. D06P 1/34, D06P 3/14]

 

350

Short Communications

 

Factors influencing the abrasion properties of chenille yarns

H G Ortlek & S Ulku

[IPC Code: Int. Cl7. D02G 3/42, D06H 3/00]

 

353

Frictional and mechanical properties of mercerized ring- and rotor-spun yarns

G K Tyagi, Ashvani Goyal & K Dhanda

[IPC Code: Int. Cl7. D01H 7/00, D06B 7/00, D06M 11/00, G01N 33/36]

 

357

Characteristics of degummed ramie fibre and its cotton blended yarns

M Ahmed, S K Chattopadhyay, A K Chaphekar, R S Gaikwad & S K Dey

[IPC Code: Int. Cl7. D01C 1/02]

 

362

Review Article

 

Textile preforms for advanced composites

Vinayak Ogale & R Alagirusamy

[IPC Code: Int. Cl7. B32B 11/00, D04H 1/00]

366

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 Vol. 29, September 2004, pp. 271-277

 

Effect of suture structure on knot performance of polyamide sutures

A S Hockenberger & E Karaca

 

The knot performance of monofilament and braided polyamide (PA) sutures has been characterised by applying two different knots with two, three and four throws. It is observed that generally granny knot and braided structure have better knot performance. An additional throw does not increase the force required to break the suture. Suture size is also important for knot performance and the sutures behave differently when they are wet.

 

Keywords: Braided polyamide suture, Granny knot, Knot performance, Polyamide suture, Square knot

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D02G 3/00, A61L 17/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 29, September 2004, pp. 278-282

 

Polyester textured yarn fabricated spun-like filament by rotor twister

J H Lin, C H Chang,  H C Chen & C W Lou

 

A novel rotor twister has been used to fabricate a spun-like filament yarn using a draw-textured yarn (DTY) as core yarn and a partially oriented yarn (POY) as wrapping yarn. During twisting, the core yarn passes through a pair of grinding wheels to cause hairiness. The effects of rotor speed, twist multiplier, number of grinding wheels and counts of DTY on tenacity, elongation and hairiness have been studied. It is observed that the decrease in the number of grinding wheels increases the hairiness but decreases the tenacity and elongation. The twist multiplier affects neither the tenacity nor the elongation but the increase in twist multiplier increases the hairiness. The increase in rotor speed increases the tenacity and elongation but decreases the hairiness. With a twist multiplier of 1.4, rotor speed of 8000 rpm and grinding wheels of (60# + 120#), the filament yarn excellently imitates spun yarn.

 

Keywords: Polyester yarn, Rotor twister, Spun-like filament yarn, Yarn hairiness

IPC Code: Int.Cl.7 D02G 3/22, D01H 7/00, D01D 5/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 Vol. 29, September 2004, pp. 283-289

 

Stress-strain characteristics of air-jet textured polyester yarns

R S Rengasamy, V K Kothari & Asis Patnaik

 

Stress-strain characteristics of air-jet textured yarn are affected by many factors, including overfeed and constituent feeder yarn properties. After texturing, there is a considerable reduction in tenacity and modulus of yarns. Yarn extension at peak load mostly decreases moderately after texturing. Majority of the textured yarns exhibit catastrophic tensile failure. Core-wetted textured yarns textured with less number of coarse effect filaments exhibit non-catastrophic tensile failure. Normal (parallel-feed) textured yarns are more extensible and have less initial modulus.

 

Keywords: Air-jet texturing, Catastrophic failure, Core-and-effect polyester yarns

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D02G 3/22, D06H 3/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 Vol. 29, September 2004, pp. 290-300

 

Migratory behaviour of core and sheath fibres in dref-III friction-spun acrylic yarns

S Dhamija,  S Sambari & R Chattopadhyay

 

The migratory behaviour of core and sheath fibres in dref-III friction-spun yarns has been studied using the tracer fibre technique. It is observed that the fibre migration in these yarns is restricted to particular zones only, depending on the position of fibre feed. Core fibres exhibit minimum values of migration parameters. In sheath, the fibres fed nearer to the delivery end show comparatively larger values. The two streams seem to be interlacing in the radial zone of 0.2 – 0.4. An increase in suction pressure decreases the fibre migration in both core and sheath elements while a decrease in core content initially decreases it, followed by an increase. Further, the variations in yarn tenacity and breaking extension have also been explained in terms of these changes in migration parameters.

 

Keywords:   Core/sheath ratio, Dref-III yarn, Fibre migration, Friction spinning, Tracer fibre technique

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D02G 3/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 Vol. 29, September 2004, pp. 301-307

  

Performance and low-stress characteristics of polyester-cotton MVS yarns

G K Tyagi  & Dhirendra Sharma

 

The effect of twisting jet pressure, nozzle distance, delivery speed, yarn linear density and fibre composition on the performance and low-stress characteristics of polyester-cotton Murata vortex spun yarns has been studied. The coarser yarns produced using the same conditions exhibit higher abrasion resistance, tensile energy and compressional energy but lower per cent decay. Higher jet pressure and wider nozzle distance offer considerable advantages in respect of structural integrity, abrasion resistance and resilience but there is deterioration in these characteristics at a very high jet pressure. Tensile energy initially increases with the increase in jet pressure and nozzle distance and then drops when jet pressure is further increased. Compressional energy, on the other hand, exhibits a decrease followed by an increase with the increasing jet pressure. Structural integrity and abrasion resistance deteriorate with the increasing delivery speed.

 

Keywords: Abrasion resistance, Air-jet spinning, Compressional energy, Murata vortex spun yarn, Polyester-cotton yarn

IPC Code: Int.Cl.7 D02G 3/00, D06H 3/00, G01N 33/36

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 Vol 29, September 2004, pp. 308-312

 

Study on drafting force of roving: Part III – Effect of process parameters and roving irregularity on drafting force variability

A Das, S M Ishtiaque & Rajesh Kumar

 

The effect of draft, drafting speed and roller setting on drafting force variability of 100% cotton roving has been studied for different levels of fibre-to-fibre friction and roving irregularity. It is observed that the drafting force variability increases with the increase in draft, drafting speed and roller setting. The drafting force variability is higher in case of rovings with lower fibre-to-fibre coefficient of friction and higher roving irregularity.

 

Keywords: Cotton, Drafting force, Drafting speed, Roller setting, Roving irregularity

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D02G 3/00, D01H 13/26, G01N 33/36

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 Vol. 29, September 2004, pp. 313-317

 

Study on drafting force of roving: Part IV – Correlation between drafting force,
roving strength and yarn quality

A Das, S M Ishtiaque & Rajesh Kumar

 

The effect of fibre-to-fibre friction, roving hank and roving twist multiplier, which directly affect the roving drafting force, on the properties of yarn has been studied. A fairly good correlation (R2 = 0.9001) has been observed between roving strength and drafting force. The yarn tenacity is found to be better correlated with fibre and roving parameters as compared to yarn breaking elongation. Yarn irregularity and total imperfections have very good correlation with the fibre and roving parameters.

 

Keywords: Cotton, Drafting force, Fibre friction, Roving strength, Yarn irregularity

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D02G 3/00, D01H 13/26, G01N 33/36

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 Vol. 29, September 2004, pp. 318-323

 

Studies on characteristics of flyer and dref-3 spun jute yarns
texturized by sodium hydroxide solution

 S Mukherjee & P K Majumdar

 

The tensile and bulk properties of texturized and texturized-steamed jute-acrylic dref-3 yarns as well as of texturized and mercerized jute-cotton dref-3 yarns have been studied and compared with those of the conventional jute untreated and texturized yarns. The percentage loss in tenacity, weight and bulkiness is found to be minimum for treated jute-cotton dref-3 yarns whereas flyer–spun jute texturized yarns show maximum bulkiness and loss in tenacity and weight. The tenacity, initial modulus, modulus ratio, specific work of rupture and packing coefficient values of dref-3 jute texturized yarns are higher than those of jute flyer- spun texturized yarns. A characteristic difference in the stick-slip pattern of failure is also observed for parent and treated jute flyer-spun yarns as well as for parent and treated jute-acrylic and jute-cotton dref-3 yarns.

 

Keywords: Bulk properties, Dref-3 yarn, Jute yarn, Jute-acrylic yarn, Jute-cotton yarn, Stick-slip pattern, Tensile properties

IPC Code: Int. Cl7. D02G 3/00, D06H 3/00, D01H 13/26, G01N 33/36

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 Vol. 29, September 2004, pp. 324-332

 

Influence of cocoon spinning conditions on reeling performance
and quality of raw silk of multibivoltine cocoons

Subhas V Naik & T H Somashekar

 

Influence of temperature and humidity maintained during cocoon spinning on reeling performance and quality of raw silk has been studied for multibivoltine cocoons. Temperatures of 27°C and 30°C and humidity conditions of 70% and 90%, with and without air circulation, were maintained using Sericatron during cocoon spinning by matured silkworms. The reeling characteristics, viz. reelability, non-broken filament length, raw silk %, and quality characteristics, viz. neatness, cleanness, tenacity and elongation, have been found to be significantly better for cocoons spun under low temperature and low humidity conditions as compared to those for cocoons spun under high temperature and high humidity conditions. The high temperature and high humidity conditions, particularly without air circulation, during cocoon spinning affect severely both the reeling and quality characteristics of raw silk. The air circulation during cocoon spinning improves the reeling performance and quality of raw silk significantly both in the case of high and low humidity conditions. The effect of humidity on reeling performance and quality of silk may be attributed to the structural changes in the sericin due to the high humidity conditions during cocoon spinning.

 

Keywords: Cocoon spinning, Elongation , Multibivoltine cocoon, Reelability, Silk

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D01B 7/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 Vol. 29, September 2004, pp. 333-338

 

A new method to evaluate low-stress shearing behaviour of woven fabrics

A Alamdar-Yazdi

 

The ability of extraction and concentrated loading methods for measuring the shearing properties of woven fabrics has been studied. Forty light weight woven fabrics of different varieties have been tested by three methods, viz KES, extraction and a new suggested method, and the results compared. Correlation between the KES quantitative parameters and the measured features extracted from the curves of extraction and new methods indicates better ability of the new method to measure the shearing properties. It is observed that the buckling zone of fabrics is the key point to evaluate the shearing rigidity. In addition, the new method is capable of yielding the effect of changing production parameters.

 

Keywords: Extraction method, KES system, Shear deformation

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06C 13/00, D06H 3/00, G01N 33/36

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 Vol. 29, September 2004, pp. 339-342

 

Effect of loom settings on fabric cover and beat-up force

B M D Dauda & M P U Bandara

 

The effect of shed geometry and shed timing on 50:50 cotton/vincel fabric cover, especially fabric reediness, has been studied on a shuttle loom and the combination of weaving conditions that gives best cover and least stress on loom and warp yarns determined. It is observed that the shed unbalancing shows improvement in fabric cover. Shed timing, on the other hand, shows variable responses with the so-called ‘normal’ shed timing, resulting in a fabric of lowest reediness and highest pick density. The compromised setting for best fabric cover and least stress on loom was observed at high level of shed unbalancing and normal shed timing.

 

Keywords: Beat-up force, Fabric cover, Fabric reediness, Pick density, Shed geometry, Shed timing

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D03D 23/00, D03D 51/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 Vol 29, September  2004, pp. 343-349

 

Process optimization in tetraacetyl ethylenediamine activated sodium
perborate bleaching of cotton

M Prabaharan & L Almeida

 

Cotton fabric has been bleached with tetraacetyl ethylenediamine (TAED) activated sodium perborate by varying sodium perborate concentration, TAED concentration and temperature. The effect of these process parameters on the quality of the bleached cotton has been studied and compared with the conventionally bleached cotton. Improved whiteness with minimum fibre damage can be obtained by activated sodium perborate bleaching at lower temperature and for shorter exposure duration. The process is found to reduce energy cost and effluent load on environment.

 

Keywords: Bleaching, Cotton, Desizing, Scouring, Whiteness index

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06L 3/00, D06B 3/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 Vol 29, September 2004, pp. 350-352

 

Dyeing of wool with Acacia pennata

S R Shukla, S C Shinde, A S Banye & Swati M Patil

 

Wool fabric has been dyed with an aqueous extract from the bark of Acacia pennata containing tannin as the major colourant. Dyeing with the combination of extracts of Acacia pennata and banana stem has also been carried out and improvement in depth of colour without altering the tone observed. The colour of the fabrics has been evaluated on computer colour matching system in terms of K/S and L* a* b* colour coordinates. The dyeing shows moderate to good fastness to washing, light and rubbing.

 

Keywords: Acacia pennata, Dyeing, Metallic mordant, Natural dye, Wool

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06P 1/34, D06P 3/14

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 Vol. 29, September 2004, pp. 353-356

 

Factors influencing the abrasion properties of chenille yarns

 H G Ortlek & S Ulku

 

The effect of material type, pile length and twisting rate on the abrasion properties of chenille yarns has been studied. Twenty-seven different chenille yarns have been produced using three different twist levels (800, 850 and 900 twists/m) and three different pile lengths (0.7, 0.8 and 1.0 mm) from three different materials (cotton, viscose and acrylic) and then used as weft yarn for producing upholstery fabrics. It is observed that the material type, twist level and pile length have significant effect on the abrasion resistance of chenille yarns. The abrasion resistance of cotton chenille yarns is found to be higher followed by the acrylic chenille yarns and viscose chenille yarns.

 

Keywords: Abrasion resistance, Acrylic yarn, Chenille yarn, Cotton yarn, Pile length, Twist level, Viscose yarn

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D02G 3/42, D06H 3/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 Vol. 29, September 2004, pp. 357-361

 

Frictional and mechanical properties of mercerized ring- and rotor-spun yarns

 G K Tyagi, Ashvani Goyal & K Dhanda

 

The response of cotton ring- and rotor-spun yarns to mercerization treatment has been investigated. It is observed that the caustic mercerization causes major changes in the mechanical and frictional behaviour of yarns, though the magnitudes of changes are different for different ring- and rotor-yarns, depending on the process parameters used. Both mercerized ring and rotor yarns display higher knot and loop strength and lower extensibility, elastic recovery and surface friction than the corresponding unmercerized yarns. Mercerization is an effective means of reducing hairiness and twist liveliness of both types of yarn.

 

Keywords: Cotton, Mercerization, Ring-spun yarn, Rotor-spun yarn, Wrapper fibre, Yarn friction

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D01H 7/00, D06B 7/00, D06M 11/00

G01N 33/36

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 Vol. 29, September 2004, pp. 362-365

 

Characteristics of degummed ramie fibre and its cotton blended yarns

 M Ahmed, S K Chattopadhyay, A K Chaphekar, R S Gaikwad & S K Dey

 

A two-stage degumming method has been used to reduce the gum content from 20-30% to 2-3% in ramie fibre. The chemical composition and fibre properties of raw, degummed and bleached ramie fibre samples have also been studied. Although the surface property of ramie fibre improves on degumming and further bleaching, the fibre bundle strength and blended yarn quality are found to deteriorate.

 

Keywords: Cotton-ramie blend, Degumming, Ramie fibre, Ring spinning, Short-staple spinning

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D01C 1/02

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 Vol. 29, September 2004, pp. 366-375

 

Textile preforms for advanced composites

Vinayak Ogale & R Alagirusamy

 

Textile preforming operations play a key role in most of the composite manufacturing processes. The basic textile yarn and fabric forming processes have been modified and developed to a significant extent to meet the increasing demand from the composite manufacturing sector. Apart from being cost effective technology employed for obtaining different fibre orientations and near net shapes, textile preforms also lead to improved mechanical properties of the resulting composites in certain aspects. The developments in the field of textile performing along with their advantages and disadvantages have been critically reviewed in this paper.

 

Keywords: Braided preform, Preform characterization, Textile preform composites

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 B32B 11/00, D04H 1/00