Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

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VOLUME  33

NUMBER 4

DECEMBER 2008

CODEN : IJFRET

 

ISSN : 0971-0426

 

 

CONTENTS

 

Optimization of top roller diameter of ring machine to enhance yarn evenness by using artificial intelligence

        M Ghane, D Semnani, R Saghafi & H Beigzadeh

        [IPC Code: Int.Cl.8 G06N 3/02]

 

365

Influence of add-on spin finish on yarn quality in the OE spinning of polyester fibre yarns

        G K Tyagi

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D02G3/00]

 

371

Fabric assistance in woven structures made from different spun yarns

        R S Rengasamy, S M Ishtiaque, B R Das & A Ghosh

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D02G3/00, D03D]

 

377

A method for validation of a model of balloon in ring frame

        Milan Sharma & Anirban Guha

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 G05B17/00]

 

383

Automatic recognition of fabric structures based on digital image decomposition

        Liqing L, Tingting Jia & Xia Chen

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 G06T]

 

388

Modeling of compression properties of needle-punched nonwoven fabrics using artificial neural network

        Sanjoy Debnath & M Madhusoothanan

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D04H, G06N3/00]

 

392

Computer-aided textile design ‘LibTex’

        Dana Křemenáková, Iva Mertová & Brigita Kolčavová-Sirková

        [IPC Code : Int. Cl.8  G06F17/00]

 

400

Computer-aided statistical module for hand-knotted carpets

        D B Shakyawar, N P Gupta, P C Patni & R K Arora

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D04G3/00, G06G]

 

405

Effect of punch density, depth of needle penetration and mass per unit area on compressional behaviour of jute needle-punched nonwoven fabrics using central composite rotatable experimental design

        Surajit Sengupta, Prabir Ray & Prabal Kumar Majumdar

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D04H]

 

411

Investigation on moisture transport through polyester/cotton fabrics

        T Sharabaty, F Biguenet, D Dupuis & P Viallier

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D03D]

 

419

Extraction of coloring matter from Sargentodoxa cuneata by ultrasonic technique and its application on wool fabric

        Xie XinshengWang LuJia Shunhua,  Zhou Qicheng, Zhang Xinlong &

        Hu Xiaofeng

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D06P3/14]

 

426

Development of ion exchanger by modification of polypropylene fibre waste using radiation–induced graft polymerization of acrylamide and subsequent amination

        Bhuvanesh Gupta,  Vivek Kanda, Puneet Sethi & Shalini Saxena

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D06M14/00]

 

431

Efficacy of solvent, alkali and pectinase on removal of non-cellulosics from cotton fibres

        G Nalankilli, D Saravanan, N Govindaraj, P Harish & T Ramachandran

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D06B]

 

438

Sol-gel derived titanium dioxide finishing of cotton fabric for self cleaning

        Kamal K Gupta, Manjeet Jassal & Ashwini K Agrawal

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D06C]

 

443

Review Article

 

Impact of different stages of spinning process on fibre orientation and  properties of ring, rotor and air-jet yarns: Part 1– Measurements of  fibre orientation parameters and effect of preparatory processes on  fibre orientation and properties

        Akshay Kumar, S M Ishtiaque, K R Salhotra & M S Senthil Kannan

        [IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D02G3/00]

 

451

Book Review

 

Science and technology of man-made fibres

        By S P Mishra; reviewed by V B Gupta

 

468

Annual Index

470

 

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 33, December 2008, pp. 365-370

 

 

Optimization of top roller diameter of ring machine to enhance yarn evenness by using artificial intelligence

M Ghane, D Semnani, R Saghafi & H Beigzadeh

Received 26 November 2007; revised received and accepted 7 May 2008

Attempts have been made to improve cotton and cotton/polyester (35:75) yarns regularity by optimizing front top rollers diameter of the ring machine using a self-organized Kohonen neural network. The diameters of the top rollers have been reduced in stages and in each stage yarns are produced. The unevenness as well as the imperfections of the produced yarns have been measured. The results show that the unevenness of the yarn decreases with the decrease in top rollers diameter up to optimum diameter beyond which the unevenness of yarns increases rapidly as the top rollers diameter decreases. These optimum values are different in the cases of cotton and cotton/polyester yarns. Kohonen neural network has been applied to observe optimum values of top rollers diameter in case of each yarn type. The optimum diameter of top rollers as estimated by neural network is found to be 27.5 mm for most of the cotton and cotton/polyester (35:75) yarns.

Keywords: Artificial intelligence, Cotton, Cotton/polyester yarn, Top roller diameter, Yarn irregularity

IPC Code: Int.Cl.8 G06N 3/02

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 33, December 2008, pp. 371-376

 

 

Influence of add-on spin finish on yarn quality in the OE spinning of polyester fibre yarns

G K Tyagi

Received 7 November 2007; revised received and accepted 11 February 2008

The influence of add-on spin finish and opening roller speed on the properties of polyester OE rotor yarns spun from fibres of different cross-sectional shapes and linear densities has been studied. The level of spin finish appears to have highest influence on the yarn characteristics followed by the opening roller speed and fibre linear density. Higher level of spin finish offers significant advantages in respect of yarn tenacity, breaking extension, work of rupture, abrasion resistance and hairiness but adversely affects regularity and flexural rigidity. Each of these quality parameters deteriorates to different degrees with the increasing opening roller speed. There is also decline in properties when yarns are made from a trilobal fibre. Such a decline in properties at high opening roller speeds is, however, less marked in yarns spun from fine denier fibres .

Keywords: Fibre friction, Opening roller speed, Polyester yarn, Spin finish, Wrapper fibres

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D02G3/00

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 33, December 2008, pp. 377-382

 

 

Fabric assistance in woven structures made from different spun yarns

R S Rengasamy, S M Ishtiaque,  B R Das& A Ghosh

Received 2 November 2007; revised received 1 April 2008; accepted 13 May 2008

The effect of different spun yarns on fabric assistance has been studied considering the structural parameters, such as yarn-to-yarn friction, strength of ring, rotor, air-jet and OE-friction spun yarns and the strength of fabrics made from these yarns. The ratio of the fabric strip strength per yarn and the corresponding single yarn strength is considered as a measure of quantifying the fabric assistance. Mechanism of yarn failure inside the fabric is different as that of single yarn and the former exhibits more fibre rupture. Fabrics made from weaker yarns have higher ratio of strip strength to single yarn strength than that made from stronger yarns due to larger increase in the percentage of rupture fibres in the former. The fabric assistance also depends, to some extent, on the degree of gripping of the yarns that is influenced by the yarn-to-yarn friction, extent of yarn flattening and yarn diameter.

Keywords: Fabric assistance, Fabric strength, Yarn diameter, Yarn friction, Yarn strength

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D02G3/00, D03D

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 33, December 2008, pp. 383-387

 

 

A method for validation of a model of balloon in ring frame

Milan Sharma & Anirban Guhaa

Received 26 November 2007; revised received and accepted 16 May 2008

A novel approach has been presented for validating the models developed for predicting the shape of the ring yarn balloon. The initial conditions have been obtained from the experimental data, i.e. images of yarn balloon. The differential equations have been solved by Euler Cauchy numerical method. The resulting balloon shapes predicted by the model are found to be quite different from the actual balloon shapes.

Keywords: Balloon envelope, Ring frame, Yarn balloon

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 G05B17/00

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 33, December 2008, pp. 388-391

 

 

Automatic recognition of fabric structures based on digital image decomposition

Liqing L, Tingting Jia & Xia Chen

Received 7 May 2008; accepted 8 July 2008

A method to recognize fabric structures automatically based on digital image decomposition has been introduced. The method includes establishing a Wiener filter adapted to the fabric texture. A woven fabric image can be decomposed into horizontal and vertical subimages by using this Wiener filter. These two subimages contain the weft and warp texture information respectively. After thresholding, the gray-level subimages are transformed into binary images, in which the weft or warp floats range periodically. Then the weaving density can be figured out. Based on the preceding work, the positional information of yarns in every single subimage can directly help to enclose every interlacing point. Considering the variety of gray value in each point unit, warp point and weft point can be distinguished. The basic structures for woven fabric (plain, twill and satin) have been evaluated and it is found that the density for woven fabric can be calculated exactly and the structures can be identified clearly.

Keywords: Digital image decomposition, Fabric structure, Woven fabric

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 G06T

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 33, December 2008, pp. 392-399

 

 

Modeling of compression properties of needle-punched nonwoven
fabrics using artificial neural network

 

Sanjoy Debnath & M Madhusoothanan

Received 24 September 2007; revised received 26 December 2007; accepted 9 February 2008

The present study is concerned with the modeling of compression properties of needle-punched nonwoven fabrics produced from polyester and blend of jute-polypropylene fibres with varying fabric weight, needling density and blend ratio of jute and polypropylene fibres. Initial thickness, percentage compression, percentage thickness loss and compression resilience are the compression properties predicted with the help of artificial neural networks. A very good correlation (R2 values) with minimum error between the experimental and the predicted values of compression properties have been obtained by ANN with two and three hidden layers. An attempt has also been made for experimental verification of the predicted values for the input variables not used during the training phase. The prediction of compression properties by artificial neural network model in some particular sample is less accurate due to lack of learning during training phase.

Keywords: Artificial neural network, Compression properties, Jute-polypropylene blends, Needle-punched nonwoven, Polyester fibre, Woollenised jute

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D04H, G06N3/00

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 33, December 2008, pp. 400-404

 

 

Computer-aided textile design ‘LibTex’

Dana Křemenáková, Iva Mertová & Brigita Kolčavová-Sirková

Received 26 June 2008; accepted 18 August 2008

The system LibTex has been used for the prediction of structure, parameters and properties in the line fibre – yarn – fabric. The system contains databases of fibre properties & fabric weaves, and the prediction is based on the complex of theoretical and regression models. The material and technological parameters for different materials, yarns and fabrics are included. The main use  of this system is for optimal fabric design based on virtually created fabric. System can be used for the prediction of grey cotton dobby fabric properties for technical and clothing applications.

Keywords: Computer-aided design,  Cotton, Fabric, Fibre, LibTex, Yarn

IPC Code : Int. Cl.8  G06F17/00

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 33, December 2008, pp. 405-410

 

 

Computer-aided statistical module for hand-knotted carpets

 

D B Shakyawar, N P Gupta, P C Patni & R K Arora

Received 22 October 2007; revised received and accepted 5 March 2008

This study deals with the development of equations to predict abrasion loss and carpet hand value (CHV) of hand-knotted carpets. Best-fit equation obtained from regression analysis shows that the abrasion loss depends on fibre diameter and number of medullated fibres present in the yarn as well as pile density of carpet. The regression coefficient is found to be 0.47, which is highly significant (p<0.01). The best-fit equation for CHV reveals that it depends on pile height, carpet thickness and pile density. The coefficient of regression is found to be 0.77, which is significant at p<0.01. Based on these equations, a software is developed using C language which can predict abrasion loss and CHV within the range of error ± σ value.

Keywords: Abrasion loss, Carpet hand value, Hand knotted carpet, Pile height, Wool

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D04G3/00, G06G

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 33, December 2008, pp. 411-418

 

 

Effect of punch density, depth of needle penetration and mass per unit area on compressional behaviour of jute needle-punched nonwoven fabrics using central composite rotatable experimental design

Surajit Sengupta, Prabir Ray & Prabal Kumar Majumdar

Received 4 October 2007; revised received and accepted 5 February 2008

The compressional behaviour of jute needle-punched nonwoven fabric has been studied. Statistical models using central composite rotatable experimental design are developed on compression parameter, recovery parameter, energy loss and thickness loss, depending on the three important parameters of needled fabric, i.e. needling density, depth of needle penetration and mass per unit area. From this model and its contour diagrams, the effects of different parameters can be understood and prediction of compressional behaviour can be made knowing the values of independent parameters. The correlation coefficients between observed and predicted values are found to be significant in all the cases. It is found that the 15-16 mm depth of needle penetration, 170-180 punches/cm2 needling density and 800-900 g/m2 mass per unit area is a very critical combination which might be considered for minimum compressibility because the deviation from any of the variable may be responsible for the increase in compressional behaviour.

Keywords:   Central composite rotatable experimental design, Compressional parameter, Energy loss, Jute, Needle-punched nonwoven, Recovery parameter, Thickness loss

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D04H

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 33, December 2008, pp. 419-425

 

 

Investigation on moisture transport through polyester/cotton fabrics

T Sharabaty , F Biguenet, D Dupuis & P Viallier

Received 7 May 2008; revised received and accepted 14 October 2008

The wettability characteristics of different cotton, polyester and multi-layered cotton/polyester fabrics have been studied to manage human perspiration well. The vertical capillary action behavior of these fabrics has been compared by measuring the capillary height as a function of time. Wicking coefficients in multi-layered fabrics are found to be much better than in other fabrics of 100% cotton. The yarn and the bonding weave between the two layers are very important for the capillary rise.

Keywords:   Capillary action, Fabric construction, Moisture transport, Multi-layered fabric, Polyester/cotton fabric, Wicking

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D03D

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 33, December 2008, pp. 426-430

 

 

Extraction of coloring matter from Sargentodoxa cuneata by ultrasonic technique and its application on wool fabric

Xie XinshengWang LuJia  Shunhua,  Zhou Qicheng,  Zhang Xinlong & Hu Xiaofeng

Received 7 May 2008; accepted 19 September 2008

The ultrasonic extraction technique has been used to extract coloring matter from Sargentodoxa cuneata and the application of coloring matter on wool fabric studied. The effects of temperature, ultrasonic power, extracting time and bath ratio on the extraction of coloring matter from Sargentodoxa cuneata have been studied. From the orthogonal experiment, the optimum extraction conditions are found to be 50°C temperature, 90 min extracting time, 200 W ultrasonic power, and 1:50 bath ratio. It is also observed that the efficiency of the ultrasonic extraction at 50°C is higher than the normal extraction at 100°C, and this optimum extraction condition is stable, feasible, and has good repeatability. It has bright prospective in industrialization. Color of the fabrics dyed by ultrasonic extracting solution is found to be deeper.

Keywords: Knitted fabric, Ultrasonic extraction, Vegetable coloring matter, Wool

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D06P3/14

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 33, December 2008, pp. 431-437

 

 

Development of ion exchanger by modification of polypropylene fibre waste using radiation–induced graft polymerization of acrylamide and subsequent amination

Bhuvanesh Gupta, Vivek Kanda, Puneet Sethi & Shalini Saxena

Received 2 November 2007; revised received and accepted 10 March 2008

Radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylamide onto polypropylene fibre waste has been carried out using pre-irradiation technique to develop material with different degrees of grafting. The influence of reaction conditions, such as pre-irradiation dose, monomer concentration, reaction time and ferrous sulfate, on the degree of grafting has also been studied. The addition of ferrous sulfate beyond 0.4% concentration leads to the homopolymer free grafting reaction. The degree of grafting increases with the increase in monomer concentration, reaches maximum at 30% monomer concentration and then decreases with the further increase in the monomer concentration. A continuous increase in the grafting is achieved with the pre-irradiation dose. The replacement of the ferrous sulfate with acetone as an organic solvent causes complete homopolymer inhibition but a much lower graft levels as compared to the ferrous sulfate addition. The grafted fibre is subsequently aminated by Hoffmann degradation method and the fibre with a maximum ion exchange capacity up to 6.2 meq/g for a graft level of 198% is achieved. The modified fibre also shows excellent water uptake which increases as the degree of grafting increases.

Keywords: Acrylamide, Amination, Graft polymerization, Hoffmann degradation, Polypropylene

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D06M14/00

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 33, December 2008, pp. 438-442

 

 

Efficacy of solvent, alkali and pectinase on removal of non-cellulosics
from cotton fibres

G Nalankilli, D Saravanan, N Govindaraj, P Harish & T Ramachandran

Received 17 December 2007; revised received and accepted 27 March 2008

The physical properties of different varieties of cotton fibres of various origins have been studied after extraction using solvents and alkali scouring with reference to enzyme scouring process. Enzyme scoured samples show comparable results with that of solvent extracted and alkali scoured samples in terms of fibre fineness, weight loss, moisture regain, strength and elongation. The scouring processes improve the properties of the fibres in the order: solvent extraction < enzyme scouring < ammonium oxalate extraction < alkali scouring.

Keywords: Cotton, Elongation, Moisture content, Solubility parameter, Strength, Weight loss

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D06B

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 33, December 2008, pp. 443-450

 

 

Sol-gel derived titanium dioxide finishing of cotton fabric for self cleaning

 

Kamal K Gupta, Manjeet Jassal & Ashwini K Agrawal

Received 1 February 2008; accepted 4 June 2008

Nano- TiO2 coatings have been applied to cotton fabric by sol-gel process without any crosslinker or binder. The characteristics of coatings derived from two different approaches by sol-gel process are compared. It is revealed from the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy that the TiO2 sol particles have the similar spectra as observed for commercial TiO2 (Degussa P25). The nano-TiO2 particles are applied to cotton fabric using 1 wt% acrylic binder and cured. The photo-catalytic activity of the finished fabric has been investigated and a comparison is made between the commercially available TiO2 sample and the nano-sol coated samples. The self-cleaning action of nano-crystalline TiO2 coated cotton has been quantified by measuring the photo-catalytic degradation of stain due to visible light irradiation. Nano-sol derived TiO2 particles with smaller particle size of <10 nm (prepared using nitric acid) show significantly better activity than the commercial TiO2 sample of the particle size 25nm. The titanium coatings on fabric also act as anti-bacterial photocatalyst.

Keywords: Anti-microbial, Cotton, Nano-sol, Photocatalysis, Self-cleaning textile, Sol-gel, TiO2 colloids

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D06C

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 33, December 2008, pp. 451-467

 

 

Impact of different stages of spinning process on fibre orientation and
properties of ring, rotor and air-jet yarns: Part 1– Measurements of
fibre orientation parameters and effect of preparatory processes on
fibre orientation and properties

 

Akshay Kumar, S M Ishtiaque, K R Salhotra & M S Senthil Kannan

Received 11 June 2007; revised received and accepted 25 March 2008

The economic situation of the textile industry and the extremely sharp worldwide competition have forced the textile mills to use all possibilities of cutting costs. In this context, the question of higher production at each spinning sequence of machine gains importance. This demands a detailed study on the effect of spinning process variables on fibre orientation and properties of products produced out of these machines. This paper reports a glimpse on the different measurement techniques of fibre orientation parameters and impact of various preparatory processes on fibre orientation and properties.

Keywords:   Drafting wave, Fibre extent, Fibre orientation, Fibrogram, Lindsley technique

IPC Code: Int. Cl.8 D02G3/00