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Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research



 

 ISSN : 0971-0426

 

CODEN : IJFRET

VOLUME 30

NUMBER 1

MARCH 2005

 

 

CONTENTS

 

Hydrolytic modification of acrylic fibre—Influence of reaction conditions

S Bhattacharya, Bhuvanesh Gupta, A K Mukherjee & R Vardarajan

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D01F1/00]

 

13

Application of linear regression, artificial neural network and neuro-fuzzy algorithms to predict the breaking elongation of rotor-spun yarns

Abhijit Majumdar, Prabal Kumar Majumdar & Bijan Sarkar

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D02G3/00; G06N3/02; G06N7/02]

 

 

19

Study on fibre openness — Its impact on roving drafting force and yarn quality

S M Ishtiaque, K R Salhotra , A Das & N S Sukhadeva

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D01G9/00; D02G 3/00]

 

26

Balanced two-ply cotton yarn

N K Palaniswamy & A Peer Mohamed

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D01H7/00]

 

32

Influence of false-twist texturing parameters on the structural properties of polyester yarn

H Canbaz Karakaş & H Dayıoğlu

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D01D1/00; D02G3/22]

 

 

37

Development of a sensor-embedded flexible textile structure for apparel or large area applications

Subhas Ghosh, Cathryn Amidei & Keith Furrow

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06H3/00; G06K7/00; H01L31/09]

 

 

42

Low-stress characteristics of polyester-cotton MVS yarn fabrics

G K Tyagi & Dhirendra Sharma

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D01H4/00; D02G3/00; G01N33/36]

 

49

Influence of heat treatment on mechanical and sorptional properties of viscose-based nonwovens

Slavenka Lukic, Koviljka Asanovic & Aleksandra Milutinovic-Nikolic

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06B19/00; G01N33/36]

 

 

55

Influence of plasma gas on surface composition of low-temperature plasma-treated wool fibre

C W Kan, K Chan & C W M Yuen

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D01C3/00; D06B19/00; D06M11/00]

 

 

60

Effect of low-temperature plasma on cotton fabric and its application to bleaching and dyeing

M Prabaharan & N Carneiro

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06B3/00; D06L3/02; D06P1/00; G01N33/36]

 

 

68

Immobilisation of amylase by various techniques

S R Shukla & Lalit Jajpura

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06B19/00]

 

75

Recycled wool-based nonwoven material for sorption of acid dyes

M Radetic, D Jocic , P Jovancic, Z Lj Petrovic & H Thomas

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06P1/39; D06P3/16]

 

82

Dyeing properties of a mixed bi-functional reactive dye on a novel regenerated cellulosic fibre

Joonseok Koh

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06P1/38; D06P3/66]

 

 

88

Short Communication

 

 

Studies on combined effect of heating of roving and space between the aprons of ring frame drafting system on yarn quality

S Subramanian & A Peer Mohamed

 [IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D01H5/00; D02G3/00]

 

 

94

Review Article

 

 

Advances in ink-jet printing technology of textiles

S K Malik, Savita Kadian & Sushil Kumar

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 B41J27/00; D06P3/00; D06P7/00]

99

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 Vol. 30, March 2005, pp. 13-18

 

Hydrolytic modification of acrylic fibre—Influence of reaction conditions

S Bhattacharya, Bhuvanesh Gupta, A K Mukherjee & R Vardarajan

 

The chemical modification of acrylic fibre was carried out by alkaline hydrolysis under different reaction conditions. The partial conversion of nitrile groups into carboxylic acid groups was studied as a function of the time and temperature of the reaction. It was found that the hydrolysis reaction is a complex process where side reactions involving the cyclization of hydrolyzed groups become a dominant factor. The formation of various products during the process of hydrolysis was ascertained by infrared spectroscopy. The crystalline changes and mechanical strength of the fibres as a function of the reaction conditions were also evaluated. The modified fibre showed excellent water retention in deionized and saline water.

 

Keywords: Acrylic fibre, Hydrolytic modification, Water retention

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D01F1/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 Vol. 30, March 2005, pp. 19-25

 

Application of linear regression, artificial neural network and neuro-fuzzy algorithms to predict the breaking elongation of rotor-spun yarns

Abhijit Majumdar , Prabal Kumar Majumdar & Bijan Sarkar

 

The breaking elongation of rotor-spun yarns has been predicted by using linear regression, artificial neural network and neuro-fuzzy models. Cotton fibre properties measured by high volume instrument and yarn count have been used as inputs to the prediction models. Prediction accuracy is found to be better for artificial neural network and neuro-fuzzy models than that for regression model. The relative importance of yarn count and cotton fibre properties to rotor yarn elongation has also been studied. Yarn count and cotton fibre micronaire are found to be dominant input factors influencing the breaking elongation of rotor-spun yarns.

 

Keywords: Artificial neural network, Breaking elongation, Cotton fibre, High volume instrument, Neuro-fuzzy model, Rotor-spun yarns

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D02G3/00; G06N3/02; G06N7/02

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 30, March 2005, pp. 26-31

 

Study on fibre openness — Its impact on roving drafting force and yarn quality

S M Ishtiaque, K R Salhotra, A Das  & N S Sukhadeva

 

A detailed analysis on the effect of fibre-to-fibre friction along with the carding parameters on the openness of fibre has been carried out. The fibre openness has been correlated with the drafting force of rovings and properties of sliver, roving and yarn. It is observed that the fibre-to-fibre friction has significant influence on the fibre openness. The increase in fibre openness results in decrease in roving drafting force. The nep count and short fibre content of card sliver, mass irregularity of card sliver, draw frame sliver, roving and yarn, total imperfections and yarn tenacity are significantly influenced by the fibre openness.

 

Keywords: Cotton, Drafting force, Fibre friction, Fibre openness, Yarn imperfections

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D01G9/00; D02G3/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 30, March 2005, pp. 32-36

 

Balanced two-ply cotton yarn

N K Palaniswamy & A Peer Mohamed

 

The twist set in the cotton single yarn and amount of doubling twist required to produce balanced two-ply yarn have been determined by wet relaxing the yarn from torsional stress and strain. Irrespective of the amount of single yarn twist, the amount of twist set in the single yarn is about 45% of the original twist. Balanced two-ply yarn can be produced by giving half of single yarn twist as ply twist in the direction opposite to that of the single yarn twist.

 

Keywords: Cotton yarn, Lively twist, Ply twist, Torque-free yarn, Torsional stress relaxation

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D01H7/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 30, March 2005, pp. 37-41

 

Influence of false-twist texturing parameters on the structural properties of polyester yarn

H Canbaz Karakaş & H Dayıoğlu

 

Structural changes of polyester yarn with false-twist draw texturing parameters have been studied using a high-temperature heater, high texturing speeds, short residence time in the heater and a short yarn path. The dependence of three structural parameters, viz. crystalline orientation, crystal size and birefringence, on texturing temperature, yarn residence time in the heater and draw ratio has also been studied. At high texturing speeds, the crystalline orientation and crystal size decrease due to low thermal input. Crystalline orientation tends to increase at high texturing temperatures and draw ratios.

 

Keywords: Birefringence, Crystal size, Crystalline orientation, False-twist texturing, Polyester, X-ray diffraction

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D01D1/00; D02G3/22

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 30, March 2005, pp. 42-48

 

Development of a sensor-embedded flexible textile structure for apparel or large area applications

Subhas Ghosh,  Cathryn Amidei  & Keith Furrow

 

Various optical sensors have been embedded into the flexible textile structures and then attached to the connectors to determine the noise level during demodulation due to the interlacement of the fiber in the fabric structure. These optical sensors, such as Extrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer (EFPI), Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) and Long Period Grating (LPG), are capable of measuring strain and temperature of the devices to which they are attached. LPG sensor can be configured as a chemical sensor. Reflected spectrum from the sensor has been produced by injecting light into the fiber to check the functionality of the sensor. Both EFPI and FBG sensors, successfully embedded into the fabric without any damage, have been found to be functional when demodulated. A brief description of the optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) demodulation method has also been provided.

 

Keywords:   Bedford cord, Chemical sensor, Optical sensor

IPC Code:   Int. Cl.7 D06H3/00; G06K7/00; H01L31/09

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 30, March 2005, pp. 49-54

 

Low-stress characteristics of polyester-cotton MVS yarn fabrics

G K Tyagi, & Dhirendra Sharma

 

The effects of some jet spinning parameters on the low-stress characteristics of scoured and finished fabrics woven with polyester-cotton jet-spun yarns have been studied. It is observed that the compressional energy, shear energy and coefficient of friction of MVS yarn fabrics decrease initially when the twisting jet pressure is increased from 4 kg/cm2 to 5 kg/cm2 and increase thereafter with the further increase in twisting jet pressure. An increase in nozzle distance on the MVS spinner, on the other hand, causes a significant decrease in these properties. Furthermore, the use of fine yarns decreases compressional energy and coefficient of friction, and the fabrics made from yarn spun with higher jet pressure and wider nozzle distance have higher bending rigidity. The chemical finishing significantly decreases the compressional energy, shear energy, coefficient of friction and bending rigidity.

 

Keywords: Air-jet spinning, Compressional energy, Jet-spun yarn, Nozzle distance, Polyester-cotton fabric, Twisting jet pressure

IPC Code: Int.Cl.D01H4/00; D02G3/00; G01N33/36

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 Vol. 30, March 2005, pp. 55-59

 

 Influence of heat treatment on mechanical and sorptional properties of viscose-based nonwovens

Slavenka Lukić ,  Koviljka Asanović  &  Aleksandra Milutinović-Nikolić

 

The influence of heat treatment on sorptional and mechanical properties of viscose: polypropylene (90:10) blend nonwoven fleeces has been studied. It is observed that the heat treatment improves mechanical properties (rupture resistance and tensile strength) and slightly decreases sorptional properties (degree of water retention and rate of water absorption) of cloths. The optimum heat-treatment temperature needed to obtain the highest breaking force and water absorption of nonwovens is found to be 165-170ºC. Microstructural analysis proves that the nonwovens have the point bonding form of web when heat treatment is performed at optimum temperature.

 

Keywords: Mechanical properties, Nonwoven fleece, Polypropylene, Sorption properties, Viscose

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06B19/00; G01N33/36

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 Vol. 30, March 2005, pp. 60-67

 

Influence of plasma gas on surface composition of low-temperature plasma-treated wool fibre

 C W Kan, K Chan & C W M Yuen

 

Wool fibres have been treated with low-temperature plasma (LTP) with oxygen, nitrogen and gas mixture (25:75 hydrogen/nitrogen). It is observed that the chemical composition of wool fibre surface varies differently with the different plasma gases used. The surface chemical composition of the different LTP-treated wool fibres has also been evaluated with FTIR-ATR, XPS and saturated adsorption value. The results reveal that the surface chemical and physical compositions of wool fibre change on LTP treatment. The change in compositions might affect the wool dyeing and finishing processes such as shrinkproofing treatments.

 

Keywords: Low-temperature plasma, Wool fibre

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D01C3/00; D06B19/00; D06M11/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 Vol. 30, March 2005, pp. 68-74

 

Effect of low-temperature plasma on cotton fabric and its application to bleaching and dyeing

M Prabaharan & N Carneiro

 

The effect of plasma discharge on the properties of grey cotton fabric has been studied by varying power discharge and number of discharges. To obtain the desired properties of fabric with minimum mechanical and chemical damage to cellulose, the process parameters have been optimized. It is observed that the desired properties can be achieved if the fabric is treated with higher power discharge and for minimum number of discharges. To achieve a high degree of whiteness, a two-stage process is suggested wherein the plasma discharged fabric is further treated with hydrogen peroxide. An acceptable degree of whiteness for dyeing and optical brightening agent (OBA) treatment can be obtained by a two-stage process with the additional benefits of savings in time, thermal energy, water and chemicals. The dyeing property of two-stage processed fabric has also been evaluated and compared with that of the fabric bleached with hydrogen peroxide by the conventional method. The fabric treated with plasma followed by hydrogen peroxide shows excellent dye adsorption even on using very low quantity of salt and a low dyeing temperature.

 

Keywords: Absorbency, Bleaching, Cotton, Dyeing, Low-temperature plasma

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06B3/00; D06L3/02; D06P1/00; G01N33/36

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 Vol. 30, March 2005, pp. 75-81

 

Immobilisation of amylase by various techniques

S R Shukla & Lalit Jajpura

 

The enzyme α-amylase was subjected to immobilisation by entrapment and covalent binding methods. Calcium alginate gel entrapment technique was used for the enzyme entrapment. Nylon 6 beads and knitted fabric were the supports chosen for the covalent bonding technique using glutaraldehyde with and without chitosan. The characteristics of the immobilised enzyme have been discussed. Covalent bonding gave better stability and reusability of the immobilised enzyme than the calcium alginate bead entrapment.

 

Keywords: α-Amylase, Calcium alginate, Enzyme immobilisation, Glutaraldehyde, Nylon 6

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06B19/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 Vol. 29, March 2005, pp. 82-87

 

Recycled wool-based nonwoven material for sorption of acid dyes

M Radetic, D Jocic, P Jovancic ,  Z Lj Petrovic &  H Thomas

 

The possibility of using a nonwoven material based on recycled wool for sorption of acid dyes from wastewater has been studied. To improve its sorption properties, the recycled wool-based nonwoven material was treated with low-temperature air plasma and/or biopolymer chitosan. These treatments introduced new favourable functional groups and increased the active surface area. Sorption capacity, sorption kinetics as well as the influence of electrochemical properties of fibre, initial dye concentration, pH and temperature on the sorption have been studied. It is observed that the nonwoven recycled wool-based material can be used as an efficient sorbent for removal of acid dyes. Chitosan and plasma+chitosan treatments of the material remarkably improved the sorption properties for AR88 and AR27 dyes, likely because of the increase in amino groups originating from chitosan that are the main sites for binding of dye anions. However, no significant positive effect of low-temperature plasma and/or chitosan treatment of material on sorption of AB113 dye was observed.

 

Keywords: Acid dye, Chitosan, Dye sorption, Low-temperature plasma, Wool

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06P1/39; D06P3/16

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 Vol. 30, March 2005, pp. 88-93

  

Dyeing properties of a mixed bi-functional reactive dye on a novel regenerated cellulosic fibre

Joonseok Koh

 

A mixed bi-functional reactive dye has been applied to the regular viscose rayon and the new regenerated cellulosic fibre (enVix®), prepared from cellulose acetate by the hydrolysis of acetyl groups, and their dyeing and fastness properties compared. It is observed that the enVix® exhibits better dyeability than the regular viscose rayon as explained by the differences in the supramolecular structure of these two fibres.

 

Keywords: Bi-functional reactive dye, Dyeing properties, Fastness properties, Regenerated cellulosic fibre, Supramolecular  structure

IPC Code: Int. Cl.D06P1/38;  D06P3/66

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 30, March 2005, pp. 94-98

 

Studies on combined effect of heating of roving and space between the aprons of ring frame drafting system on yarn quality

S Subramanian & A Peer Mohamed

 

The combined effect of heating of roving at the break draft zone and space between the aprons of ring frame drafting system on yarn quality has been studied. Heating of roving at the break draft zone of ring frame reduces the friction between the drafting fibres which can be advantageously utilized by reducing the spacing between the aprons, thereby improving the control over the floating fibres. It is observed that the yarn imperfections, faults and elongation - at - break are affected by the heating of roving at the break draft zone and varying the space between the aprons.

 

Keywords: Classimat faults, Yarn hairiness, Yarn imperfections

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D01H 5/00, D02G 3/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 Vol. 30, March 2005, pp. 99-113

 

Advances in ink-jet printing technology of textiles

S K Malik, Savita Kadian & Sushil Kumar

 

A brief account of various paths used in the development of ink-jet printing for textiles has been reported. This technology has achieved considerable success till the production stage and a lot of R & D work is being done to improve it further. It is a clean and environment-friendly process that reduces printing duration and costs by increasing productivity of pre-production in printing process. The potential applications of ink-jet technology emerged in the past few years have also been presented.

 

Keywords: Digital Printing, Ink-jet printing, Textile printing

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 B41J27/00; D06P3/00; D06P7/00