Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 

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VOLUME  33

NUMBER 3

SEPTEMBER 2008

CODEN : IJFRET

 

ISSN : 0971-0426

 

 

Special Issue

on

Innovations in Textile Machinery and Instrument

 

CONTENTS

 

 

Changes in dynamic drapability of polyester fabrics with weave density, yarn twist and yarn count obtained by regression equations

        Mitsuo Matsudaira , Sachiko Yamazaki & Yoshiteru Hayashi

223

 

 

Measurement and modeling of drape using digital image processing

        B K Behera & Ajit Kumar Pattanayak

230

 

 

Non-destructive determination of comfort parameters during marketing of functional garments and clothing

        L Hes

239

 

 

Evaluation of patterned fabric surface roughness

        Jiří Militkýa & Martin Bleša

246

 

 

Measurement of surface property using a special sensor developed for pile materials

        Takako Fujimoto, Matthew R Sunderland, Surinder K Tandon, Chie M Asano,

        Akira Asano, Choji Murata & Hiroaki Fukuyama

253

 

 

Design and fabrication of crushing instrument to study the influence of lateral deformation on fibrous assembly

        R Murugan,  B S Dasaradan & V Subramaniam

258

 

 

Design and development of an instrument to evaluate staple fibre processing propensity

        Arindam Basu

264

 

 

Development of instruments for measuring breaking twist angle and shear strength of cotton fibres

        Fathima Husnara,  Roshanara & V Subramaniam

269

 

 

3-Dimensional weaving

       B K Behera & Rajesh Mishra

274

 

 

Innovations in textile machine and instrument

        T Matsuo

288

 

 

Characterization techniques for nanotechnology applications in textiles

        M Joshi, A Bhattacharyya & S Wazed Ali

304

 

 

Computer controlled warp patterning on sectional warping machine

        P K Hari & B K Behera

318

 

 

Innovation in weavingVertical bi-phase weaving machine for individual warp thread control

        P K Hari, K P Vetrivel & K N Gupta

326

 

 

Robotic approach to textile preforming for composites

        P Potluri, T Sharif & D Jetavat

333

 

 

Designer natural fibre geotextiles—A new concept

        Subhash Anand

339

 

 

Carbonization conditions for electrospun nanofibre of polyacylonitrile copolymer

        Yoshihiro Yamashita, Naoya Aoki, Frank Ko & Hajime Miyake

345

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 33, September 2008, pp. 223-229

 

 

Changes in dynamic drapability of polyester fabrics with weave density, yarn twist and yarn count obtained by regression equations

 

Mitsuo Matsudaira, Sachiko Yamazaki & Yoshiteru Hayashi

 

Some new parameters of dynamic drapability, such as revolving drape increase coefficient (Dr), revolving drape coefficient at 200 rpm (D200), and dynamic drape coefficient at swinging motion (Dd), have been defined using a device of dynamic drape tester and the regression equations are derived from mechanical parameters of fabrics obtained from KES system. These equations have been applied to polyester fabrics used for women’s fine dress materials and the effects of weave density, yarn twist and yarn count on these parameters studied. It is observed that Dr and Dd have a maximum value at the optimum weave density. These values increase with the increase in yarn twist in the case of Dechine fabrics. These values decrease in the case of taffeta fabrics, and increase in the case of georgette with yarn count. Changes in D200 with weave density, yarn twist and yarn count are found to be little for all the fabrics. Node number decreases and conventional static drape coefficient (Ds) increases with weave density.

Keywords: Dynamic drapability, Polyester, Weave density, Yarn count, Yarn twist

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 33, September 2008, pp. 230-238

 

 

Measurement and modeling of drape using digital image processing

 

B K Behera & Ajit Kumar Pattanayak

 

A drapemeter based on image processing technique has been designed and developed for complete analysis of the drape profile of apparel fabric. Image processing helps to determine some new drape parameters. Multiple regression equations for drape parameters have been developed from low stress mechanical properties of fabric to predict the drapability and the results are compared with the drape value obtained from image processing method. The interdependence between drape parameters and the mechanical properties of fabrics are also studied. A very good correlation has been found with bending and shear properties of the fabric. A higher drape coefficient is accompanied with less number of nodes. A fabric with higher tensile energy is less susceptible to draping or falling from the edge of a contour, whereas a fabric with higher extensibility always favours the folding and hanging of fabric at the edges of the platform, resulting in low drapability.

Keywords: Bending rigidity, Concave mirror, Digital image processing, Drape coefficient, Shear rigidity, Tensile energy

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 33, September 2008, pp. 239-245

 

 

Non-destructive determination of comfort parameters during marketing of functional garments and clothing

L Hes

 

Selected current and new non-destructive methods and instruments for determination of thermo-physiological comfort of fabrics and garments have been described. A new way of simple evaluation of complex comfort properties of fabrics and garments by means of the so called “comfort matrix” is also proposed and discussed. An example of the use of this method in marketing of winter jackets is presented.

Keywords: Comfort parameter, Fabrics, Functional clothing, Garment, Thermal resistance

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 33, September 2008, pp. 246-252

 

 

Evaluation of patterned fabric surface roughness

 

Jiří Militký  & Martin Bleša

 

An approach for the contact-less evaluation of the patterned fabrics surface roughness has been described. The special arrangement of textile bend around sharp edge combined with CCD camera is proposed for obtaining surface profile images in the cross direction. The system of controlled movement in the machine direction allows obtaining the set of fabric surface profiles images at the specified places (on the lines transect of the surface in the cross direction). The image analysis is used for the extraction of surface profile traces. The surface roughness in two dimensions (surface heights in the whole plane) is composed from individual surface profile traces. For characterization of surface roughness the procedures based on classical and Fourier analysis are utilized. The applicability of this approach for the surface roughness description is demonstrated on the one type of cord fabrics. The Fourier analysis allows the characterization of repeated patterns in the cross direction and their uniformity in the machine direction.

Keywords:   Cord fabric, Fabric surface roughness, Image analysis, Patterns uniformity, Surface height variation trace

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 33, September 2008, pp. 253-257

 

 

Measurement of surface property using a special sensor developed
for pile materials

Takako Fujimoto, Matthew R Sunderland , Surinder K Tandon, Chie M Asano , Akira Asano, Choji Murata & Hiroaki Fukuyama

A special sensor, like human finger tips, to measure the surface friction of various carpets with cut or loop pile has been developed. The main body of the instrument is the KES multiple device and the attachments covered with the fake skin are appropriately attached to it. This instrument provides quick and easy testing for carpets and fabrics. This rapid method would be useful for quantifying friction and for designing high quality pile products.

Keywords: Carpet, Friction, Pile fabrics, Special sensor, Surface property

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 33, September 2008, pp. 258-263

 

 

Design and fabrication of crushing instrument to study the influence of
lateral deformation on fibrous assembly

R Murugan ,  B S Dasaradan  & V Subramaniam

 

The lateral crushing of textile fibres and its consequent effect on tensile strength has been studied using an instrument designed indigenously for crushing the fibres in the transverse direction. The apparatus produces deformations dependent on the crushing load applied. The influence of crushing load on the tensile properties of cotton, viscose, acrylic, polyester and nylon monofilament is also studied. A loss in strength and elongation is observed after crushing which varies with the fibre type and morphology. It is found that the viscose sustains greater losses in tensile strength.

Keywords: Crushing instrument, Fibre, Lateral compression, Tensile properties

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 33, September 2008, pp. 264-268

 

 

Design and development of an instrument to evaluate staple fibre processing propensity

Arindam Basu

 

An instrument has been developed to measure the combined effect of fibre coherence and resiliency, commonly known as processing propensity. The results show good correlation between fibre processing propensity and yarn properties. The yarns produced with high propensity value cotton show higher imperfections when same process parameters are used.

Keywords: Cohesive force, Drafting tenacity, Processing propensity, Resiliency, Torque, Yarn imperfections

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 33, September 2008, pp. 269-273

 

 

Development of instruments for measuring breaking twist angle and
shear strength of cotton fibres

 

Fathima Husnara, Roshanara & V Subramaniam

The present study is concerned with the development of instruments for measuring precisely the breaking twist angle and shear strength of cotton fibres. Description of these instruments is given and data on cottons in the untreated state are provided to have an idea of these properties. The relationship of breaking twist angle to the fibre properties is presented. The breaking twist angle is negatively correlated with length, uniformity, strength and fineness.

Keywords:      Breaking twist angle, Cotton fibre, Shear strength

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 33, September 2008, pp. 274-287

 

 

3-Dimensional weaving

 

B K Behera & Rajesh Mishra

 

3-Dimensional woven fabrics are fabricated by modifying the conventional weaving mechanisms. The technology is used for the production of only specialty industrial fabrics such as for making preforms for construction, automotive, ballistic, and marine applications like carbon fibre preforms for high-performance powerboats, sports goods and various industrial applications. Preforms made by 3D weaving provide several important advantages in composites fabrication. The most important advantage of this material is observed in manufacturing thick composites, owed to a significantly reduced labor time, when multiple layers of 2-dimensional fabric plies are replaced by one or few number of 3-dimensional plies to achieve the required thickness in a composite structure. 3D preforms appear to be better than the most conformable 2D fabrics. The flexural, tensile and compressive stiffness and strength are better in laminates made from 3D preforms than those made from comparable 2D woven or even knitted fabrics mainly due to the absence of in-plane crimp of yarns in the materials.

Keywords : 2D weaving, 3D weaving, Industrial fabric, Textile preforms

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 33, September 2008, pp. 288-303

 

 

Innovations in textile machine and instrument

 

T Matsuo

 

This paper reports an overview on the innovations in textile machine and instrument. The former is machinery system for manufacturing textiles, while latter is a kind of machinery system for measuring quality of textile materials in processing or products; both are however common in the points of both “textile material” and “machinery system”. In each of both these sections, general scope on the trend of its technological progress has been described based on a systematical classification and then some examples of significant innovative technologies are introduced.

Keywords: Fabric, Fibre, Textile  measuring instrument, Textile machine, Yarn

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol 33, September 2008, pp. 304-317

 

 

Characterization techniques for nanotechnology applications in textiles

 

M Joshi, A Bhattacharyya & S Wazed Ali

 

Nanoscience and nanotechnology are considered to be the key technologies for the current century. Efforts are being made worldwide to create smart and intelligent textiles by incorporating various nanoparticles or creating nanostructured surfaces and nanofibres which lead to unprecedented level of textile performance, such as stain resistant, self-cleaning, antistatic, UV protective, etc. However, there are many challenges in the research and development of nanotechnology based products. The precise control of nanoparticle size, size distribution, dispersion at nanolevel and deposition on textile substrate needs sophisticated characterization techniques, such as particle size analyzer, electron microscopy (SEM/TEM/HRTEM), atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photon spectroscopy, etc. This paper discusses the basic principle and applications of these instrumental techniques in the field of nanotechnology research in textiles.

Keywords: Atomic force microscopy, Electron microscopy, Nanocomposite, Nanofibres, Nanomaterials, Particle size analyzer

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 33, September 2008, pp. 318-325

 

 

Computer controlled warp patterning on sectional warping machine

P K Hari & B K Behera

 

A computer-based system has been designed and tested under normal industrial working conditions for identifying correct location of different coloured packages on the creel of the sectional warping machine. The controller glows the appropriate LED’s on the creel for loading packages of one color one at a time. The system helps in preventing mistakes in warp pattern on the weaving machine. The loading on the creel is done fairly fast even by an unskilled worker.

Keywords: Creel position, Graphical user interface, Interface module, Logic circuit, Sectional warping, Warp pattern

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 33, September 2008, pp. 326-332

 

 

Innovation in weavingVertical bi-phase weaving machine for individual warp thread control

 

P K Hari, K P Vetrivel & K N Gupta

 

Prototype of a new weaving machine to replace existing jacquard weaving machine has been developed for increasing the width of the design repeat and doubling productivity. This development also eliminates the constraint of change in warp sett in jacquard weaving machines. Change in warp sett can be made conveniently in this new development. There is only change in the shedding system; one such unit is common to two weaving machines. The weaving machine produces simultaneously two fabrics, one face up and the other face down. The warp yarn does not move unless a change from up to down is required. The warp sheet is in a vertical configuration instead of the usual horizontal plane.

Keywords: Electronic jacquard, Electro-magnets, Face-down fabric, Vertical bi-phase weaving machine

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 33, September 2008, pp. 333-338

 

 

Robotic approach to textile preforming for composites

P Potluri, T Sharif & D Jetavat

 

Technical textiles offer high-value engineering applications for the traditional textile sector which is generally viewed as a low-cost and high-volume commodity industry.  This paper reviews the application of textiles in fibre-reinforced composites and identifies key challenges to the textile industry in order to serve this market.  While traditional textile machinery may be adopted for producing 2D broadcloth reinforcements, novel machines/machine modifications are necessary for producing 3D textile preforms.  In this paper, a robotic approach to 3D textile preforming has also been proposed. 

Keywords: 3D weaving, Automation, Fibre-reinforced composites, Robotics, Textile composites

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 33, September 2008, pp. 339-344

 

 

Designer natural fibre geotextiles—A new concept

 

Subhash Anand

 

This paper reports the development in flat weft knitting technology; the design and production of the novel natural fibre geotextiles along with their interactive behaviour in different soil types and conditions. These natural fibre products are found to be much more environment-friendly than their synthetic equivalents; the fibres themselves are a renewable resource and are biodegradable. Such structures would also offer economical benefits to a number of developing countries, where vegetable fibres are grown and cultivated in large quantity. These structures have been designed to provide the highest possible strength in one direction , combined with the ease of handling and laying on site; soil particles interlock with the fabric to such an extent that the soil/fabric interface exhibits greater shearing resistance than the surrounding soil, i.e. the soil/fabric coefficient of interaction is greater than one; a degree of protection to the high strength yarns during installation; a tensile strength in the range of 100-200 kN m-1; and ease of manufacture on conventional textile machines.

Keywords: Flat weft knitting technology, Geotextile, Knitted fabric, Nonwovens, Soil reinforcement

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 33, September 2008, pp. 345-353

 

 

Carbonization conditions for electrospun nanofibre of polyacylonitrile copolymer

 

Yoshihiro Yamashita, Naoya Aoki, Frank Ko & Hajime Miyake

 

Nanofibres of polyacrylonitrile-co-methylmethacrylate (PAN-co-MMA) copolymer have been produced by electrospinning. These nanofibres have been oxidized and carbonized. The effect of heat treatment conditions has been studied. The critical heat treatment (oxidation) temperature is found to be 280oC. By preventing the nanofibre assemblies from thermal contraction during heat treatment, the surface appearance of the nanofibre assembly acquires a metallic luster. Calcinations of the nanofibres at 900oC in nitrogen atmosphere results in nitrous fused heterocyclic structure which suggests that the calcinations temperature greater than 1000oC would be necessary to produce nitrogen-free carbon nanofibres.

Keywords: Carbonization, Electrospinning, Heat treatment, Nanofibre, PAN-co-MMA, Polyacrylonitrile