Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Total visitors:2,520 since 1-09-05

 ISSN : 0971-0426

 

CODEN : IJFRET

VOLUME 30

NUMBER 3

SEPTEMBER 2005

 

CONTENTS

 

Kinematic design method for six-bar linkage sley drive mechanisms in weaving

Recep Eren & Ahmet Aydemir

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D03C19/00]

 

243

A theoretical model to predict the thermal resistance of plain woven fabrics

D Bhattacharjee & V K Kothari

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06H3/00]

 

252

Effect of single yarn twist, ply-to-singles twist ratio and tightness factor on spirality of single jersey cotton knitted fabrics

N K Palaniswamy & A Peer Mohamed

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D01H7/00, D02G3/00, D06H3/00]

 

 

258

Effect of lay-up angle on mechanical properties of composites based on rib knit jute preforms

V R GiriDev, A Sivabalakrishnan, K Raghunathan & A Karthik

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D04B7/00, D06M17/06]

 

 

263

Study on tensile properties of coated fabrics and laminates

V Masteikaite & V Sacevičiene

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06M17/00]

 

267

Effect of thread structure and lubrication ratio on seam properties

B Meric & A Durmaz

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06H5/00; G01N33/36]

 

273

Development of an instrument to study shrinkage properties of air-jet textured yarns

K K Gupta & V K Kothari

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D02J1/00, D06C27/00]

 

278

Prediction of spun yarn strength at different gauge lengths using Weibull distribution

R S Rengasamy, S M Ishtiaque & Anindya Ghosh

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D02G3/00]

 

283

Low-stress properties of mercerized cotton ring- and OE rotor-spun yarns

G K Tyagi & Dhirendra Sharma

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06H3/00, D06M11/00, G01N33/36]

 

290

Yarn hairiness controlled by modified yarn path in cotton ring spinning

G Thilagavathi, G Gukanathan & B Munusamy

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D01H13/00, D02J7/00, G01N33/36]

295

Highest standard count estimation from fibre parameters using neural network techniques

N Shanmugam & S S Doke

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06H3/00, G06N3/02]

 

 

302

Variation in crystallite shape ellipsoid in non-mulberry silk fibres

H Somashekarappa, S S Mahesh, R Somashekar & Sangappa

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06H3/00, G01N23/00, G01N33/36]

 

309

Effect of cationization of cotton on its dyeability

M Ramasamy & P V Kandasaamy

IPC Code: Int.Cl.7 D06P1/38, D06M15/00]

 

315

Dyeing of microdenier polyester fabric in supercritical carbon dioxide

Shen Kung Liao

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06P1/00]

 

324

Short Communications

 

 

Creep performance of short stretch bandage

A Mukhopadhyay & S Ghosh

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A61L15/00, D03D15/08]

 

331

Development of closely woven breathable linen fabric for water storage applications

R Indu Shekar, Kamal Kumar & T M Kotresh

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D03D15/00]

 

335

An investigation on the minimum twist of cohesion of ring and compact spun yarns

N Gokarneshan, N Anbumani & V Subramaniam

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D01H1/00, D02G3/00]

340

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 30, September 2005, pp. 243-251

 

Kinematic design method for six-bar linkage sley drive mechanisms in weaving

 

Recep Eren & Ahmet Aydemir

Received 27 May 2004; revised received 15 October 2004; accepted 28 December 2004

A kinematic design method has been developed for calculating the link lengths of a six-bar linkage sley drive mechanism satisfying the required sley motion. Initially, a six-bar mechanism is divided into a crank rocker mechanism and a double rocker mechanism and then the equations are introduced for the kinematic design and analysis. The effect of mechanism parameters on sley motion is also investigated. It is observed that the Dj, which is a freely chosen design parameter of the double rocker mechanism, has the most significant effect on sley motion and that the effect of crank rocker mechanism on sley motion is also significant. Other mechanism parameters have no significant effect on sley motion. It is also observed in the design trials that the practically applicable link lengths can be obtained while the sley motion requirements are being satisfied.

Keywords: Six-bar linkage sley drive mechanism, Sley motion, Weaving

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D03C19/00

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 30, September 2005, pp. 252-257

 

A theoretical model to predict the thermal resistance of plain woven fabrics

D Bhattacharjee & V K Kothari

Received 8 October 2004; accepted 3 December 2004

A single cell woven fabric model has been developed to predict the thermal resistance in a non-convective environment. The values from the model have been compared with those obtained from Alambeta in which the fabric is confined between two plates at a pressure of 200 Pa, thus having the negligible natural convection and no forced convection. The model gives good correlation with the experimental values.

Keywords: Alambeta, Conduction, Cotton, Thermal resistance, Woven fabric

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06H3/00

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 30, September 2005, pp. 258-262

 

Effect of single yarn twist, ply-to-singles twist ratio and tightness factor on spirality of single jersey cotton knitted fabrics

N K Palaniswamy & A Peer Mohamed

Received 15 July 2004; accepted 11 October 2004

 

The effect of single yarn twist, ply-to-singles twist ratio and tightness factor on spirality of single jersey cotton knitted fabrics has been studied. The results show that the single jersey fabrics knitted from two-ply yarn with 1/2 of single yarn twist do not show spirality, whereas the fabrics produced using two-ply yarn with 1/3 and 3/4 of single yarn twist show spirality in Z and S directions respectively and the magnitude of spirality increases on wet relaxation. As the cotton two-ply yarn with 1/2 of single twist does not snarl in water, it can be considered as a balanced two-ply yarn. As the tightness of the fabric construction increases, the spirality of the fabric decreases.

Keywords: Cotton, Ply twist, Single jersey knitted fabric, Single yarn twist, Tightness factor, Twist liveliness

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D01H7/00, D02G3/00, D06H3/00

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 30, September 2005, pp. 263-266

 

Effect of lay-up angle on mechanical properties of composites
based on rib knit jute preforms

V R GiriDev , A Sivabalakrishnan , K Raghunathan & A Karthik

Received 1 July 2004; revised received and accepted 9 November 2004

 

The mechanical properties of knitted jute reinforced composites with different stacking sequences have been studied. Flat rib knitted preforms have been produced in manual flat bed knitting machine followed by composite laminate preparation using simple hand lay-up technique. It is observed that the mechanical properties are dependent upon the stacking sequence. The improvement in course-wise mechanical properties of the laminates has been observed with [00/450/00] and [00/900/900/00] lay-up sequences compared to [0]4 lay-up sequence which shows improvement in properties in wale-wise direction.

Keywords: Composite, Jute, Knitting, Mechanical properties, Textile preform

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D04B7/00, D06M17/06

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 30, September 2005, pp. 267-272

 

Study on tensile properties of coated fabrics and laminates

V Masteikaite & V Sacevičiene

Revised received 14 September 2004; accepted 11 October 2004

 

The influence of structural parameters of coated fabrics and laminates on the breaking force, elongation, tensile energy during their stretching in various directions and types of failure has been studied. It is observed that the tensile properties of coated fabrics and laminates depend not only on the structural characteristics of their base layer but also on polymer film and degree of its penetration into the base layer. The analysis of stress-strain curves and fabrics fracture shows three types of fabrics distortion, namely instantaneous, continuous for sometime and breaking of fabrics separate layers at different durations. The tensile direction for coated fabrics and laminates has considerable influence on tensile characteristics.

Keywords: Coated fabric, Laminate, Tensile properties

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06M17/00

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 30, September 2005, pp. 273-277

 

Effect of thread structure and lubrication ratio on seam properties

B Meric & A Durmaz

Received 17 September 2004; accepted 16 November 2004

The influence of thread structure and lubrication ratios on sewing performance of polyester multifilament, staple and core-spun threads with 2%, 4% and 6% lubrication ratios has been studied. Three different twists (540 twists/m, 635 twists/m and 1060 twists/m) were applied to 100% polyester yarns to analyze the effect of twist. The multifilament polyester yarns with 2 and 3 plies were used to study the effect of ply numbers. The effect on breaking elongation, coefficient of friction between thread and metal, and initial elasticity modulus has also been studied. The seam strength and seam slippage were measured to evaluate seams performance. It has been observed that the structure of threads affects the seam strength, whereas the lubrication ratio does not. The core-spun thread structure shows a great resistance against the seam opening.

Keywords: Breaking elongation, Breaking strength, Lubrication ratio, Seam strength, Seam slippage, Sewing thread

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06H5/00; G01N33/36

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 30, September 2005, pp. 278-282

 

Development of an instrument to study shrinkage properties of
air-jet textured yarns

K K Gupta & V K Kothari

Received 8 April 2004; revised received 29 November 2004; accepted 30 December 2004

 

An instrument has been fabricated to study the shrinkage behaviour of yarns. The effect of various process parameters, namely speed, overfeed and air pressure, on the shrinkage behaviour of air-jet textured polyester yarns has been investigated. Samples were prepared using factorial design for three variables and then tested for shrinkage, bulk and instability. Three response surface equations were calculated for shrinkage, bulk and instability in terms of process parameters. The results show that the shrinkage value decreases with the increase in overfeed, air pressure and speed. The use of water during the air-jet texturing process is found to increase the shrinkage in the resultant air-jet textured yarns.

Keywords: Air-jet texturing, Partially oriented yarn, Polyester

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D02J1/00, D06C27/00

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 30, September 2005, pp. 283-289

 

Prediction of spun yarn strength at different gauge lengths

using Weibull distribution

 

R S Rengasamy, S M Ishtiaque & Anindya Ghosh

Received 14 September 2004; accepted 11 November 2004

An attempt has been made for strength forecasting of different spun yarns at any gauge length from the knowledge of strength distribution at a given gauge length as well as the weakest-link scaling theorem. The shape and scale parameters of Weibull distribution have been determined. Yarns produced on each of the four major spinning systems (ring, rotor, air-jet and friction) have been tested for tenacity at a wide range of gauge lengths (0-500 mm). From the Weibull distribution parameters at 10, 50 and 500 mm gauge lengths and by using weakest-link scaling, the tenacity of yarns at other gauge lengths has been calculated. Then the results of theoretical model for yarn strength have been compared with the experimental results. It is observed that the data of yarn tenacity are well fit to two-parameter Weibull distribution. The Weibull shape parameter diminishes as the gauge length decreases. None of the yarns strictly follows the classical weakest-link theory and there is a considerable change in failure mechanism for all the yarns as the gauge length is varied.

Keywords: Gauge length, Scale parameter, Shape parameter, Spinning, Viscose fibre, Weibull distribution, Yarn tenacity

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D02G3/00

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 30, September 2005, pp. 290-294

 

Low-stress properties of mercerized cotton ring- and OE rotor-spun yarns

 

G K Tyagi & Dhirendra Sharma

Received 18 November 2004; accepted 8 December 2004

 

The effect of yarn linear density, yarn structure, twist factor and rotor speed on low-stress properties of mercerized cotton ring- and rotor-spun yarns has been studied. For both ring- and rotor-spun yarns, the initial modulus at 1% and 3% extensions, packing density and hairiness change markedly as a result of mercerization treatment. Flexural rigidity increases significantly, however it is considerably lower for ring- spun yarns. The abrasion resistance of both types of yarns decreases but yarn twist increases it.

Keywords: Cotton, Flexural rigidity, Initial modulus, Mercerization, Ring-spun yarn, Rotor- spun yarn, Twist factor

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06H3/00, D06M11/00, G01N33/36

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 30, September 2005, pp. 295-301

 

Yarn hairiness controlled by modified yarn path in cotton ring spinning

G Thilagavathi, G Gukanathan & B Munusamy

Received 25 May 2004; revised received and accepted 9 November 2004

The influence of yarn path on spinning triangle and, in turn, on yarn hairiness has been studied. The yarns have been produced from cotton (40s Mali-juli and 60s MCU5) and 45s polyester/cotton (Recron/MCU5, 67:33) by varying the yarn path in right and left diagonals by spinning with adjacent spindles and then tested for hairiness, strength, unevenness and breakage. The test results have been compared with the respective conventional straight path yarns. It is observed that there is a 50% reduction in hairiness in the left diagonal path with slight increase in strength. Right diagonal path shows deterioration in spinning efficiency and no improvement in hairiness.

Keywords: Cotton, Ring spinning, Spinning triangle, Yarn hairiness

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D01H13/00, D02J7/00, G01N33/36

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 30, September 2005, pp. 302-308

 

 

Highest standard count estimation from fibre parameters using neural
network techniques

N Shanmugam & S S Doke

Received 19 April 2004; revised received 9 September 2004; accepted 10 November 2004

 

Artificial neural network (ANN) model has been developed for predicting highest standard count (HSC) from fibre properties, namely 2.5% span length, uniformity ratio, micronaire and bundle strength. The developed ANN model was compared with the multiple regression and fibre quality index (FQI) based regression models. ANN ranking of fibre properties was carried out using difference in test performance values as indicator and in case of multiple regression, standardized regression coefficients were used. It has been observed that in both ANN and multiple regression models, the ranks of span length and bundle strength are the same. The span length is the largest contributor for HSC and the bundle strength is the least contributor. The mean absolute errors of ANN and multiple regression equation are found to be less by 15% and 11% respectively in comparison with FQI-based linear regression equation.

Keywords: Artificial neural network, Back propagation neural network, Cotton, Fibre quality index, Highest standard count, Lea CSP, Multiple regression model

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06H3/00, G06N3/02

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 30, September 2005, pp. 309-314

 

Variation in crystallite shape ellipsoid in non-mulberry silk fibres

H Somashekarappa, S S Mahesh, R Somashekar & Sangappa

Received 8 August 2004; accepted 19 November 2004

Wide angle X-ray scattering data recorded from the coarse and fine fibres of mulberry and non-mulberry silk, like muga, tassar and eri, have been used along with exponential, Reinhold and Lognormal functions for crystal size distributions to determine the microstructural parameters and hence to compute the shape of the crystallite ellipsoid. The estimated microstructural parameters have been correlated with the reported physical parameters like tenacity and toughness of silk fibres. It is observed that the tenacity decreases with the increase in crystal size for both mulberry and non- mulberry silk fibres, which essentially reflects the fact that ordering in the lattice may not be a favoured factor in the textile industry.

Keywords: Crystallite shape, Silk fibre, Tensile strength, Wide angle X-ray scattering

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06H3/00, G01N23/00, G01N33/36

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 30, September 2005, pp. 315-323

 

Effect of cationization of cotton on its dyeability

 

M Ramasamy & P V Kandasaamy

Received 23 February 2004; revised received and accepted 28 October 2004

The efficiency of (3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)trimethylammonium chloride and polyamino chlorohydrin quaternary ammonium compound for cationization of cotton has been studied. The influence of process conditions during cationization on the colour strength (K/S) and total dye utilization has also been studied. It is observed that the cationization increases the dye utilization by 30% with no change in colour fastness and reduces the environmental pollution to a great extent. Cationized cotton dyeing is found to consume only 40% steam and 50% time to that of normal dyeing. Cationization with (3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)trimethylammonium chloride is found to be a successful and commercially-viable process which ensures 17% saving in dyeing cost.

Keywords: Cationization, Cotton, (3-Chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)trimethylammonium chloride, Dyeing, Polyamino chlorohydrin quaternary ammonium compound

IPC Code: Int.Cl.7 D06P1/38, D06M15/00

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 30, September 2005, pp. 324-330

 

Dyeing of microdenier polyester fabric in supercritical carbon dioxide

Shen Kung Liao

Received 5 April 2004; revised received 26 August 2004; accepted 10 November 2004

 

Supercritical fluid dyeing technology has been used to dye microdenier polyethylene terephthalate fibres at elevated pressure and temperature simultaneously. It is observed that the dye speck disappears when pressure increases beyond 200bar and dye uptake increases when pressure increases above 250bar. Temperatures above 120oC are found to be suitable for the dyeing of polyester fabrics. As the pressure releases step by step, a deeper shade is obtained because of the incremental mixing of the fluid, dyestuff and substrate. Disperse Red 60, which own anthraquinonid structure, could be dissolved more easily in supercritical fluid system. Reduction cleaning is not required and the fastness properties of dyed samples still meet commercial requirements. The results also show that the dye uptake could be raised with solvents such as dimethyl formamide and dimethyl sulfoxide in combination with dyestuffs. DSC and X-ray analyses also indicate no obvious damage when polyester fabrics are dyed at 250bar pressure and 120oC temperature for 10min in supercritical fluid carbon dioxide.

Keywords: Dyeing, Microdenier fabric, Polyethylene terephthalate, Supercritical fluid

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D06P1/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 30, September 2005, pp. 331-334

 

 

Creep performance of short stretch bandage

A Mukhopadhyay & S Ghosh

Received 29 July 2004; revised received and accepted 19 November 2004

 

The study on creep behaviour of short stretch bandages indicates that the most suitable bandage material as regards better holding during use may not be suitable for repeated use and vice versa. Lower values of delayed extension and permanent set in fabric are desirable for better holding capacity and for its repeated use respectively. Material ranking as regards instantaneous extension, delayed extension, instantaneous recovery, delayed recovery and permanent set does not change much with the variation in load. Although constructional parameters of all leno weaved bandage materials have significant influence on the above characteristics, there is no standardization as regards the uses of material, constructional parameters of yarn and fabric sett. Further, the fabric of higher weight may not perform best as regards holding of fabric during use.

Keywords: Creep, Delayed recovery, Instantaneous extension, Permanent set, Short stretch bandage

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A61L15/00, D03D15/08

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 30, September 2005, pp. 335-339

 

 

Development of closely woven breathable linen fabric for water storage applications

R Indu Shekar, Kamal Kumar & T M Kotresh

Received 23 June 2004; revised received and accepted 23 November 2004

Dry-spun linen yarn was used to develop linen canvas water holding bags. Four varieties of linen -based canvas fabrics were developed using fabric engineering concept in different constructional parameters and weaves. It was observed that the fabric woven in oxford weave with twist level varying from 16 turns/dm to 18 turns/dm exhibited superior performance in terms of water proofness, water vapour permeability and water retaining capability. The study also showed the importance of fabric engineering concept to achieve optimum level of functional requirements.

Keywords: Breathable fabric, Cellulose, Linen, Water vapour transmission

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D03D15/00

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 30, September. 2005, pp. 340-343

 

An investigation on the minimum twist of cohesion of ring and compact spun yarns

N Gokarneshan, N Anbumani & V Subramaniam

Received 13 May 2004; revised received and accepted 28 December 2004

An instrument has been designed to determine the minimum twist of cohesion in yarns. The mechanical twist tester (based on untwist retwist principle) has been used for finding out the initial twist per inch in the yarn. The number of turns that must be removed to break the yarn has been observed using the designed instrument. As it is useful in deciding the twist factor to be given to yarns, tests have been carried out on various types of treated and untreated yarns. It is observed that the treated yarns give better cohesion than untreated ones. Comparative studies on ring and compact yarns show that the compact yarn gives better cohesion.

Keywords : Compact yarn, Cotton yarn, Polyester yarn, Ring yarn, Viscose yarn

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 D01H1/00, D02G3/00