Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 

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VOLUME 31

NUMBER 4

DECEMBER 2006

CODEN : IJFRET

 

ISSN : 0971-0426

 

CONTENTS

 

Engineering design of polyester-viscose blended suiting fabrics using radial basis function network: Part II—Prediction of fabric constructional parameters from its properties

        B K Behera & S B Muttagi

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 G06N3/02]

 

 

489

Effect of fibre cross-sectional shape on handle characteristics of polyester-viscose and polyester-cotton ring and MJS yarn fabrics

        G K Tyagi & P Madhusoodhanan

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D02G3/00]

 

 

496

Predicting abrasion behaviour of chenille fabric by fuzzy logic

        E K Çeven , Ö Özdemir & L Dağkurs

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D02G3/42, D03D27/00, G06N7/02]

 

501

Angora rabbit fibre attrition within knitted fabrics under rubbing forces

        L Onal  & M Korkmaz

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D04B]

 

507

Effect of spinning conditions on characteristics of polyester-viscose MJS core yarns

        G K Tyagi

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D01H7/00, D02G3/00]

 

515

Hairiness reduction in polyester spun yarns during ring spinning using  air nozzles—Optimization of nozzle and other parameters

        R S Rengasamy, V K Kothari,  Asis Patnaik & S K Bhatia

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D01H, D02G3/00]

 

 

521

Analysis of controlling force at the double apron drafting system of ring frame

        S Subramanian & A Peer Mohamed

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D01H5/00]

 

529

Processability and properties of yarns produced from cornhusk fibres and their blends with other fibres

        Narendra Reddy, Yiqi Yang   & David D McAlister III

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D02G3/00]

 

 

537

Drug release and antimicrobial studies on chitosan-coated cotton yarns

        O L Shanmugasundaram, V R Giri Dev, R Neelakandan , M Madhusoothanan &
G Suseela Rajkumar

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 A61L15/00, D06B3/00]

 

543

Influence of crosslinking conditions on the crystallinity of ramie fibre

        Wenbin Li & Weilin Xu

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D06M13/00]

 

548

Studies on animal fibre blended hand made felts: Part I – Physical and mechanical properties

        P C Patni, D B Shakyawar & N P Gupta

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D04H5/00]

 

553

Dyeing of wool and silk with Punica granatum

        Debasish Das, Subhash Chandra Bhattacharya &  Sankar Ray Maulik

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 C09B61/00, D06P3/00]

 

559

Studies on enzymatic hair removal and softening of cotton hosiery yarns

        Bhaarathi Dhurai  & V Natarajan

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D06B3/00]

 

565

Short Communications

 

 

A new concept of three dimensional weaving of bifurcated vascular prostheses

        S Ben Abdessalem, S Mokhtar, B Durand & N Chakfe

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 A61F2/06, D03D3/00]

 

573

Design and development of illuminated clothing with PMMA for versatile applications

        A N Sai Krishnan, L Ashok Kumar & A Venkatachalam

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D03D25/00]

 

577

Pull-out behaviour of yarn from plain woven jute fabric

        Salil Kumar Bhattacharya & Asoke Kumar Chakraborty

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D03D]

580

Classifying fibre attributes of cotton using Kohonen neural networks

        N Shanmugam  & S S Doke

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 G06N3/02]

 

583

Low temperature bleaching of cotton using TAED activated peroxide bath

        S K Malik  & Manoj Das

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D06B3/00]

 

588

Synopses of Doctoral Theses

 

 

Maximising the yarn quality by structural modification during ply twisting

        N K Palaniswamy

591

Annual Index

594

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 31, December 2006, pp. 489-495

 

Engineering design of polyester-viscose blended suiting fabrics using
radial basis function network: Part II—Prediction of fabric
constructional parameters from its properties

 

B K Behera & S B Muttagi

Received 15 June 2005; revised received 9 September 2005; accepted 17 October 2005

The application of artificial neural network approach to re-engineer the design of woven polyester-viscose blended suiting fabric to be used by the weavers has been described. The fabric constructional parameters have been predicted for specific fabric property requirements using the same network with an approach called reverse engineering. It is observed that the radial basis function neural network could successfully predict the trends in variation of fabric constructional parameters. Evaluation of the model for each fabric property specification shows good agreement between predicted and generally accepted fabric and yarn structure-property relationships.

Keywords:     Fabric engineering, Neural network, Polyester-viscose fabric, Prediction error, Reverse engineering, Structure-property relationship

IPC Code:     Int. Cl.8 G06N3/02

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 31, December 2006, pp. 496-500

 

Effect of fibre cross-sectional shape on handle characteristics of polyester-viscose and polyester-cotton ring and MJS yarn fabrics

G K Tyagi & P Madhusoodhanan

Received 5 July 2005; revised received and accepted 19 December 2005

The relationships between handle characteristics of polyester-viscose and polyester-cotton ring and MJS yarn fabrics and yarn bulk and rigidity have been studied using FAST evaluation system. Generally, MJS yarn fabrics are relatively thicker, more rigid and provide a lower shear rigidity and enhanced formability. There are significant changes in the compression, shear rigidity and formability with variation in fibre profile, and a marked improvement in these characteristics is obtained with trilobal polyester fibre. Increased polyester component leads to a noticeable increase in bending and shear rigidities. A polyester-cotton fabric has been found preferable to a polyester-viscose fabric in respect of fabric handle.

Keywords : Circular polyester fibre, Formability, MJS yarn, Ring-spun yarn, Trilobal polyester fibre, Wrapper fibres

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D02G3/00

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 31, December 2006, pp. 501-506

 

Predicting abrasion behaviour of chenille fabric by fuzzy logic

E K Çeven , Ö Özdemir & L Dağkurs

Received 29 September 2005; revised received 26 December 2005; accepted 2 February 2006

The effects of chenille yarn count, pile length and yarn twist level on abrasion resistance of chenille fabric have been studied using fuzzy logic system. Different chenille yarns are produced with varying yarn count, pile length and twist level on a chenille yarn machine. The viscose and acrylic have been used as pile and core yarns respectively and the fabrics are woven from these yarns by using them as filling yarns in the weaving construction. Abrasion resistance of chenille fabrics is measured with a Martindale abrasion tester. Experimental data are used in the establishment of the fuzzy logic model and the construction of basic principles. It is observed that the use of high twist levels and pile lengths brings about an improvement in abrasion resistance and the yarn count has a significant effect on mass loss. Correlation analysis (r = 0.978) confirms strong linear relationship between measured and predicted mass loss values. It is practically possible to obtain positive results with abrasion resistance optimization in a more economical way by fuzzy logic system.

Keywords: Abrasion resistance, Chenille yarn, Fuzzy logic, Pile length, Twist level, Yarn count

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D02G3/42, D03D27/00, G06N7/02

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 31, December 2006, pp. 507-514

 

 

Angora rabbit fibre attrition within knitted fabrics under rubbing forces

 

L Onal  &  M Korkmaz

Received 30 November 2005; accepted 23 January 2006

This paper reports Angora rabbit fibre damages within knitted fabrics under rubbing forces during Martindale pilling and abrasion tests, as well as pilling tendency and abrasion resistance of fabrics. Lyocell and cotton fibres have been blended with Angora rabbit and polyamide fibres and the samples are prepared with two different twist multipliers and fibre blends. It is observed that the cotton blended Angora fabrics have higher resistance to pilling than lyocell blended fabric. The higher twist multiplier also reduces the pilling of fabrics. SEM studies show that the combination of torsional and flexural fatigue is the leading cause of damage in Angora fibres during pilling cycle. Hair type of Angora fibres also behave differently under rubbing forces. Abrasion resistance of fabrics is significantly affected by fibre blend, twist multiplier and relaxation. Statistical analysis reveals the significance of interactions between these factors.

Keywords: Angora rabbit fibre, Cotton, Knitted fabric, Lyocell, Pilling, Polyamide

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D04B

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 31, December 2006, pp. 515-520

 

Effect of spinning conditions on characteristics of polyester-viscose
MJS core yarns

 

G K Tyagi

Received 5 July 2005; revised received 25 October 2005; accepted 21 November 2005

The effect of processing conditions in air-jet spinning on the characteristics of polyester-viscose core-spun yarns has been studied. It is observed that the increase in main draft leads to a significant increase almost in all mechanical characteristics. Reduced yarn linear density also has a potential for an appreciable increase in these characteristics. Increased spinning speed also provides a noticeable increase in yarn tenacity, breaking extension, initial modulus, energy-to-break, flexural rigidity, elastic recovery and abrasion resistance.

Keywords: Core-spun yarn, Feed ratio, Main draft, Murata air-jet spinning, Polyester filament, Wrapper fibres

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D01H7/00, D02G3/00

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 31, December 2006, pp. 521-528

 

Hairiness reduction in polyester spun yarns during ring spinning using
air nozzles — Optimization of nozzle and other parameters

 

R S Rengasamy, V K Kothari , Asis Patnaik & S K Bhatia

Received 1 September 2005; accepted 21 November 2005

Nozzle and other parameters have been optimized using factorial design approach to reduce the hairiness of ring-spun yarns as the fibre strand coming out of the nip of front roller of ring frame is passed through an air-vortex nozzle before going to the lappet. The parameters, such as axial angle of air inlets in the nozzles, diameter of yarn channel in the nozzle, air pressure supplied to the nozzles and denier of fibres used to spin the yarns, have been considered. The 45° angle for air inlets, 2.2 mm diameter of nozzles, 1.0 denier fibre and 0.9 bar (gauge) air pressure are the best combinations to obtain lowest yarn hairiness when using nozzles during spinning. Computational fluid dynamics model has been used to simulate airflow pattern inside the nozzle. Swirling effect of air, caused by the design of the nozzles, is the main reason behind yarn hairiness reduction. Vortex nature of air along with air velocity is important phenomenon in reducing yarn hairiness. Tensile and evenness properties of NozzleRing yarns are almost similar to those of the conventional ring yarns spun without nozzle.

Keywords: NozzleRing, Polyester, Swirling, Yarn hairiness

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D01H, D02G3/00

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 31, December 2006, pp. 529-536

 

Analysis of controlling force at the double apron drafting system of ring frame

 

S Subramanian & A Peer Mohamed

Received 29 July 2005; accepted 15 December 2005

Controlling of floating fibres at the double apron drafting system of ring frame to avoid formation of drafting wave has been analysed. The limitation of existing double apron roller drafting system in controlling the floating fibres has been discussed. The cradle of the drafting system has been modified to achieve higher controlling force towards the front roller nip to execute better control over the floating fibres and lower controlling force away from the front roller nip to reduce the drafting resistance in order to avoid undrafting. The imperfections and total classified yarn faults are lower for the yarn produced using modified cradle without spacer compared to that of normal cradle with least possible thickness spacer.

Keywords: Aprons, Controlling force, Drafting wave, Floating fibres, Spacer

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D01H5/00

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 31, December 2006, pp. 537-542

 

 

Processability and properties of yarns produced from cornhusk fibres and their blends with other fibres

 

Narendra Reddy, Yiqi Yang & David D McAlister III

Received 5 July 2005; revised received 26 September 2005; accepted 21 October 2005

Natural cellulose fibres extracted from cornhusks have been blended with cotton and polyester and processed on the ring and rotor spinning machines. The processability of cornhusk fibres on the conventional spinning systems, compatibility with cotton and polyester, and properties of the blended yarns have been studied. The properties of cornhusk fibre blended yarns are also compared with those of the similar yarns produced from unconventional fibres, such as pineapple and banana leaves, milkweed and kenaf. It is observed that the blending of cornhusk fibres with cotton does not adversely affect the properties of yarns while the blending of cornhusk fibres with polyester improves the strength and elongation of the yarns.

Keywords: Biofibres, Cornhusk fibres, Cotton, Lignocellulosic fibres, Polyester, Spinning

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D02G3/00

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 31, December 2006, pp. 543-547

 

 

Drug release and antimicrobial studies on chitosan-coated cotton yarns

 

O L Shanmugasundaram, V R Giri Dev, R Neelakandan ,  M Madhusoothanan & G Suseela Rajkumar

Received 4 August 2005; revised received and accepted 2 December 2005

Cotton yarns coated with chitosan have been prepared by the oxidation of cotton yarns with sodium periodate at 60°C in water and subsequent treatment with a solution of chitosan in aqueous acetic acid. Infrared spectra of the chitosan-coated cotton yarn show the formation of Schiff's base between the chitosan and the oxidized cellulose. The chitosan-coated yarns have been further immobilized with tetracycline drug and the effect of drug concentration and treatment time on drug release characteristics and antimicrobial activity studied. The study shows good drug release characteristics and antimicrobial activity against E.coli and S. aureus.

Keywords: Chitosan , Coated yarn, Cotton, Drug release, Sodium periodate, Tetracycline hydrochloride,

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 A61L15/00, D06B3/00

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 31, December 2006, pp. 548-552

 

 

Influence of crosslinking conditions on the crystallinity of ramie fibre

Wenbin Li & Weilin Xu

Received 16 August 2005; revised received 11 November 2005; accepted 12 December 2005

Ramie yarns have been treated with different concentrations of 1, 2, 3, 4- butanetetracarboxylic acid in presence of catalyst sodium hypophosphite at different curing temperatures. It is observed that the concentration of treating agent and curing temperature affect the crystallinity and crystalline size of ramie fibre.

Keywords: Crystallinity, Crosslinking, Crystalline size, Ramie fibre

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D06M13/00

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 31, December 2006, pp. 553-558

 

Studies on animal fibre blended hand made felts: Part I– Physical and
mechanical properties

P C Patni, D B Shakyawar & N P Gupta

Received 13 June 2005; revised received 13 October 2005; accepted 21 December 2005

Wool fibre has been blended separately with camel hair and angora rabbit wool in different proportions and felts of different thicknesses and densities produced as per Indian standards. The felts developed from medium type wool and rabbit hair give lowest density and thickness as required for extra soft quality (64s) felt. It is also observed that the performance characteristics of felt, i.e. tensile strength and splitting resistance, mainly depend on thickness of felt. The correlation between these two is also very high. The felts developed with pure camel hair give highest tensile strength and quite comparable splitting resistance and density with pure wool felt for making soft quality (48s) felt; however, it gives higher abrasion loss.

Keywords : Abrasion loss, Hand made felt, Tensile strength, Splitting resistance, Wool

IPC Code : Int. Cl.8 D04H5/00

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 31, December 2006, pp. 559-564

 

Dyeing of wool and silk with Punica granatum

 

Debasish Das, Subhash Chandra Bhattacharya & Sankar Ray Maulik

Received 22 August 2005; revised received and accepted 21 November 2005

The application of dye obtained from Punica granatum fruit rind on wool and silk fabric in the presence and absence of environment-friendly mordanting agents has been studied. The dyeing of silk and wool with pomegranate solution is found to be effectively accomplished at pH 4.0. Pre- and post-mordanting employing ferrous sulphate and aluminium sulphate improve the colour uptake, light fastness and colour retention on repeated washing. The use of such mordants, however, does not improve wash fastness property of dyed substrates.

Keywords: Dyeing, Mordanting, Punica granatum, Silk, Wool

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 C09B61/00, D06P3/00

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 31, December 2006, pp. 565-572

 

Studies on enzymatic hair removal and softening of cotton hosiery yarns

 

Bhaarathi Dhurai  & V Natarajan

Received 23 March 2005; revised received and accepted 21 October 2005

Enzyme softening of ring-spun carded and combed, and rotor-spun yarns of 30s count (19.68 tex) has been carried out using Bio-soft L+ enzyme with the aim of improving their knittability through improvement in yarn hairiness and frictional properties. A central composite rotatable design, proposed by Box and Behnken, was used to conduct experiment for developing mathematical models for the yarn characteristics, such as hairiness, kinetic friction and compression properties, in terms of the variables, namely enzyme concentration, temperature and treatment time. Quasi-Newton numerical method was used to optimize the process variables of enzyme softening treatment and the responses with reduction in hairiness index considered as the objective function. The studies show that the enzyme softening not only results in reduction of hairiness and improvement of frictional coefficients but also leads to improved compressional softness of yarns. Enzyme softening of ring-spun carded yarn results in high level of reduction in hairiness (28%) and kinetic friction (50%). The improvement in compressional softness is pronounced in rotor-spun yarn, while hairiness reduction is predominant in ring-spun yarns. Optimum values for process variables have been mathematically calculated from the experimental results. Optimized conditions for enzyme softening are found to be 2.25-3% (owm) enzyme concentration, 50°C temperature and 50-60 min treatment time.

Keywords: Box & Behnken design, Cellulase enzyme, Cotton hosiery yarn, Compressional properties, Frictional softness, Quasi-Newton optimization method

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D06B3/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 31, December 2006, pp. 573-576

 

A new concept of three dimensional weaving of bifurcated vascular prostheses

 

S Ben Abdessalem, S Mokhtar, B Durand & N Chakfe

Received 20 August 2005; revised received 25 November 2005; accepted 10 February 2006

A prototype of manual weaving machine has been developed for the fabrication of straight and bifurcated tubular structures used as vascular prostheses, conceiving a special heald frames selection device. This permits the selection of two branches warp yarns of the bifurcated structure separately and allows weft insertion to the middle of the warp sheet. The machine has been successfully used to weave a bifurcated prosthesis with biocompatible Dacron polyester filaments.

                    Keywords: Bifurcated vascular prosthesis, Dacron polyester, Three dimensional weaving, Tubular fabrics

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 A61F2/06, D03D3/00

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 31, December 2006, pp. 577-579

 

Design and development of illuminated clothing with PMMA for versatile applications

 

A N Sai Krishnan, L Ashok Kumar & A Venkatachalam

Received 1 July 2005; revised received and accepted 23 December 2005

Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), a polymeric optical fibre, has been woven with cotton and polyester in a specific weave pattern to assess the light for light emitting textile application. The illumination of clothing system is primarily influenced by the weave geometry. The sateen weave shows better illumination as compared to twill weave, as the weft bending angle of sateen weave is less due to more weft float in the weave. The opportunities of integration of PMMA material into the clothing system have been investigated comprehensively.

Keywords: Cotton, Fibre optic panel, Polyester, Polymethyl methacrylate, Protective garment, Sateen weave, Twill weave

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D03D25/00

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 31, December 2006, pp. 580-582

 

Pull-out behaviour of yarn from plain woven jute fabric

 

Salil Kumar Bhattacharya & Asoke Kumar Chakraborty

Received 14 July 2005; revised received and accepted 2 February 2006

Effects of calendering and bending length on pull-out behaviour of yarns from five different sets of commonly used jute hessian fabrics have been studied. Force required to pull out yarn from the fabric is measured in tensile testing machine. The pull out characteristics of the yarn adjacent to the yarn which has previously been pulled out is also studied. Lesser pull-out force is observed in case of calendered samples, and the load to pull out the adjoining yarn, which is beside the yarn that has already been pulled out, is found to be comparatively much less.

Keywords: Bending length, Calendering, Jute hessian fabrics, Weaving

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D03D

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 31, December 2006, pp. 583-587

 

Classifying fibre attributes of cotton using Kohonen neural networks

 

N Shanmugam & S S Doke

Received 22 August 2005; revised received and accepted 26 October 2005

Kohonen neural network has  been used to classify cotton fibre characteristics, viz. 2.5% span length, bundle strength, short fibre index, uniformity ratio and elongation. Twenty three cottons studied are classified into 3 groups and each group is given range of values for each property. Except fibre elongation, the other properties have distinct range of values for each group. The developed model is found to have a classification rate of 100%, when validation is done for 4 cottons.

Keywords: Kohonen neural network, Cotton, Highest standard count

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 G06N3/02

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 31, December 2006, pp. 588-590

 

Low temperature bleaching of cotton using TAED activated peroxide bath

S K Malik  & Manoj Das

Received 17 November 2005; revised received and accepted 19 January 2006

Low temperature bleaching of cotton fabric using tetraacetylethylenediamine (TAED) in the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) bath has been studied and the most appropriate conditions for this bleaching established. In this technique, in-situ peracetic acid formation takes place via reaction of TAED and H2O2. This method gives bleaching comparable to that of the conventional method at relatively low temperature (60°C). The extent of bleaching depends upon the temperature of bleaching, pH, concentration of TAED and treatment time. The loss of strength, process time and alkali required are also found to be less than for the samples bleached in conventional manner.

Keywords: Cotton, Hydrogen peroxide, Low temperature bleaching, Tetraacetylethylenediamine

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D06B3/00