Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

www.niscair.res.in

Total visitors: 3,564  since 28-06-09

VOLUME   34

NUMBER 2

JUNE 2009

CODEN : IJFRET

 

ISSN : 0971-0426

 

CONTENTS

 

Development and structural evaluation of poly(lactic acid) based knitted scaffold for human urinary

bladder reconstruction

        Bhuvanesh Gupta & Nilesh Revagade

 

115

Comfort properties of suiting fabrics

        R K Nayak, S K Punj,  K N Chatterjee & B K Behera

 

122

Kinematic analysis of beat-up mechanism used for handmade carpet looms

        Mehmet Topalbekiroğlu  & Halil İbrahim Çelik

 

129

Comfort aspects of finished polyester-cotton and polyester-viscose ring and MJS yarn fabrics

        G K Tyagi, G Krishna, S Bhattacharya & P Kumar

 

137

Effect of various parameters on electromagnetic shielding effectiveness

of textile fabrics

        A Das, V K Kothari, A Kothari, A Kumar & S Tuli

 

144

Electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of copper core yarn knitted fabrics

        R Perumalraj  & B S Dasaradan

 

149

Low stress mechanical behaviour of fabrics obtained from different types of cotton/nylon sheath/core yarn

        P Pramanik & Vilas M Patil

 

155

Mechanical properties of banana empty fruit bunch fibre reinforced

polyester composites

        A V Ratna Prasad, K Mohana Rao & G Nagasrinivasulu

 

162

Correlation between microstructure and microrheological parameters of various silk fibres

        S Divakara, R Somashekar, A Raghu, Yogesha, Sharath Ananthamurthy &
Subrata Roy

 

168

Determination of treatment time to achieve required absorbency in the enzymatic scouring of cotton

fibres

        S Chinnadurai & N Selvakumar

 

175

 

 

Short Communications

 

Tenacity and breaking extension of cotton covered copper open-end friction-spun yarns

        T Ramachandran & C Vigneswaran

 

179

Effect of wrinkle resistance finish on cotton fabric properties

        Yahya Can, Muhammet Akaydin, Yildiray Turhan & Ercan Ay

 

183

Microbial degumming of decorticated ramie and its fibre characteristics

        R Saikia, P Boruah & R Samanta

 

187

Review Article

 

Measurement of dielectric properties of textile materials and their applications

        Kausik Bal & V K Kothari

 

191

Book Review

 

Nanosols and textiles

        By B Mehltig and T Textor; reviewed by Manjeet Jassal

200

 

 

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 34, June 2009, pp. 115-121

Development and structural evaluation of poly(lactic acid) based knitted scaffold for human urinary bladder reconstruction

Bhuvanesh Gupta & Nilesh Revagade

Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110 016, India

Received 12 March 2008; revised received and accepted 3 November 2008

Knitted scaffolds of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) filament spun by dry-jet-wet technique have been developed for human urinary bladder reconstruction. Three different types of samples are prepared by varying the number of ply in the PLA yarn. Flexural rigidity of PLA monofilament is found to be dependent on draw ratio. It decreases from 16.22×10-7 kg m4 to 2.74×10-7 kg m4 as the draw ratio increases from 2 to 10. The performance of the developed structures is evaluated by ball bursting technique on a tensile tester. It is observed that the knitted structure with 8 ply yarn has bursting strength of 53.7 kg with 2.5 cm extension. The cyclic loading of knitted structure has been carried out at the load half of the bursting loads. It is found that the structure gets permanently set after 5 cycles of loading. Porosity of the knitted fabric is determined by ratio of voids volume to that of the total volume of knitted fabric. The knitted structure with 8 ply yarn has 80% porosity. Pore size of the knitted structures is determined by optical microscope. The in vitro degradation of the PLA knittings at different pH (4.6, 7.4 and 8.0) has been carried out for a period of 20 weeks. The surface morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy. A severe degradation of sample is observed at pH 4.6.

Keywords: Biodegradable fibre, Dry-jet-wet spinning, Poly(lactic acid), Scaffold

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 34, June 2009, pp. 122-128

Comfort properties of suiting fabrics

R K Nayak, S K Punj & K N Chatterjee

The Technological Institute of Textile & Sciences, Bhiwani 127 021, India

and

B K Behera

Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110 016, India

Received 18 June 2008; revised received and accepted 7 September 2008

The effects of polyester content, pick density and weave on the thermal comfort and tactile properties of polyester/viscose blended yarn fabrics have been studied by measuring the low- stress mechanical properties on Kawabata evaluation system. The thermal comfort has been studied by measuring the air permeability, thermal insulation and moisture vapour transfer properties of fabrics. The tactile properties have been studied by measuring the fabric mechanical and surface properties, such as tensile, shear, bending, compression, surface roughness, surface friction and handle. The fabrics with higher polyester content give higher total hand value and higher thermal insulation, but lower air permeability and lower moisture vapour transfer. The fabrics with higher polyester content also show lower extensibility; the extensibility in warp direction is higher than in weft direction and twill woven fabrics give higher extensibility than the plain woven fabrics.

Keywords:   Air permeability, Fabric comfort, Fabric handle, Low-stress mechanical properties, Moisture vapour transfer, Thermal insulation

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 34, June 2009, pp. 129-136

Kinematic analysis of beat-up mechanism used for handmade carpet looms

Mehmet Topalbekiroğlu  & Halil İbrahim Çelik

Department of Textile Engineering, Gaziantep University, Gaziantep 27310, Turkey

Received 16 April 2008; revised received and accepted 22 October 2008

Kinematic analysis and dimensional synthesis of a beat-up mechanism used for handmade carpet looms have been studied. The design criteria of the beat-up mechanism has been established according to the problem statement, followed by the selection of a crank-rocker type four-link mechanism for the beat-up mechanism to obtain many crank-rocker type mechanisms using dimensional synthesis method. On the basis of the design criteria, the most suitable beat-up mechanism is chosen and the dynamic analysis of the selected mechanism is performed. In the dimensional synthesis, the case studies have been done for four different crank rotation angles and the most proper dimensions according to design criteria are obtained at f = 180°. In the dynamic analysis of the mechanism, it is determined that the beat-up force of the mechanism is over 60 N. By designing such a suitable beat-up mechanism for handmade carpet looms, the weaver gets less tired, the handmade carpet production is increased and the faults caused by this process are decreased.

Keywords: Beat-up mechanism, Handmade carpet, Kinematic analysis, Loom

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 34, June 2009, pp. 137-143

Comfort aspects of finished polyester-cotton and polyester-viscose ring and MJS yarn fabrics

G K Tyagi, G Krishna, S Bhattacharya & P Kumar

The Technological Institute of Textile & Sciences, Bhiwani 127 021, India

Received 25 February 2008; revised received and accepted 26 June 2008

The influence of different experimental conditions on the thermal comfort behavior of polyester-viscose and polyester-cotton ring and MJS yarn fabrics has been studied. The results show that the yarn structure and the fibre cross-sectional shape have a large influence on improving the thermal comfort of woven fabrics. The fabrics made from MJS yarns perform better than those of the ring yarn fabrics in respect of absorbency, air and water vapour permeabilities and thermal insulation. Incorporation of non-circular polyester fibre in the mix further improves these characteristics. The chemical finishing treatment also induces noticeable changes in the thermal comfort characteristics of fabric, though the magnitudes of changes are different for different ring and MJS yarn fabrics, depending upon processing parameters used. The finished fabrics provide enhanced thermal insulation, more absorbency and lesser air and water vapour transport than the corresponding grey fabrics regardless of the yarn type. Moreover, polyester-viscose fabrics are more promising than the polyester-cotton fabrics for comfort applications expect thermal insulation.

Keywords: Circular polyester fibre, MJS yarn, Ring-spun yarn, Thermal insulation, Trilobal polyester fibre, Wickability

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 34, June 2009, pp. 144-148

Effect of various parameters on electromagnetic shielding effectiveness
of textile fabrics

A Das, V K Kothari, A Kothari & A Kumar

Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110 016, India

and

S Tuli

Centre for Applied Research in Electronics, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110 016, India

Received 13 August 2008; revised received and accepted 8 October 2008

The effect of material type, yarn count, pick density, type of mordant and layers of fabrics on the electromagnetic shielding properties of textile materials has been studied. The shielding effectiveness of the fabric is measured by estimating the insertion loss incurred to the signal when the sample is placed in the path of the signal at the frequency range
100 MHz-3 GHz inside the coaxial transmission holder. There are some effects of type of material, yarn count, number of fabric layers and type of mordant on electromagnetic shielding effectiveness. But the number of apertures and thread density do not have significant effect on electromagnetic shielding effectiveness, particularly in case of metallic sheets.

Keywords:  Cotton, Electromagnetic shielding, Fabric, Mordant, Pick density, Polyester, Yarn count

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 34, June 2009, pp. 149-154

Electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of copper core yarn knitted fabrics

R Perumalraj

Department of Textile Technology, Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam 638 401, India

and

B S Dasaradan

Department of Textile Technology, P.S.G. College of Technology, Peelamedu, Coimbatore 641 004, India

Received 30 July 2008; accepted 25 September 2008

A study on electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of copper core yarn knitted fabrics through Taguchi design and ANOVA has been reported. The copper is selected as the conductive filler to produce copper yarns for making knitted fabric. The electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of these knitted fabrics has been measured in the frequency range
20-18000 MHz using network analyzer equipment. It is observed that with an increase in tightness factors, wale density and course density, the shielding effectiveness increases. The interlock knitted fabric has better electromagnetic shielding effectiveness than rib and plain knitted fabrics. With an increase in copper wire diameter, a decrease in shielding effectiveness is observed.

Keywords: Conductive filler, Copper yarn knitted fabrics, Electromagnetic inference, Electromagnetic wave, Network analyzer

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 34, June 2009, pp. 155-161

Low stress mechanical behaviour of fabrics obtained from different types of cotton/nylon sheath/core yarn

P Pramanik

Shri Guru Govind Singhji Institute of Engineering and Technology, Nanded 431 406, India

and

Vilas M Patil

College of Engineering and Technology, Akola 444 001, India

Received 14 July 2008; revised received and accepted 22 October 2008

Low stress mechanical properties of apparel fabrics prepared from different types of cotton/nylon (sheath/core) yarns on ring frame and air-jet spinning have been compared and their influence on fabric properties studied. Three different types of nylon crimped filament, namely 30, 44 and 70 denier, are used to prepare different cotton/nylon (sheath/core) yarns of the proportions 85/15, 75/25, 60/40 respectively on both ring and air-jet spinning systems separately. Total six different sheath/core yarns have been prepared under identical conditions and then converted into plain woven fabrics. These fabrics have been tested on Kawabata instrument and the results are compared with those of the fabrics made from 100% cotton ring-spun yarns. It is observed that the fabric stiffness increases with the increase in synthetic filament part in the sheath/core yarn, irrespective of the spinning process. Total hand value is increased when the filament percentage in the core material is increased. The fabrics obtained from air-jet spinning have more stiffness than that of the fabrics obtained from ring spinning system.

Keywords: Air-jet spinning properties, Core yarn, Cotton, Nylon, Ring frame, Low stress mechanical properties

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 34, June 2009, pp. 162-167

Mechanical properties of banana empty fruit bunch fibre reinforced
polyester composites

A V Ratna Prasad, K Mohana Rao & G Nagasrinivasulu

Department of Mechanical Engineering, V R Siddhartha Engineering College, Vijayawada 520 007, India

Received 13 May 2008; revised received and accepted 16 September 2008

A light weight composite material has been prepared using banana empty fruit bunch fibre (banana-EFB) as reinforcement in polyester resin matrix, and its mechanical properties studied. The composites are formulated up to a maximum fibre volume fraction of about 0.37, resulting in a mean tensile strength of 43 MPa and tensile modulus of 1.06 GPa which are 36% and 68% higher than those of the plain polyester respectively. The flexural strength of banana-EFB composites is decreased, whereas flexural modulus has shown a mixed trend compared to that of plain polyester. The specific flexural modulus of the composite is 1.42 times to that of polyester resin and the work of fracture in impact is found to be 141.7 J/m.

Keywords: Banana empty fruit bunch fibre, Mechanical properties, Natural fibres, Polyester, Reinforced composite

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 34, June 2009, pp. 168-174

Correlation between microstructure and microrheological parameters of various silk fibres

S Divakara & R Somashekar

Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore 570 006, India

A Raghu, Yogesha & Sharath Ananthamurthy

Department of Physics, Bangalore University, Jnanabharathi, Bangalore 560 056, India

and

Subrata Roy

Central Sericulture Training and Research Institute, B.T.M. layout, Madiwala, Bangalore 560 068, India

Received 21 April 2008; accepted 14 August 2008

The changes in microcrystalline parameters of raw wild varieties of silk fibres, like tasar, muga and eri, have been studied using wide angle X-ray scattering technique and a line profile analysis. A method involving an exponential distribution has been used to compute the microstructural parameters for the crystallite. In addition, a home-built open microscope set-up is also used for determining the microrheological parameters for all the three silk varieties in solution form. A comparative study reveals interesting correlations in the relative strengths of the varieties of silk fibres in both crystalline form and in solution. Further, the findings also reveal that muga is stiffer than the other non-mulberry silk varieties and this is observed in both the forms.

Keywords: Microcrystalline parameters, Microrheology, Silk fibroin, Wide angle X-ray scattering

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 34, June 2009, pp. 175-178

Determination of treatment time to achieve required absorbency in the enzymatic scouring of cotton fibres

S Chinnadurai & N Selvakumar

Department of Textile Technology, Anna University, Chennai 600 025, India

Received 11 June 2008; revised received and accepted 31 July 2008

A methodology has been proposed for establishing an empirical relationship between the parameters, such as per cent removal of pectic substances and waxes, to determine the treatment time in the enzymatic scouring of different cotton fibres for achieving expected absorbency. It is observed that five different varieties of cotton fibres considered in the study behave alike for a given treatment time with respect to removal of pectic substances and waxes during enzymatic scouring. The methodology suggested in this study would help the processors to develop relationships for the conditions used by them in enzymatic scouring to find out the treatment time required to achieve the expected absorbency in any chosen cotton fibre and its blend as long as the conditions used for the purpose are not changed.

Keywords: Absorbency, Cotton, Enzyme, Pectate lyase, Pectic substances, Scouring, Waxes

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 34, June 2009, pp. 179-182

Tenacity and breaking extension of cotton covered copper open-end friction-spun yarns

T Ramachandran

Department of Textile Technology, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore 641 004, India

and

C Vigneswaran

Department of Fashion Technology, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore 641 004, India

Received 13 May 2008; revised received and
accepted 14 August 2008

Dref-3 friction-spun core conductive yarns of the count 328 tex have been produced by wrapping a fibrous sheath of MCU cotton fibres around the copper filament (count 261 tex) as a core. Three different core-sheath ratios, such as 67:33, 80:20 and 90:10, have been produced by varying the draft in the second drafting unit which feeds the cotton carded slivers to cover the core component. The process parameters such as perforated drum speed and yarn delivery rate are kept constant at 4000 revolutions/min and 70 m/min respectively. The tenacity, breaking elongation, contribution of individual core and sheath components to the tensile properties and electrical properties of core conductive yarns have been studied along with the use of  ANOVA multivariable analysis to analyze the interaction of core-sheath component in the breaking tenacity of conductive yarns. The characteristic tests report shows that the 67:33 core/sheath conductive yarns has the highest tenacity of 3.27cN/tex and elongation-to-break of 5.27% as compared to other core-sheath yarns studied.

Keywords:   Conductive yarn, Core-sheath interaction, Cotton, Dref-3 yarn, Electrical properties, Friction yarn,                 Tenacity

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 34, June 2009, pp. 183-186

Effect of wrinkle resistance finish on cotton fabric properties

Yahya Can, Muhammet Akaydin, Yildiray Turhan & Ercan Ay

Denizli Vocational School, Pamukkale University,
20045 Denizli, Turkey

Received 24 July 2008; revised received and accepted
8 September 2008

The effect of crease resistant finish on wrinkle recovery, breaking strength, tearing strength and pilling performance of 100 % cotton plain fabrics has been studied. Desizing, scouring and crease resistant finishing have been performed on the fabric and their effects are observed. A statistical analysis using a paired t-test with the significance level of α= 0.05 has been performed to determine if a statistically significant difference exists among fabric properties using the above processes. It is observed that no statistically significant change occurs on the fabric properties from scouring. However, the changes due to crease resistant finish are found to be statistically significant. In addition, the wrinkle recovery angle increases approximately 50%, and breaking strength and tear strength decrease about 25%, and pilling performance reduces 59% after the crease resistant finishing.

Keywords: Breaking strength, Crease resistant finish, Pilling performance, Tearing strength, Wrinkle recovery angle

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 34, June 2009, pp. 187-190

Microbial degumming of decorticated ramie and its fibre characteristics

R Saikia

Life Sciences Division, Institute of Advanced Study in
Science & Technology, Paschim Boragaon,
Guwahati 781 035, India

P Boruah

Division of Medicinal, Aromatic & Economic Plants,

North East Institute of Science & Technology,
Jorhat 785 006, India

and

R Samanta

Department of Life Sciences, Dibrugarh University,
Dibrugarh 786 004, India

Received 1 January 2008; revised received and
accepted 20 October 2008

Decorticated bast fibres from ramie [Boehmeria nivea (L) Gaud] have been treated for different time periods using the bacterial and fungal cultures of Bacillus subtilis, bacterial isolates of BCJF1 and BCJO1, Curvularia sp., Aspergillus sp. and their mixed cultures. The residual gum of the fibres decreases to 10.4% and 9.7% after 4 and 6 days treatment respectively with bacterial and fungal strains. Treatment for 1-8 days of ramie bast fibres with crude supernatant of mixed cultures shows a correlation between incubation period and fibre separation. It is observed that the microbial consortium of fungi and bacteria plays an important role in the degradation of residual gum and is found to be more efficient for degumming purpose as compared to single culture treatment. It can be applied in large scale for cost effective fibre production from ramie bark.

Keywords: Bast fibres, Degumming, Fibre characteristics, Microbial consortium, Ramie

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 34, June 2009, pp. 191-199

Measurement of dielectric properties of textile materials and their applications

 

Kausik Bal & V K Kothari

Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology,
New Delhi 110 016, India

Received 7 July 2008; revised received and accepted 17 September 2008

Dielectric properties of textile materials have been used in process and quality control in relation to the moisture content, unevenness, drying, static generation, etc. Although dielectric properties of fibres and fibrous assemblies have been the subject of study of many researchers for a long time, the understanding of the subject, however, is still incomplete. With the advent of new characterization techniques and development of new textile based products for special applications like composite reinforcement, EMI shielding, etc., the subject requires fresh and further investigation. This paper reviews the state of knowledge regarding the dielectric properties of the fibres and textile materials, the various measurement techniques and some of the major applications of this knowledge in textile industry.

Keywords:   Capacitance, Dielectric properties, Fibre, Loss factor, Moisture content measurement, Permittivity, Polymers