Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 

 

Total visitors:2,448 since 16-12-05

 ISSN : 0971-0426

 

CODEN : IJFRET

VOLUME 30

NUMBER 4

DECEMBER 2005

 

 

CONTENTS

 

Development of an instrument to study thermal resistance of fabrics

        V K Kothari & Kausik Bal

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 G12B7/00]

 

357

Thermal comfort characteristics of polyester-cotton MVS yarn fabrics 
       
G K Tyagi & Dhirendra Sharma

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06H3/00, G01N33/36]

 

363

Dimensional and physical properties of 3-D fabrics produced on the flat knitting machines

        A Marmarali & S O Gorken  

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D04B7/00, D06H3/00, G01N33/36]

 

 

371

Structures and properties of thermo-regulated knitted fabrics

        Zhang Xing-xiang, Li Yi, Tao Xiao-ming & Yick Kit-lun

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06H3/00, D06M13/00]

 

377

ESEM study of tensile behaviour of spunbonded bicomponent fibre nonwovens

        Qufu Wei & X Q Wang

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06H3/00, G01N33/36]

 

384

Effect of dynamic loading on jute-based needle-punched nonwoven fabrics

        S Sengupta, P Ray & P K Majumdar

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D04H1/00, D06H3/00, G01N33/36]

 

389

Flammability evaluation of cotton fabrics in vertical and horizontal burning modes

        T M Kotresh, R Indu Shekar, M S Subbu Lakshmi & S N Vijay Lakshmi

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06H3/00, G01N33/36]

 

396

Comparison of colour values of plain cotton fabrics woven from ring - and compact -spun yarns

        Sunay Omeroglu & Behcet Becerir

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06P1/00, G01J3/46]

 

 

402

Structure and mechanical properties of polyester DREF-3 yarns produced with different core-wrapper ratios and production speeds

        G K Tyagi &Yogesh Khanna

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D02G3/00, D06H3/00, G01N33/36]

 

 

407

Yarn strength behaviour at different gauge lengths

        Dipayan Das & Bohuslav Neckář

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D02G3/00]

414

Autocorrelation function of yarn unevenness

        Bohuslav Neckář & Dipayan Das

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D02G3/00]

 

421

Development of ecofriendly antimicrobial textile finishes using herbs

        G Thilagavathi, K Rajendrakumar & R Rajendran

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06M16/00, D06M23/00]

 

431

Factors affecting radiation grafting of N-vinylpyrrolidone onto nylon-6 fabric

        E H El-Gendy & I A El-Shanshoury

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06M14/00]

 

437

Simultaneous dyeing and finishing of cotton fabric using reactive dyes and citric acid

        S K Malik & Sushil Kumar

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06B1/00, D06P3/00]

 

444

Effect of selective pretreatments and subsequent mixed enzyme treatment on properties of jute-cotton union fabric

        A K Samanta, Deepali Singhee, Gautam Basu & K K Mahalanabis

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06M16/00, G01N33/36]

 

 

451

Review Article

 

 

Garment dyeing

        J N Chakraborty, Rudrajit Pal & P R Megha

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06P1/00, D06P3/00]

 

468

Seminar Report

 

 

Nanotechnology : Opportunities in Textiles

        Mangala Joshi

 

477

Annual Index

480

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 30, December 2005, pp. 357-362

 

Development of an instrument to study thermal resistance of fabrics

 

V K Kothari & Kausik Bal

Received 20 October 2004; revised received and accepted 11 January 2005

An instrument has been developed to measure thermal resistance of fabrics under steady state condition using guarded hot plate method. This instrument can be used to test a given fabric in absolute method as well as comparator method under convective or non-convective measurement conditions. It is observed that the instrument gives repeatable results up to two decimal places of thermal resistance value. Effect of change in ambient temperature and test plate temperature has also been studied and it is found that there is no significant change in measured thermal resistance of the fabric within the range of room temperature and test plate temperature used. The study on the effect of wind speed on the thermal resistance of woven fabrics shows that the thermal resistance reduces with the increase in wind speed.

Keywords: Heat transfer, Polyester, Thermal insulation, Thermal resistance, Viscose

IPC Code: Int.Cl.7 G12B7/00

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 30, December 2005, pp. 363-370

 

Thermal comfort characteristics of polyester-cotton MVS yarn fabrics

 

G K Tyagi & Dhirendra Sharma

Received 5 February 2004; revised received and accepted 11 January 2005

The thermal comfort characteristics, viz. air permeability, water vapour diffusion, wickability, absorbency and thermal insulation, of scoured and finished fabrics made from polyester-cotton MVS yarns have been evaluated. The experimental results reveal that the air permeability and the water vapour diffusion of the scoured fabrics initially increase with increasing twisting jet pressure of Murata vortex spinner and then decrease. Wickability and thermal insulation of these fabrics, on the other hand, resister a decrease initially with the increase in twisting jet pressure and then increase with further rise in twisting jet pressure. Wider nozzle distance enhances air permeability and water vapour diffusion of MVS yarn scoured fabrics but has a deleterious effect on wickability and thermal insulation. Higher cotton content is also effective in improving wickability, absorbency and thermal insulation properties but lowers the air permeability and water vapour diffusion. The chemical finishing significantly reduces the air permeability, water vapour diffusion, wickability, absorbency and thermal insulation of these fabrics.

Keywords: Air permeability, Air-jet spinning, Jet-spun yarn fabrics, Nozzle distance, Twisting jet pressure, Water vapour diffusion

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06H3/00, G01N33/36

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 30, December 2005, pp.371-376

 

Dimensional and physical properties of 3-D fabrics produced on the flat knitting machines

A Marmarali  & S O Gorken

Received 6 December 2004; accepted 29 March 2005

The dimensional and physical properties of 3-D fabrics produced using different loop lengths and yarn combinations of cotton and polyester on electronic flat knitting machines have been studied. It is observed that the yarn combination, tightness and washing treatment affect the fabric properties. In addition, while the tightness of fabric increases or when the samples are washed, the course spacing, wale spacing, weight and thickness of the fabric increase and the air permeability decreases.

Keywords: 3-D fabric, Cotton, Dimensional property, Knitting, Physical property, Polyester, Sandwich fabric

IPC Code : Int. Cl.7  D04B7/00, D06H3/00, G01N33/36

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 30, December 2005, pp. 377-383

 

 

Structures and properties of thermo-regulated knitted fabrics

 

Zhang Xing-xiang, Li Yi, Tao Xiao-ming & Yick Kit-lun

Received 7 June 2004; revised received and accepted 3 March 2005

Microencapsulated n-octadecane was coated on the surface of cotton and cotton/polypropylene (60:40) knitted fabrics to produce thermo-regulated textiles. The structures, morphologies, phase change properties, heat flux, softness and smoothness were studied using SEM, DSC, Thermo Lab II and Smart Hand Tester, etc. It is observed that the microcapsules are inserted into the loops and adhered on the surface of fibre. The thermo-regulated knitted fabrics absorb and release 8-20 J/g of heat energy at approximately 32°C and 17°C respectively. The thermal conductivity of the coated fabric is found to be higher than that of the untreated fabric; however, the difference is small. The measured maximum heat absorption rate of the coated fabric is also slightly higher than that of untreated fabric. The heat flux of the fabrics is contributed by three factors, namely cold textile touches the hot plate and absorbs heat; heat conducts from the hot plate to the cold plate; and phase change material absorbs heat when the fabric touches the hot plate. The heat flux of MicroPCMs coated fabric is significantly higher than that of the control. The softness and smoothness of the fabric decrease after coating; however, they get better after washing with water.

Keywords: Cotton/polypropylene fabric, Heat flux, MicroPCMs, Phase change material, Thermo-regulated fabric

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06H3/00, D06M13/00

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 30, December 2005, pp. 384-388

 

 

ESEM study of tensile behaviour of spunbonded bicomponent fibre nonwovens

Qufu Wei & X Q Wang

Received 26 April 2004; revised received and accepted 29 December 2004

 

The tensile behaviour of polyethylene/polypropylene (PE/PP) bicompomnent fibre spunbonded nonwovens has been studied using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). A tensile stage, mounted in the ESEM, was used to examine the dynamic process of the PE/PP bicompomnent fibre spunbonded nonwovens at different stages of deformation. The visual information obtained through the ESEM provides clear evidence of relevant mechanism of nonwoven deformation. The study shows that the ESEM is a powerful tool for examining the dynamic tensile behaviour of different materials.

Keywords: Biocomponent fibre, Nonwoven, Polyethylene, Polypropylene, Tensile behaviour

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06H3/00, G01N33/36

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 30, December 2005, pp. 389-395

 

Effect of dynamic loading on jute-based needle-punched nonwoven fabrics

 

S Sengupta, P Ray & P K Majumdar

Received 23 February 2004; revised received and accepted 29 December 2004

The effect of dynamic loading on jute and jute-polypropylene blended needle-punched nonwoven fabrics has been studied. It is observed that with the increase in cycles of dynamic loading, the thickness loss increases with diminishing rate up to a certain limit and thereafter it does not change. Thickness loss decreases with the increase in punch density, depth of needle penetration and area density up to a minimum value beyond which it increases. The recovery from compression increases with the increase in above parameters. As the proportion of polypropylene fibre increases in the blend with jute, the thickness loss as well as relaxation from compression increases. Chemically texturized jute fibre, fibre laying technique and hessian reinforcement have a great effect on thickness loss as well as recovery from compression due to dynamic loading.

Keywords: Dynamic loading, Jute, Needle-punched nonwoven, Polypropylene, Thickness loss

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D04H1/00; D06H3/00; G01N33/36

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 30, December 2005, pp. 396-401

 

Flammability evaluation of cotton fabrics in vertical and horizontal burning modes

 

T M Kotresh, R Indu Shekar, M S Subbu Lakshmi & S N Vijay Lakshmi

Received 30 August 2004; revised received and accepted 9 February 2005

The burning behaviour of cotton fabrics has been evaluated using the horizontal and vertical modes of burning. The performance of fabrics has been studied in terms of rate of burning and temperature of burning fabric by placing the thermocouples at a distance of 0, 0.5 and 1.0 cm from the burning fabric. The results show that the weight of fabric affects the rate of burning and the temperature of burning fabric. The rate of burning is found to decrease, whereas flame temperature increases with the increase in mass of fabric. The rate of burning is found to be independent of spacing both in horizontal and vertical modes of burning.

Keywords: Cloth cover, Cotton, Fabric tightness, Flame retardancy

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06H3/00, G01N33/36

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 30, December 2005, pp. 402-406

 

Comparison of colour values of plain cotton fabrics woven from ring- and compact-spun yarns

 

Sunay Omeroglu & Behcet Becerir

Received 13 December 2004; revised received and accepted 3 March 2005

The colour values of plain woven cotton fabrics made from ring- and compact-spun warp and weft yarns have been compared. Ring and compact cotton yarns were spun from 100% combed cotton at different yarn counts; ring-spun yarns having slightly higher mass irregularities and much higher hairiness than the compact-spun yarns. Fabrics having the same constructional properties were woven under the controlled mill conditions and then dyed with C.I. Reactive Black 5 dye. Reflectance measurements were performed on the undyed and dyed fabrics and colour values (lightness, chroma and K/S) were obtained. It is observed that the colour values change with the change in yarn counts and differ in undyed and dyed fabrics. As the yarn counts increase, the lightness and chroma values increase but the K/S values decrease in dyed fabrics, while the results are opposite in undyed fabrics. The highest numerical differences are obtained between the chroma values of the fabrics. Microscopic photographs of the fabrics show that the hairiness decreases with the increase in yarn count. The yarn hairiness plays a very important role in light reflectances with regard to chroma values and fabrics woven from compact yarns appear lighter in colour because of the more regular structure of the compact-spun yarns.

Keywords: Compact spinning, Cotton fabric, Dyeing, Ring spinning

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06P1/00, G01J3/46

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 30, December 2005, pp. 407-413

 

Structure and mechanical properties of polyester DREF-3 yarns produced with different core-wrapper ratios and production speeds

 

G K Tyagi  &Yogesh Khanna

Received 20 December 2004; revised received and accepted 16 March 2005

The effect of fibre profile, fibre linear density, core content and yarn draw-off speed on structure and mechanical properties of polyester DREF-3 yarns has been studied. It is observed that the trilobal fibres offer no significant benefit in friction spinning with regard to yarn quality. The yarns produced with a thicker core, in general, are significantly stronger, less extensible and yield higher work of rupture and abrasion resistance than the equivalent yarns produced with a thinner core. Higher production speed and fibre denier lead to a marked decline in these characteristics but increase the mean fibre extent and helix diameter. In general, the trilobal fibre yarns exhibit lower values of mean fibre extent, helix angle and helix diameter than those of the circular fibre yarns.

Keywords:     Abrasion resistance, Circular fibre, DREF-3 yarns, Mean fibre extent, Polyester yarn, Trilobal fibre

IPC Code:     Int. Cl.7 D02G3/00, D06H3/00, G01N33/36

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 30, December 2005, pp. 414-420

 

 

Yarn strength behaviour at different gauge lengths

Dipayan Das & Bohuslav Neckář

Received 27 July 2004; revised received 12 December 2004; accepted 8 February 2005

 

A theoretical model has been developed for predicting yarn strength at different gauge lengths as a summation of two mutually independent stationary, ergodic, Markovian and Gaussian stochastic processes and then  experimentally verified with different cotton yarns produced from different spinning technologies. A new methodology to measure yarn strength at a gauge length longer than that of the longest fibre in yarn has been devised and special data evaluation techniques developed. With this, it is possible to obtain a new characterization of yarn strength as well as to predict actual yarn strength behaviour at different gauge lengths. It is experimentally observed that the strengths of neighbouring short sections along a yarn are correlated and this correlation is different in different yarns. Depending on the degree of this correlation, the empirical equations relating yarn strength and gauge length are found to be  different in different yarns.

Keywords: Autocorrelation function, Cotton, Gauge length, Stochastic process,  Theoretical model

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D02G3/00

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 30, December 2005, pp. 421-430

 

Autocorrelation function of yarn unevenness

Bohuslav Neckář  & Dipayan Das

Received 31 May 2004; revised received 8 November 2004; accepted 12 January 2005

A new method has been reported for the evaluation of yarn unevenness spectrogram of the Uster Tester 3. The process to establish the theoretical relation between the spectral analysis and the autocorrelation function of yarn unevenness is demonstrated with the help of a practical example. It is observed that the random process of mass variation along a yarn is more expressible as an infinite sum of harmonic functions (integral) having infinitesimal amplitudes as compared to when the random process is expressed simply as a sum of harmonic functions.

Keywords: Autocorrelation function, Spectral density function, Yarn unevenness

IPC Code: Int.Cl.7  D02G3/00

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 30, December 2005, pp. 431-436

 

Development of ecofriendly antimicrobial textile finishes using herbs

G Thilagavathi , K Rajendrakumar & R Rajendran

Received 14 May 2004; revised received and accepted 29 December 2004

Various herbal species were screened for their antimicrobial activities by employing preliminary (qualitative) antimicrobial tests. Methanolic extraction procedure was followed for extracting the active substances from herbs. Antimicrobial efficacy was assayed by AATCC (agar diffusion and parallel streak) method and Hohenstein modified challenge test. The neem leaves (Azadirachta indica), prickly chaff flower (Achyranthus aspera), tulsi leaves (Ocimum basilicum) and pomegranate rind (Punica granatum) were found to exhibit antimicrobial activity against the strains of Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli. Neem ranked first followed by pomegranate and prickly chaff flower. Despite the negative results of tulsi in the qualitative tests, it showed 73% bacterial reduction in the quantitative challenge test. The treated fabric samples exhibited resistance to degradability as tested by digging soil test.

Keywords: Antimicrobial textiles, Achyranthus aspera, Azadirachta indica, Bacteriostasis, Ocimum basilicum, Punica granatum

IPC Code:     Int. Cl.7 D06M16/00, D06M23/00

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 30, December 2005, pp. 437-443

 

Factors affecting radiation grafting of N-vinylpyrrolidone onto nylon-6 fabric

E H El-Gendy & I A El-Shanshoury

Received 24 November 2004; accepted 3 March 2005

The effect of monomer concentration, exposure time, dose rate, fabric-to-liquor ratio and irradiation temperature on the kinetic parameters of grafting N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP) onto nylon-6 fabric has been studied. Induction period is observed before the start of grafting process, especially at low dose rates and low NVP concentrations. Electron spin resonance study indicates that the oxygen still remaining in the grafting solution is possibly responsible for the existence of induction period via peroxide formation with free radicals. The order of the grafting process is found to decrease linearly with the increase in dose rate at 0.766 per increase in dose rate by 1 Gy/s. It decreases from a second order to a first order kinetics as the dose rate increases from 0.37 Gy/s to 1.81 Gy/s. The grafting rate constant increases with the increase in dose rate to the power of 2.9. The increase in fabric-to-liquor ratio from 1:7.5 to 1:15 increases the reaction order and decreases the grafting rate constant. The increase in the grafting temperature decreases the grafting rate and rate constant. The calculated activation energy 23.6 kJ/mole is attributed to the homopolymerization of NVP and the existence of unidentified transfer process.

Keywords: Electron spin resonance, Homopolymerization, N-vinylpyrrolidone, Nylon-6, Radiation grafting

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7  D06M14/00

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 30, December 2005, pp. 444-450

 

 

Simultaneous dyeing and finishing of cotton fabric using reactive dyes
and citric acid

S K Malik  & Sushil Kumar

Received 14 September 2004; accepted 28 February 2005

The efficacy of concurrent dyeing and finishing of cotton fabric with reactive dyes and citric acid has been studied. Factors affecting the process, such as alkali concentration and catalysts, were examined in two different process routes, i.e. simultaneous alkali addition and after development with alkali, for two dyes concentrations. Control samples were prepared by conventional two-step method. Evaluation of the simultaneously dyed and finished (SDF) fabrics was made with respect to colour strength (K/S), crease recovery angle (CRA), tensile strength and fastness properties, and the findings were compared with control samples. It is observed that the SDF fabric gives better K/S, CRA, tensile strength as well as fastness properties as compared to control samples; K/S and CRA increase with the increase in alkali concentration, whereas tensile strength decreases. Catalyst sodium hydrosulphite is found to give better overall results than sodium dihydrogen phosphate in case of SDF method as well as in control samples.

Keywords: Cotton, Dyeing, Crease recovery, Non-formaldehyde finishing

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06B1/00, D06P3/00

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 30, December 2005, pp. 451-467

 

Effect of selective pretreatments and subsequent mixed enzyme treatment
on properties of jute-cotton union fabric

A K Samanta, Deepali Singhee, Gautam Basu   & K K Mahalanabis

Received 7 June 2004; revised received 4 February 2005; accepted 17 March 2005

Jute-cotton (75:25) union furnishing fabric has been treated with varying dose of mixed enzyme (cellulase, xylanase and pectinase) system with or without selective pretreatments and the consequent changes in important textile-related properties of the fabric evaluated. For untreated jute-cotton union fabric, 4% (owf) mixed enzyme treatment at 550C for 2 h using pH 4.8-5.0 is found to be optimum. Between cotton (warp) and jute (weft), enzyme action is found to be more pronounced in cotton than in jute. However, the degree of enzymatic hydrolysis and associated weight loss for jute are found to increase if the mixed enzyme treatment is done after selective pretreatments. 1% NaOH pretreatment at 300C for 30 min offers some unique advantages, except browning of surface colour, when subsequently treated with 4% (owf) mixed enzyme. Steaming of wetted jute-cotton union fabric at 1300C for 5 min shows almost negligible weight loss and marginal or no strength loss, although the reduction in stiffness in jute is poor and inadequate. Conventional scouring followed by 2% H2O2 bleaching with stabilizer AWNI instead of sodium metasilicate makes the fabric most suited for subsequent 4% mixed enzyme treatment. The use of 5 steel balls in the rotating beaker of the launder-O-meter during the enzyme treatment is found to be very useful for the removal of surface fuzz. Changes in functional group pattern and chemical composition of jute have also been analyzed after the treatments. Scanning electron microscopic and X-ray crystallographic studies respectively reveal the changes in the surface morphological features and fine structure of differently treated jute component of jute-cotton union fabric. There is apparent increase or decrease in X-ray crystallinity due to associated mass loss from non-crystalline zone/crystalline interface for different pretreatments and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis.

Keywords: Alkali pretreatment, Bleaching, Enzyme treatment, Jute-cotton union fabric

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06M16/00, G01N33/36

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 30, December 2005, pp. 468-476

 

 

Garment dyeing

J N Chakraborty, Rudrajit Pal & P R Megha

Received 7 January 2005; accepted 31 March 2005

Garments are either prepared directly from processed fabric or the grey fabric is converted into garment followed by processing. Out of these two, the latter has gained undue importance to tackle present day scenario more effectively. This paper reviews the reasons behind this new challenge as well as other technical aspects related to dyeing of garments.

Keywords : Dyeing, Garment, Garment accessories

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06P1/100, D06P3/00