Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 

Total visitors:1,908 since 02-06-06

 ISSN : 0971-0426

 

CODEN : IJFRET

VOLUME 31

NUMBER 2

JUNE 2006

 

 

CONTENTS

 

Empirical modelling of filament area in melt extruded net structures

        A Rawal  & P J Davies

        [IPC Code:  Int. Cl.8 D01D]

 

241

A new algorithm of cotton fibre selection and laydown using TOPSIS method of multi-criteria decision making

        Abhijit Majumdar, Bijan Sarkar & Prabal Kumar Majumdar

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D01G5/00, G01N33/36]

 

 

248

Modelling and simulating the floating fibres movement during drafting

        Jie Yao, Ren-zhe Cheng & Guo-ming Ye

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D01H5/00]

 

256

Wetting characteristics of long vegetable fibres

        Soma Samajpati  & Surajit Sengupta

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D01C1/00]

 

262

Varietal response of jute fibres with varying meshiness to alkali treatment: Part I—Effect of alkali concentration and treatment temperature on crimp development in jute fibres

        R K Varshney , R K Singh, A K Sengupta &  V K Kothari

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D01F11/00, D06M11/00]

 

 

267

Varietal response of jute fibres with varying meshiness to alkali treatment: Part II—Properties of alkali-treated jute fibres

        R K Varshney , R K Singh, A K Sengupta &  V K Kothari

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D01F11/00, D06M11/00]

 

 

274

Quality characteristics of polyester/viscose and polyester/cotton two-ply yarns

        Arindam Basu  & Rajanna L Gotipamul

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D02G3/00, G01N33/36]

 

279

Influence of sheath structure on twist and diameter of dref-III polyester-wool blended friction-spun yarn

        S K Sinha  & R Chattopadhyay

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D02G3/00]

 

 

286

Quality aspects of two-for-one and ring-twisted OE rotor-spun plied yarns

        G K Tyagi

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D02G3/00]

293

An investigation on the physical properties of core yarns

        V Viswarajasekaran  & K Raghunathan

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D02G3/00, G01N33/36]

 

298

Improvement in tensile characteristics of dref-III yarn by enhancing structural integrity through modification in feed

        S Bhattacharyya, S M Chatterjee & P K Mazumder

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D01H5/00, D02G3/00]

 

 

302

Mechanical properties of ribbon parachute fabrics for cluster submunitions

        L Önal

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D03D13/00]

 

309

Effect of substituting modified polyester for cotton in ring-spun polyester/cotton blended yarn fabrics

        Sudipta S Mahish, S K Punj & Bhawna Banwari

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D01D11/00, G01N33/36]

 

 

313

Susceptibility of cationized and aminized cotton fabrics before and after crosslinking towards wet transfer printing

        A Hebeish, Mohamed M EL-Molla, Z H EL-Hilw & H S EL-Sayad

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D06P1/38, D06P3/58]

 

 

320

Application of flame retardant products to knitted fabric

        G Ozcan, H Dayioglu & C Candan

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 C09K21/00; D06M11/00]

 

330

Flexural properties of rice straw reinforced polyester composites

        A V Ratna Prasad, K Murali Mohan Rao ,  M Anil Kumar & K Mohan Rao

        [IPC Code : Int. Cl.8 D01D]

 

335

Short Communications

 

 

Dimensional stabilization of cotton plain knitted fabric by using ultrasonic waves

        V Mohamadi & Ali AA Jeddi

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D04B39/00]

 

339

Influence of critical ring frame parameters on the minimum twist of cohesion in yarns

        N Gokarneshan,  Anindya Ghosh, N Anbumani & V Subramaniam

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D02G3/00]

 

342

Effects of picking periods and average mass of seed on fibre properties of MCU-5 cotton

        M Tamil Selvan & K Raghunathan

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D01B, G01N33/36]

346

 

 

 


 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 31, June 2006, pp.241-247

 

Empirical modelling of filament area in melt extruded net structures

A Rawal  & P J Davies

Received 7 March 2005; revised received and accepted 27 May 2005

A series of melt extruded net structures based upon Taguchi’s experimental design methods has been produced from patented Netlon process using square and trapezoidal die slots and a methodology is developed to analyse the extruded samples such that the filament cross-sections could be obtained without inflicting damage. The empirical models for the cross-sectional area of the filaments have been formulated with the main process parameters, viz. extruder speed, take-up speed, die rotational speed, melt flow index (MFI) and temperature. It is observed  that the cross-sectional area of the filament mainly depends upon the extruder speed and take-up speed. While MFI has a moderate effect, the temperature and die rotation have negligible effect on filament cross-sectional area. Furthermore, another set of filaments has been produced from laboratory melt extruder, excluding the effect of die rotation. The results show that the influence of process parameters on the filament area is similar to that observed for the net structures produced from the Netlon process. Effects of die swell on the filament cross-sectional area have also been observed and analysed.

Keywords: Die slot, Die swell, Melt extrusion, Polyethylene

IPC Code:  Int. Cl.8 D01D

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 31, June 2006, pp. 248-255

 

A new algorithm of cotton fibre selection and laydown using TOPSIS method of multi-criteria decision making

 

Abhijit Majumdar, Bijan Sarkar & Prabal Kumar Majumdar

                                                                    Received 1 November 2004; accepted 8 April 2005

 

a novel approach of cotton fibre grading and selection has been proposed by using the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method of Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM). Cotton bales were grouped into different categories based on their quality values determined by TOPSIS method and Spinning Consistency Index (SCI). Laydowns were then formed by random and frequency relative picking algorithms from 1200 real cotton bales with known HVI properties. Computer simulation results demonstrate that the frequency relative picking of TOPSIS and SCI are capable to reduce the between laydown variability of major cotton properties.

Keywords: Cotton, Frequency relative picking, Multi-criteria decision making, Random picking, Spinning consistency index, TOPSIS

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D01G5/00, G01N33/36

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 31, June 2006, pp. 256-261

 

Modelling and simulating the floating fibres movement during drafting

 

Jie Yao, Ren-zhe Cheng & Guo-ming Ye

Received 23 August 2004; revised received and accepted 21 April 2005

A mathematical model of floating fibre motion has been established through analyzing the forces acting on it, and then the fibre movement under various conditions is simulated by computer simulating calculation. The results show the speed change point distribution with different statistical characteristics under various processing conditions, which have been obtained before only through the experiments. In addition, the effects of frictional force distribution, fibre length, roller distance and drafting ratio on the speed change point distribution have also been studied respectively from the simulation results. It provides a new way for studying the movement of floating fibres in the drafting zone.

Keywords: Drafting, Floating fibre, Speed change point distribution,

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D01H5/00

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 31, June 2006, pp. 262-266

 

 Wetting characteristics of long vegetable fibres

 

Soma Samajpati  & Surajit Sengupta

Received 14 January 2005; accepted 4 April 2005

Wettability of long vegetable fibres like jute, ramie, sisal, flax and sunhemp with different binders, such as polyvinyl acetate (PVAc), phenol formaldehyde (PF) and polyester (PET) resin has been determined and compared. Contact angles of different fibre-binder systems have been determined by Sissilidrop method and the wetting parameters such as specific work of adhesion, specific wettability and spreading coefficient calculated. It is observed that the wettability depends on properties of binder and fibre. Polyester resin shows significantly lower wettability than PVAc and PF resins. Additive like diammonium phosphate or urea decreases wettability of PVAc. Among the different fibres studied, ramie shows the highest wettability and sisal the lowest.

Keywords: Specific work of adhesion, Spreading coefficient, Vegetable fibres, Wetting characteristics

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D01C1/00

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 31, June 2006, pp. 267-273

 

Varietal response of jute fibres with varying meshiness to alkali treatment:
Part I—Effect of alkali concentration and treatment temperature on
crimp development in jute fibres

 

R K Varshney,. R K Singh, A K Sengupta  & V K Kothari

Revised received 4 April 2005; accepted 11 April 2005

Alkali treatment of four varieties of jute fibres, namely W-4, TD-3, Desi and Mesta, with different meshiness levels has been carried out at three different conditions of concentration and temperature, namely 9% conc./2ºC temp.(9/2), 18% conc./30ºC temp. (18/30) and 18% conc./10ºC temp. (18/10). Crimping behaviour in terms of decrimping extension, decrimping stress, decrimping energy and crimp stability has been studied. It is observed that under the condition 18/10, crimp development is maximum because of its inherent higher shrinkage potential. Decrimping energy is also found to be highest but the parameter crimp energy decay, having considerable practical importance and the indicator of crimp instability, comes out to be higher. However, for all practical purposes, considering other technical aspects, 18/10 condition gives satisfactory results in the crimp development.

Keywords: Decrimping, Hookean region, Jute, Load cycling, Meshiness index

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D01F11/00, D06M11/00

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 31, June 2006, pp. 274-278

 

Varietal response of jute fibres with varying meshiness to alkali treatment:

Part II—Properties of alkali-treated jute fibres

 

R K Varshney , R K Singh, A K Sengupta & V K Kothari

Revised received 4 April 2005; accepted 11 April 2005

Different varieties of jute fibres each with different levels of meshiness index have been treated under three different conditions of NaOH solution, namely 9% conc./2°C temp. (9/2), 18% conc./30ºC temp. (18/30), and 18% conc./10ºC temp. (18/10). Loss in weight and amount of shrinkage and their relationship with the change in tenacity and breaking extension of fibres have been studied. It is observed that the concentration and temperature of NaOH solution along with the degree of opening have considerable effect on the properties of fibres. Out of the three conditions, 18/10 is found to be more effective in developing desirable characteristics of breaking extension and tenacity with sufficient crimps for better spinning performance and better blend compatibility with other natural and man-made fibres.

Keywords: Alkali treatment, Hemicellulose, Jute reeds, Lignin, Meshiness index

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D01F11/00, D06M11/00

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 31, June 2006, pp. 279-285

 

Quality characteristics of polyester/viscose and polyester/cotton two-ply yarns

 

Arindam Basu  & Rajanna L Gotipamul

Received 8 February 2005; revised received and accepted 26 April 2005

The inter-relationship between the characteristics of single and double yarns made of polyester/viscose and polyester/cotton has been studied. The major yarn characteristics, such as unevenness, imperfections, single yarn strength (RKm), strength CV%, elongation-at-break and yarn hairiness, of double yarns are found to be related to the respective properties of single yarns. The mass CV%, total imperfections, single yarn strength, elongation-at-break and hairiness of double and single yarns are highly correlated. Thick places and single yarn strength CV% show medium correlation.

Keywords: Elongation-at-break, Mass CV%, Neps, Polyester/cotton yarn, Polyester/viscose yarn, Single yarn, Yarn hairiness, Yarn imperfections

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D02G3/00, G01N33/36

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 31, June 2006, pp. 286-292

 

Influence of sheath structure on twist and diameter of dref-III polyester-wool blended friction-spun yarn

S K Sinha  & R Chattopadhyay

Received 31 January 2005; accepted 31 March 2005

Dref-III polyester-wool blended friction yarns having different sheath compositions and structures were spun successfully on a friction spinning machine keeping polyester in core. The sheath composition and structure were changed by varying core content and selectively placing polyester and wool in different layers of sheath.  The location of the constituent fibres in sheath was found to affect both twist and yarn diameter. All wool sheath resulted in a bulky yarn with low twist.  

Keywords: Core-sheath ratio, Dref-III yarn, Friction spinning, Polyester, Wool

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D02G3/00

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 31, June 2006, pp. 293-297

 

 

Quality aspects of two-for-one and ring-twisted OE rotor-spun plied yarns

G K Tyagi

Received 8 October 2004; revised received and accepted 11 April 2005

The influence of ply twist and plying technique on the properties of OE rotor yarns spun from acrylic and viscose fibres has been studied. It is observed that the tenacity, abrasion resistance, unevenness and hairiness of OE rotor- spun yarns substantially improve after plying. The two-for-one plied yarns produced using the same processing conditions are weaker by 3-13%, more extensible by 6-22%, more even by 2-7%, less twist lively by 12-22%, more hairy by 9-26% and have 2-5% lower abrasion resistance than the ring plied yarns in both twisting techniques. Increasing the ply twist factor increases the tenacity, abrasion resistance and twist liveliness but decreases the hairiness of plied yarns. The properties of the fibrous material and draw-off nozzle also affect the quality of OE rotor-spun plied yarns.

Keywords: Acrylic yarn, Ply twist factor, Ring plied yarn, Rotor-spun yarn Twist liveliness, Wrapper fibre

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D02G3/00

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 31, June 2006, pp. 298-301

 

An investigation on the physical properties of core yarns

V Viswarajasekaran  & K Raghunathan

Received 7 March 2005;revised received and accepted 19 May 2005

The effect of different process parameters on core-spun yarns made from a modified ring frame has been studied. It is observed that the properties of core-spun yarns vary with respect to the process parameters like type of fibres in core and sheath, different twist levels and different core: sheath ratio. Reduced sheath content in all types of core yarns increases the tensile strength and yarn regularity but decreases the breaking extension and yarn regularity. The optimum twist level for filament and spun core yarns has also been observed. The core-spun yarns have the better physical characteristics than cotton yarns.

Keywords: Core-spun yarn, Cotton, Elongation, Polyester, Tensile strength

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D02G3/00, G01N33/36

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 31, June 2006, pp. 302-308

 

Improvement in tensile characteristics of dref-III yarn by enhancing structural integrity through modification in feed

S Bhattacharyya, S M Chatterjee & P K Mazumder

Received 3 October 2004; revised received and accepted 8 April 2005

The efforts have been made to improve the structure of dref-III friction-spun yarn by incorporating some modifications in the feeding zone of drafting unit-I, so that the core structure gets more consolidated with less transverse pressure exerted by the surface structure. The structure and tensile characteristics of yarns obtained after modification have been thoroughly studied and compared with the yarns made without modifications. It is observed that the tensile characteristics, namely tenacity, breaking extension, initial modulus and work of rupture, improve significantly by incorporating modification in the feed region.

Keywords: Dref-III yarn, Drafting unit, Polyester, Tensile properties

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D01H5/00, D02G3/00

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 31, June 2006, pp. 309-312

 

Mechanical properties of ribbon parachute fabrics for cluster submunitions

 

L Önal

Received 7 January 2005; revised received and accepted 13 April 2005

An attempt has been made to study the load-extension behaviour of the fabric for cluster submunitions. The effect of warp density and fibre type on the ribbon fabric performance using strip tensile and tearing test data has been studied and important points for the design of submunition parachutes highlighted. Four different samples were manufactured using Spectra® and polyester fibres with three different weave types, two of which were derivatives of plain weave and the last one was regular plain weave. ANOVA was also performed for significance level of the test results. It is found that as the warp density increases at core-zone of the fabric, the breaking load and Young’s modulus increase for strip tensile testing. However, the effect of weave type is found to be insignificant for tear test.

Keywords: Load-extension behaviour, Parachute fabric, Polyester fibre, Spectra® fibre, Submunitions, Warp density

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D03D13/00

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 31, June 2006, pp. 313-319

 

 

Effect of substituting modified polyester for cotton in ring-spun polyester/cotton blended yarn fabrics

 

Sudipta S Mahish, S K Punj & Bhawna Banwari

Received 11 October 2004; revised received 27 January 2005; accepted 25 May 2005

The effect of using a tetra channel cross-section polyester fibre with and without microslits on its surface in place of cotton in a polyester/cotton (P/C) blended yarn fabric has been studied. The results have been compared with P/C blended yarn fabrics. It is observed that the modified cross-section polyester generally shows better performance with respect to drapability, crease recovery, bending rigidity, air permeability, thermal insulation and wicking behaviour as compared to P/C blended fabrics in temperate weather.

Keywords: Coolplus, Drape, Polyester/cotton blend, Thermal insulation, Wicking

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D01D11/00, G01N33/36

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 31, June 2006, pp.  320-329

 

Susceptibility of cationized and aminized cotton fabrics before and after crosslinking towards wet transfer printing

 

A Hebeish, Mohamed M EL-Molla, Z H EL-Hilw & H S EL-Sayad

Received 24 September 2004; revised received 31 January 2005; accepted 20 April 2005

The behaviour towards wet transfer printing of cationized and aminized cottons having different nitrogen contents before and after crosslinking was studied. Cationization was effected through reaction of cotton with (3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)trimethylammonium chloride whereas aminization was achieved by reacting cotton with 2-chloroethyl diethylamine hydrochloride.The modified cottons were crosslinked using polycarboxylic acids, namely citric acid and 1, 2, 3, 4 – butane tetracarboxylic acid, followed by wet transfer printing using alginate films containing either a reactive dye or a direct dye without using electrolytes. Prints on cationized and aminized cottons exhibited significantly higher colour strength than on the untreated cotton. Crosslinking of the cationized and aminized cottons prior to wet transfer printing detracted much from their greater amenability to such printing. The wash, rub and perspiration fastness values of the reactive dye on cationized and aminized cottons before and after crosslinking were found to be comparable or even slightly higher than those for the untreated cotton. However, in case of direct dye, the colour fastness results disclose significant improvement in wash, rub and perspiration fastness over the untreated cotton.

Keywords: Aminized cotton, Cationized cotton, Cotton fabric, Wet transfer printing

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D06P1/38, D06P3/58

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 31, June 2006, pp. 330-334

 

Application of flame retardant products to knitted fabric

 

G Ozcan, H Dayioglu & C Candan

Received 1 September 2004; revised received 31 January 2005; accepted 11 April 2005

The effect of durable flame retardant products on knitted fabric flammability has been studied. Firstly, the non-durable, semi-durable and durable flame retardants were applied to the bleached knitted cotton fabrics to observe their effects on fabric flammability and then phosphorus-based durable flame retardant products were applied to bleached fabrics at different concentrations, curing temperatures and curing times alternatively to evaluate the effect of their treatment parameters on fabric burning behaviour. The burning behaviour and weight loss values of all the fabrics were evaluated using the standard vertical flammability test method. The results evaluated using an SPSS statistical program show that the flame retardant concentration, curing temperature and curing time are very important parameters to obtain FR fabrics having good flame resistance and acceptable handle and appearance.

Keywords: Cotton, Flame retardant fabric, Knitted fabric

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 C09K21/00; D06M11/00

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 31, June 2006, pp. 335-338

 

Flexural properties of rice straw reinforced polyester composites

A V Ratna Prasad, K Murali Mohan Rao ,  M Anil Kumar &  K Mohan Rao

Received 14 September 2004; revised received and accepted 5 April 2005

Rice straw fibres have been extracted and incorporated in polyester resin matrix to prepare rice straw reinforced polyester composites and the flexural properties of resultant composites studied. The composites with a mean flexural strength of 66.3 Mpa, which is greater than that of plain polyester (55.08 MPa), can be formulated with an optimum fibre volume of about 40%. The flexural modulus of composite is found to be 2630 MPa which is about 1.5 times greater than that of plain polyester. The specific flexural modulus is nearly 2 times greater than that of polyester resin. Straw-based composites are suitable as core material for structural board products.

Keywords: Flexural modulus, Flexural strength, Natural fibre composite, Polyester, Rice straw

IPC Code : Int. Cl.8 D01D

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 31, June 2006, pp. 339-341

 

Dimensional stabilization of cotton plain knitted fabric by using ultrasonic waves

 

V Mohamadi &  Ali AA Jeddi

Received 10 August 2004; revised received 11 July 2005; accepted 5 March 2006

Cotton knitted fabric with plain structure has been subjected to relaxation treatment using mechanical energy of ultrasonic waves to reach the maximum shrinkage. It is observed that this method of relaxation has more effectiveness on the fabric’s dimensional parameter than the conventional relaxation method.

Keywords: Cotton knitted fabric, Mechanical relaxation, Shrinkage, Ultrasonic wave

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D04B39/00

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 31, June 2006, pp. 342-345

 

Influence of critical ring frame parameters on the minimum twist of cohesion in yarns

 

N Gokarneshan ,  Anindya Ghosh ,  N Anbumani &  V Subramaniam

Received 10 January 2005; revised received and accepted 29 March 2005

An instrument has been designed to measure the minimum twist of cohesion (MTC) of ring-spun yarn. The influence of spindle speed, traveller mass, and twist multiplier on the MTC has been studied using three-factor Box and Behnken factorial design. A very high coefficient of determination between the experi­mental values and the calculated values is obtained from the response-surface equation. The selected factors have significant contribution in determining the fibre cohesion in yarn. The optimum value of MTC is observed at higher level of spindle speed, traveller mass, and twist multiplier within the experimental zone explored. Spindle speed has the greatest influence on MTC, followed by twist multiplier and the traveller mass with the current experimental set-up.

Keywords:           Factorial design, Spindle speed, Traveller mass, Twist multiplier

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D02G3/00

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 31, June 2006, pp. 346-352

 

Effects of picking periods and average mass of seed on fibre properties of MCU-5 cotton

 

M Tamil Selvan  & K Raghunathan

Received 20 January 2005; revised received and accepted 5 April 2005

The effects of picking periods and average mass of seed on fibre properties have been studied using MCU-5 Indian cotton variety, collected from three different locations at various picking periods. It is observed that there is a significant impact due to the average mass of seed in a particular picking period on fibre quality. In general, the mass of seed plays a vital role in deciding the quality of fibres.

Keywords: Cotton, Fibre quality

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D01B, G01N33/36