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Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research



 

 ISSN : 0971-0426

 

CODEN : IJFRET

VOLUME 30

NUMBER 2

JUNE  2005

 

 

CONTENTS

 

Analytical design method for cam shedding motions in weaving

R Eren & H R Alpay

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D03C5/00]

 

125

Torsional rigidity of cotton hosiery yarns

P K Banerjee & P Bhat

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D02G3/00, G01B5/00]

 

136

Analysis of tensile properties of dref-III blended yarns

S Bhattacharyya, P K Majumdar & S Chakraborty

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D01G13/00, D02G3/00]

 

142

Effect of inter-fibre friction on yarn quality

Ajay Kumar, Anita Nishkam & S M Ishtiaque

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D02J1/00]

 

148

Physical characteristics of khimp fibre

S K Kundu, P Mojumder, S K Bhaduri & B K Das

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D01C1/04, G01N33/36]

 

153

Biodegradability of [pineapple leaf fibre-g-poly(n-butyl acrylate)]/silicate composite superabsorbents

Prafulla K Sahoo, Gobinda C Sahu & Roomky Mohapatra

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06M14/02]

 

157

Evaluation of traditional jute classification system for composites

D Noger, R Zah, H R Schmid, P Ray, T Grether & F Dinkel

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06B19/00, D06H3/00]

 

166

Effect of picking periods on fibre physical properties and yarn quality of MCU-5 cotton variety grown at four locations

M Tamil Selvan & K Raghunathan

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D01G37/00, G01N33/36]

 

174

Acrylic monomers based emulsion copolymer for coating application

S Mondal, B Gupta & H Singh

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 C08F2/22]

 

184

Anti-UV and anti-microbial properties of some natural dyes on cotton

Deepti Gupta, Astha Jain & Shikha Panwar

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 C09B61/00, D01F11/00]

 

190

Studies on dyeing with shikonin extracted from Ratanjot by supercritical carbon dioxide

Nilanjana Bairagi & M L Gulrajani

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06P1/94, D06P3/52]

 

196

Influence of concentrated liquid softeners on textile hand

V Daukantiene, E Zmailaite & M Gutauskas

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06M13/00]

200

 

 

Short Communications

 

Use of polyaniline as an antimicrobial agent in textiles

Devender T Seshadri & Narendra V Bhat

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A61L15/00, D01F11/00, D06B5/00]

 

204

Study on superabsorbent polyacrylonitrile-based fibre

Xiaoyu Hu & Changfa Xiao

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A61L15/00, D06M13/00]

 

207

Effect of some ring spinning and winding parameters on extra sensitive yarn imperfections

Arindam Basu & Rajanna Gotipamul

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D02G3/00]

 

211

Properties of indigenous angora rabbit hair and cotton blended yarns spun using short-staple cotton spinning system

S K Chattopadhyay, P Bhaskar, M Ahmed, N P Gupta & A K Pokharna

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D01H1/02, D02G3/04]

 

215

Review Article

 

Bulk and physical properties of needle-punched nonwoven fabrics

Vinay Kumar Midha & A Mukhopadyay

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D04H1/00, G01N33/36]

 

218

Book Reviews

 

Cotton fibre selection and grading

by Arindam Basu & K P Chellamani; reviewed by A V Moharir

 

230

Fabric structure and design

by N Gokarneshan; reviewed by V K Kothari

232

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 Vol. 30, June 2005, pp. =125-135

 

Analytical design method for cam shedding motions in weaving

R Eren & H R Alpay

 

An analytical design method for cam shedding motions has been developed using mathematical method to derive the follower displacement diagrams for a given weave and the mathematical equations for pressure angle, cam radius of curvature and matched (or conjugate) cam profile coordinates. The effect of maximum pick number in the weave repeat, shedding cam mechanism dimensions, swing angle of the follower and four different motion curves on the maximum pressure angle and minimum cam radius of curvature has also been studied. The cam shedding mechanism dimensions are determined according to the critical values of maximum pressure angle and the minimum cam radius of curvature. It is observed that the cam shedding mechanism dimensions must be determined with maximum pick number in the weave repeat by considering the effects of motion curves and follower swing angle.  Finally, four picks plain weave and twill 3/1 +1/1 shedding cam plots are presented.

 

Keywords: Cam shedding motion, Weaving

IPC Code: Int.Cl.7 D03C5/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 Vol. 30, June 2005, pp. 136-141

 

Torsional rigidity of cotton hosiery yarns

P K Banerjee & P Bhat

 

Torsional properties of eighteen different commercial cotton hosiery yarns in the count range of 16s -40s Ne have been studied on a Torsiometer. The mean torsional rigidity, derived from the slopes of torque-twist hysteresis loop, relates very well with relevant fibre and yarn variables. It is observed that the increase in fibre span length and maturity leads to rise in mean torsional rigidity of cotton hosiery yarns while the finer fibres yield lower yarn rigidity. Moreover, the coarser yarns exhibit greater mean torsional rigidity while the yarns of higher tensile modulus show lower values.

 

Keywords: Cotton yarn, Torsional rigidity, Torque-twist hysteresis

IPC Code: Int.Cl.7 D02G3/00, G01B5/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 Vol. 30, June 2005, pp. 142-147

 

Analysis of tensile properties of dref-III blended yarns

S Bhattacharyya, P K Majumdar & S Chakraborty

 

Efforts have been made to use same blended stock of materials in both core and sheath of dref-III yarn to make the blend percentage independent of core-sheath ratio and to have proper blend homogeneity. Polyester and viscose fibres have been used to prepare their blends at different blend ratios and their tensile characteristics thoroughly studied. It is observed that the Hamburgerís model based on stress-strain curves of 100% polyester and 100% viscose yarns can be successfully used to predict the tensile strength of blended yarns. A generalised regression equation has been derived from the Hamburgerís model which can predict the tensile strength of blended yarn with high level of accuracy.

 

Keywords: Dref-III yarn, Hamburger model, Polyester/ viscose yarn, Tensile properties

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D01G13/00, D02G3/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 Vol. 30, June 2005, pp. 148-152

 

Effect of inter-fibre friction on yarn quality

Ajay Kumar,  Anita Nishkam  & S M Ishtiaqueb

 

The effect of inter-fibre friction and tuft behaviour during yarn preparation on yarn quality has been studied. The higher level of inter-fibre friction is observed on application of spin finish (polyethylene glycol) which improves the inter-fibre cohesion and positively influences the yarn evenness, breaking strength, elongation-at-break and hairiness. The tuft behaviour at different friction levels improves but mixed trend is observed for the yarn quality parameters, perhaps due to the uneven fibre slippage.

 

Keywords: Acrylic fibre, Fibre surface geometry, Inter-fibre cohesion, Inter-fibre friction, Protruding hairs, Tuft behaviour

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D02J1/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 Vol. 30, June 2005, pp. 153-156

 

Physical characteristics of khimp fibre

S K Kundu, P Mojumder, S K Bhaduri & B K Das

 

Physical characteristics of khimp (Leptadenia pyrotechnica) fibre have been studied and compared with those of the other natural fibres, such as cotton, jute, sunhemp and pineapple. The khimp fibre is lignocellulosic having high a-cellulose (75.26%), and low lignin (4.93%) and pentosan (5.15%) contents similar to sunnhemp, flax and pineapple leaf fibres. The degree of crystallinity (60.0%) of the fibre measured by X-ray diffractometry technique is lower than that of cotton but higher than that of lignocellulosic fibres like jute or sunnhemp. SEM study of the fibre shows that the fibrils are arranged longitudinally. Cross-sectional features studied by SEM reveal that the fibre is multicellular in nature, consisting of 5-6 cells in a fibre. The infrared spectra of khimp fibre show peaks in the regions as observed for lingocellulosic fibre like jute.

 

Keywords: Crystallinity, Infrared spectra, Khimp fibre, SEM studies

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D01C1/04, G01N33/36

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 Vol. 30, June 2005, pp. 157-165

  

Biodegradability of [pineapple leaf fibre-g-poly(n-butyl acrylate)]/ silicate composite superabsorbents

Prafulla K Sahoo, Gobinda C Sahu & Roomky Mohapatra

 

Natural fibre composites have been prepared by grafting hydrophobic monomer [n-butyl acrylate (BA)] onto chemically modified pineapple leaf fibre (PALF) using a complex initiating system [Cu (II) SO4/EDTA/ammonium persulphate (APS)] in an aqueous medium without and with additives [sodium silicate (SS)] and N,NĘ-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as crosslinking agent. The polymerization reaction has been studied at varying temperature, duration, and Cu(II), EDTA, APS and BA concentrations. The overall activation energy of grafting is found to be 19.04 kJ mol-1 and the optimum time period for the reaction is 3h. The chemically modified PALF, crosslinked PALF-g-PBA copolymer and (crosslinked PALF-g-PBA)/SS composites so obtained have been characterized by FT-IR and their morphology studied by scanning electron microscopy. The thermal behaviour and tensile properties of the samples have been studied and compared with their biodegradation and water absorption capacities. It is observed that the composites show more water uptake capacity than the copolymers, making them suitable for use as superabsorbent natural fibre. These composite superabsorbents show lower biodegradability in both sludge water and soil as well as by using cultured microorganisms than the copolymer alone.

 

Keywords: Biodegradation, Grafting, Pineapple leaf fibre, Superabsorbent

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06M14/02

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 Vol. 30, June 2005, pp. 166-173

 

Evaluation of traditional jute classification system for composites

D Noger, R Zah, H R Schmid, P Ray, T Grether & F Dinkel

 

The traditional jute classification system has been evaluated to determine its suitability for the application to composites. Five potentially relevant parameters for composites, namely thermostability, alkali-soluble fraction, degree of fibre damage (degree of polymerization and tensile strength), degree of lignification (acid-soluble lignin and acid-insoluble lignin), and degree of whiteness (CIE y and CIE Y), have been determined by analysing the upper and lower sections of different tossa jute samples. Using discriminant analysis, 100% of the samples are correctly re-assigned to the original groups (TD class, upper and lower sections). For samples arranged in TD classes, primarily the degree of whiteness makes the differentiation possible. For samples grouped in upper and lower sections, primarily the alkali-soluble fraction as well as the degree of lignification and whiteness are found to show a significant relative difference. As regards composite quality, the thermostability, alkali-soluble fraction and degree of lignification are potentially very relevant. With respect to these parameters, the traditional jute classification system does not appear to be suitable as there is no significant difference among TD classes, and the variations between the upper and the lower sections are significantly greater than those among TD classes. The largest relative differences exist for thermostability, but there is no significant difference among the samples analysed. A new fibre classification system is needed for the successful application of jute fibres to composites.

 

Keywords: Composites, Lignification, Thermostability, Tossa jute, Whiteness

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06B19/00, D06H3/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 Vol. 30, June 2005, pp. 174-183

 

Effect of picking periods on fibre physical properties and yarn quality of MCU-5 cotton variety grown at four locations

M Tamil Selvan & K Raghunathan

 

The picking periods and their combinations on fibre and yarn properties have been studied using MCU-5 variety of Indian cotton which was collected from four different locations at various picking periods. It is observed that the picking periods affect the fibre and yarn qualities. Better fibre and yarn can be achieved by excluding the fibres from the last few picking periods.

 

Keywords: Cotton, Picking period, Tensile property

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D01G37/00, G01N33/36

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 Vol. 30, June 2005, pp. 184-189

 

Acrylic monomers based emulsion copolymer for coating application

S Mondal ,  B Gupta & H Singh

 

Methyl methacrylate and butyl acrylate copolymers with varying percentage of methacrylic acids and 2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate were synthesized using emulsion polymerization technique for coating application. Nonyl phenol ethylene oxide condensate and sodium lauryl sulphate were used as the emulsifiers. Potassium persulphate was used as initiator. The copolymers were characterized by viscosity measurement, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1HNMR) and thermogravimetric analysis techniques. The viscosity of the copolymer increased with the increase in pH, passed through a maximum at pH 8.5 and then decreased with the further increase in pH. 1HNMR study confirmed all the groups present in the copolymers. The copolymers showed good thermal stability and can be used for textile coating application without any external thickening agent.

 

Keywords: Acrylic copolymer, Emulsion polymerization, Proton nuclear magnetic resonance, Thermogravimetric analysis, Viscosity

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 C08F2/22

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 Vol. 30, June 2005, pp. 190-195

  

Anti-UV and anti-microbial properties of some natural dyes on cotton

Deepti Gupta, Astha Jain & Shikha Panwar

 

Various natural dye powders have been evaluated for protection against UV radiation and microbial growth on cotton. All the dyes show high absorption in the UV region. When mordants are used, the UV screening effect is enhanced. Most of the dyes also show good bactericidal activity against selected microbes. The activity increases with the increase in concentration of dye. Tannin-based dye Q.infectoria shows good protection against both UV radiation as well as common microbes. Results show that it is possible to develop cotton fabrics having anti-microbial and anti-UV properties using selected natural dyes.

 

Keywords: Anti-microbial property, Cotton, Natural dye, Protective textile, UV protection

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 C09B61/00, D01F11/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 Vol. 30, June 2005, pp. 196-199

 

Studies on dyeing with shikonin extracted from Ratanjot by supercritical carbon dioxide

Nilanjana Bairagi & M L Gulrajani

 

Shikonin (di-hydroxy 1, 4-napthaquinone), extracted from Ratanjot (Onosma echioides) by supercritical carbon dioxide, has been used to study the kinetics of dyeing on polyester. The main component of this dye has been separated chromatographically, analyzed spectroscopically and then used to study the diffusion coefficient. There is not much difference between the diffusion coefficients of shikonin and main component. On comparing the dyeing results of shikonin with those of other napthaquinone natural dyes (juglone, lawsone and crude Ratanjot), it is found that the diffusion coefficient of shikonin and main component is intermediate between juglone and lawsone. The diffusion coefficient of the dye extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide is found to be higher than the crude Ratanjot dye.

 

Keywords: Diffusion coefficient, Kinetic studies, Polyester, Ratanjot, Shikonin, Supercritical carbon dioxide

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06P1/94, D06P3/52

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 30, June 2005, pp. 200-203

 

Influence of concentrated liquid softeners on textile hand

 V Daukantiene, E Zmailaite & M Gutauskas

 

The influence of four concentrated liquid softeners, viz. Lenor, Silan, Soupline and Dosia, on the properties of different knitted fabrics has been studied on the basis of textile hand parameters using KTU-Griff Tester. The results show that the rinsing of textile materials with liquid softeners changes the properties of fabrics more significantly as compared to the changes in case of rinsing with pure water. The five parameters, namely pulling force, tangent of the slope angle of curve, pulling work, difference of fabric thickness measured at two different pressure levels and fabric deformation, and a complex parameter determined as the area of pentagonal chart, the axles of which are these five separate parameters, have been used for the evaluation of changes in fabric mechanical properties. Silan is found to be the most efficient softener followed by Lenor, Dosia and Soupline.

 

Keywords: Cotton, Knitted fabric, Liquid softener, Textile hand

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06M13/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 30, June 2005, pp. 204-206

 

Use of polyaniline as an antimicrobial agent in textiles

Devender T Seshadri & Narendra V Bhat

 

The conductive cotton + PANi (polyaniline) fabrics have been prepared by in situ polymerization of aniline monomer and their antimicrobial properties studied. It is observed that the fabrics have good antibacterial and antifungal properties. The antibacterial activity for gram positive bacteria reduces by 95 % while for gram negative bacteria it is 85 %.

 

Keywords: Antimicrobial agent, Cotton, Conductive fabric,  Polyaniline

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A61L15/00, D01F11/00, D06B5/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 30, June 2005, pp. 207-210

 

Study on superabsorbent polyacrylonitrile-based fibre

Xiaoyu Hu & Changfa Xiao

 

Superabsorbent polymer fibres with maximum water absorbency were produced using acrylonitrile and methylmethacrylate as monomers, N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide as potential crosslinking agent, dimethyl sulfoxide as solution and azo-bis-isobutyronitrile as initiator. The copolymer solution was then spun using dry-wet spinning method with water as coagulation bath. The fibres thus produced were heated to get crosslinking structure and their surfaces were hydrolyzed by alkaline solution. The influence of hydrolyzing conditions, such as temperature and concentrations of alkaline solution and N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide, on the fibre structure and properties was also studied using FTIR, DSC, DMA and SEM techniques. The changes in storage modulus, Tg and surface structures of fibres were also studied. The superabsorbent polymer of about 40g/g water absorbency was obtained using N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide concentration of equal to about 10wt%monomer, alkali concentration of about 15wt% and hydrolyzing time of about 5 min.

 

Keywords:  Polyacrylonitrile fibre, Superabsorbent polymer, Water absorbency

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A61L15/00, D06M13/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 30, June 2005, pp. 211-214

 

Effect of some ring spinning and winding parameters on extra sensitive yarn imperfections

Arindam Basu & Rajanna Gotipamul

 

The effect of various ring spinning parameters and winding machine parameters on the yarn quality has been studied at higher sensitivity levels using the capacitance type tester. The relationship between extra sensitive imperfections and infrequent yarn faults has also been studied. It is observed that the spacer size, break draft and spindle speed of ring frame influence the imperfections and classimat faults. With the increase in twist multiplier the yarn quality improves initially and after a certain stage there is an increase in imperfections with increased twist multiplier. Within the chosen limit the effect of winding speed and tension weight of high speed autoconer on imperfections is minimal.

 

Keywords:  Classimat faults, Ring spinning, Winding parameter, Yarn imperfections

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D02G3/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 30, June 2005, pp. 215-217

 

Properties of indigenous angora rabbit hair and cotton blended yarns spun using short-staple cotton spinning system

S K Chattopadhyay, P Bhaskar ,  M Ahmed , N P Gupta & A K Pokharna

 

The possibilities of producing cotton and indigenous angora rabbit hair blended yarns by adopting commercial cotton spinning system working on economical production speeds have been explored. It is observed that as the proportion of hair fibre in the blend increases, the yarn properties of both the single and double yarns deteriorate, mainly due to the lower fibre strength and inter-fibre cohesion of hair fibres.

 

Keywords: Blended yarn, Rabbit hair-cotton blend, Ring spinning, Short-staple spinning system

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D01H1/02, D02G3/04

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 Vol. 30, June 2005, pp. 218-229

 

Bulk and physical properties of needle-punched nonwoven fabrics

Vinay Kumar Midha & A Mukhopadyay

 

Bulk and physical properties of needle-punched nonwoven fabric depend on the nature of component fibre, the manner in which the fibres are arranged in the structure and the degree of consolidation. A proper understanding of the role of different parameters on fabric properties is important for designing the fabric suitable for its use. Normally, the longer and finer fibre in the web leads to greater fabric strength, provided the fibre breakage is controlled. The increase in needle density and penetration improves the fibre consolidation, but beyond a certain limit the fibre damage becomes greater, leading to deterioration in fabric characteristics. Higher fabric weight and introduction of scrim generally improve the functional properties of fabric. Finishing operation is opted in the cases where some special requirements are to be fulfilled. This paper is intended to develop some understanding about the bulk and physical properties in relation to raw material, machine parameters and process variables.

 

Keywords: Air permeability, Bending length, Compressional properties, Fabric density, Needle penetration, Needle-punched fabric, Needle punch density, Tenacity

IPC Code:   Int. Cl.7 D04H1/00, G01N33/36