Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

www.niscair.res.in

Total visitors: 3,735  since 06-03-09

VOLUME  34

NUMBER 1

MARCH 2009

CODEN : IJFRET

 

ISSN : 0971-0426

 

                                                                     CONTENTS

Effect of linear density, twist and blend proportion on some physical properties of jute and hollow polyester blended yarn

        Sanjoy Debnath & Surajit Sengupta

 

11

Pretreatment dependence of   mechanical and surface properties of cotton ring- and OE rotor-spun yarns  

        G K Tyagi , S Bhattacharya & S Gupta

 

20

Characteristics of fabrics knitted with basic knitting structures from combed ring and compact yarns

        Muhammet Akaydin

 

26

Evaluation of silk yarn cohesion based on peeling force

        Subrata Das & Anindya Ghosh

 

31

Development of digital thermal insulation value tester for jute products

        Gautam Roy, Malay Naskar & S N Ghosh

 

36

Study on cotton ring- and OE rotor yarns characteristics: Part III – Effect of enzymatic wet processing on various characteristics

        G K Tyagi & S K Gupta

 

41

A novel approach to process cotton/long staple fibre blends on short staple ring frame

        D Saravanan & S Sathis Kumar

 

47

Effect of instantaneous compression responses of fabric on tactile textures

        Jiyong Hu, Xin Ding, Xianyi Zeng & Ludovic Koehl

 

52

Multiweave – A prototype weaving machine for multiaxial technical fabrics

        Mário Lima, Raul Fangueiro, António Costa, Christien Rosiepen & Válter Rocha

 

59

Drape behaviour of functional knitted fabrics for sport clothing

        Araguacy Filgueiras, Raul Fangueiro & Filipe Soutinho

 

64

Influence of relative density on deformation characteristics of plain weave fabrics

        Jovan Stepanović, Zoran Milutinović, Vasilije Petrović & Milan Pavlović

69

 

Influence of softening treatments on hand value of woven fabrics produced from Indian wool and their blends

        D B Shakyawar & B K Behera

 

76

Finishing of jute using methacrylic acid in presence of tetrasodium pyrophosphate and potassium persulphate as catalysts under thermal treatment

        Debasish Das & Rajiv Munshi

 

82

Review Article

 

Impact of different stages of spinning process on fibre orientation and properties of ring, rotor and air-jet yarns: Part II – Effect of final machine parameters and comparison of different types of spinning machines in terms of structural parameters and yarn properties

        S M Ishtiaque, Akshay Kumar, K R Salhotra & M S Senthil Kannan

 

91

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 34, March 2009, pp. 11-19

 

 

Effect of linear density, twist and blend proportion on some physical properties of jute and hollow polyester blended yarn

 

Sanjoy Debnath & Surajit Sengupta

National Institute of Research on Jute & Allied Fibre Technology, 12 Regent Park, Kolkata 700 040, India

Received 1 January 2008; revised received and accepted 17 April 2008

The effect of yarn linear density, twist density and blend proportion on bulk density, tenacity, breaking extension, work of rupture, flexural rigidity, hairiness and friction of jute-hollow polyester blended yarns made on conventional jute spinning system has been studied. Box and Behnken experimental statistical design has been used to study the individual and interactive effects of independent variables. It is observed that the bulk density and coefficient of static friction increase initially with the increase in yarn linear density as well as twist.  After reaching the maximum value, further increase in these parameters decreases the properties. In case of all jute yarn, the maximum tenacity reaches at 195 twists/m and 145 tex. However, for 60% jute blended yarn, these values are 210 twists/m and 155 tex. The minimum breaking extension attains at 135 tex with 220 twists/m for all jute yarn and 185 tex with 220 twists/m for 60% jute blended yarn. The specific work of rupture decreases with the increase in jute content in the blend. The maximum specific work of rupture is obtained at 185 tex with 230 twists/m in 60% jute blended yarn. However, in case of all jute yarn the maximum values are obtained at 200 twists/m and 135 tex. The specific flexural rigidity of yarn is higher for all jute yarn compared to that for jute blended yarn. The lowest yarn hairiness is observed at 160tex with 215 twists/m for all jute yarn.

Keywords: Bulk density, Flexural rigidity, Hairiness, Jute, Hollow polyester fibre, Static friction, Tensile properties, Yarn friction

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 34, March 2009, pp. 20-25

 

 

Pretreatment dependence of mechanical and surface properties of cotton ring-
and OE rotor-spun yarns

G K Tyagi , S Bhattacharya & S Gupta

The Technological Institute of Textile & Sciences, Bhiwani 127 021, India

Received 15 October 2007; revised received and accepted 10 March 2008

The variations in the mechanical and surface properties of cotton ring- and OE rotor-spun yarns on exposure to different chemicals during wet processing have been studied. It is observed that the structure and yarn twist are the dominant parameters in determining the accessibility of chemicals during wet processing. The most distinct outcome of alkaline scouring of cotton yarns, in comparison to enzyme scoured ones, is the resulting yarn characteristics, i.e. more tensile strength, no change in breaking extension, more dye pick-up, more residual shrinkage, and more resistance to abrasion. Dramatic increase in residual shrinkage and dye uptake and decrease in abrasion resistance of alkaline scoured yarns after hydrogen peroxide bleaching are consistent with the effect of twist on the yarn during bleaching. The enzyme softening is effective in reducing the hairiness of the bleached yarn. While the absorbency change due to enzyme softening is small, the reduction in tenacity, abrasion resistance and hairiness is relatively large. Interestingly, however, there is no apparent change in the breaking extension and residual shrinkage of hydrogen peroxide bleached yarns.

           Keywords: Biopolishing, Draw-off nozzle, Enzymatic scouring, Hydrogen peroxide bleaching, Ring-spun yarn, Rotor-spun yarn

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 34, March 2009, pp. 26-30

 

 

Characteristics of fabrics knitted with basic knitting structures from combed ring and compact yarns

Muhammet Akaydin

Denizli Vocational School, Pamukkale University, 20045 Denizli, Turkey

Received 16 April 2008; revised received and accepted 25 July 2008

The abrasion resistance, pilling tendency, Lab values, K/S value and burst strength of fabrics with basic knitting structures of RL-jersey, RR-ribbed, RR-interlock forms produced from 100% combed cotton ring and compact yarns have been studied and compared. It is observed that the differences between the structures of ring and compact yarns play a significant role on the fabric properties. The fabrics produced from compact yarns are found to have better abrasion resistance, higher burst strength, less pilling tendency, better dye absorption, and dyeability in more vivid colors.

         Keywords: Burst strength, Compact yarn, Pilling, Ring yarn, Weft knitted fabric

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 34, March 2009, pp. 31-35

 

 

Evaluation of silk yarn cohesion based on peeling force

Subrata Das & Anindya Ghosh

Government College of Engineering and Textile Technology, Berhampore 742 101, India

Received 2 April 2008; revised received and accepted 13 June 2008

The peeling force required to separate out the filaments has been evaluated to measure the cohesion of silk yarn. Such force has been correlated well with the values obtained on conventionally used Duplan cohesion tester. The results show that the mulberry yarns are more cohesive than tussah yarns. The effect of sericin content on cohesion has also been investigated. Higher percentage of residual sericin imparts more peeling force. Even at low level of sericin content, the peeling force determined on Instron can be able to detect the change in cohesion values.

          Keywords: Cohesion, Mulberry, Peeling force, Sericin, Silk, Tussah

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 34, March 2009, pp. 36-40

 

 

Development of digital thermal insulation value tester for jute products

Gautam Roy, Malay Naskar & S N Ghosh

National Institute of Research on Jute and Allied Fibre Technology, 12 Regent Park, Kolkata 700 040, India

Received 28 January 2008; revised received and accepted 7 July 2008

A new type of digital instrument has been developed for measuring thermal insulation value of various jute products using two-plate method. The instrument is based on a microprocessor and provides automatic results in tog’ for the material under test. It requires no preparation of test samples if the area of the sample is not less than 700 cm2. The test is non-destructive and process of sample preparation is free from human error.

Keywords: Jute, Microprocessor, Reference disc, Thermal insulation value, Tog

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 34, March 2009, pp. 41-46

 

 

Study on cotton ring- and OE rotor yarns characteristics:
Part III – Effect of enzymatic wet processing on various characteristics

G K Tyagi & S K Gupta

Technological Institute of Textile & Sciences, Bhiwani 127 021, India

Received 28 January 2008; revised received and accepted 25 June 2008

The changes in cotton yarn characteristics as a result of chemical treatments have been studied. It is observed that the yarn characteristics depend on yarn structural features, twist factor and chemical treatment. Analysis of the mechanical and surface characteristics shows that the caustic scouring remarkably improves the tenacity, abrasion resistance, dye uptake and residual shrinkage of both ring- and OE rotor-spun yarns. The increase in each of these characteristics decreases with the increasing twist factor. Treatment of enzyme scoured-hydrogen peroxide bleached cotton yarns with G-Zyme VGB enzyme, on the other hand, results in a significant decrease in their tenacity, abrasion resistance and hairiness. Additionally, enzyme-softened yarns have similar breaking extension, less surface roughness and higher absorbency values. The yarns spun with notched nozzle are relatively stronger, less hairy and less rough, have lower abrasion resistance and pick up more dye as compared to the yarns made with the plain nozzle regardless of the experimental conditions.

Keywords: Cellulase enzyme, Cotton, Ring-spun yarn, Rotor-spun yarn, Yarn-to-metal friction

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 34, March 2009, pp. 47-51

 

 

A novel approach to process cotton/long staple fibre blends on
short staple ring frame

 

D Saravanan & S Sathis Kumar

Department of Textile Technology, Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam 638 401, India

Revised received 21 May 2008; accepted 4 July 2008

An attempt has been made to blend cotton fibres with long staple fibre strands made of silk and polyester-wool using siro spinning system and to evaluate the samples produced for some physical properties. Blending of these fibres using siro spinning appears to be possible at low spindle speeds. Yarns produced in the modified drafting system show better moisture content, evenness and hairiness, and these properties are influenced by the cotton fibre content in the blended yarn.

           Keywords: Hairiness, Index of irregularity, Moisture content, Poly-wool, Silk, Siro-spun yarn, Tenacity

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 34, March 2009, pp. 52-58

 

 

Effect of instantaneous compression responses of fabric on tactile textures

Jiyong Hu  & Xin Ding

College of Textiles, Donghua University, No 2999 North Renming Road, Songjiang District, Shanghai 201620, China

and

Xianyi Zeng & Ludovic Koehl

The ENSAIT Textile Institute, 9 rue le l’Ermitage, F-59100 Roubaix, France

Received 7 May 2008; accepted 25 June 2008

Attempts have been made to characterize and interpret the instantaneous responses of various fabrics in terms of sensory and cognitive processes, based on the chosen mechanical parameters characterizing the static compression profiles of multi-ply fabric in six levels of force. The study also pertains to the instantaneous elastic responses and creep phenomenon over a short time comparable to sensing process. The results indicate that the instantaneous deformations, dependent on levels of force applied, whether compression or retraction, mainly occur in less than 1.0 s. This phenomenon is assigned with the reaction time of material discrimination by touching. Furthermore, the instant out-plane bending deformations of fabric probably contribute to softness/fullness sensation at higher force. Therefore, the elastic deformations of fabric in short time, whether compressing or bending, result in strong stimulus intensity to cutaneous low-threshold mechanoreceptors responsible for tactual textures and dominate the human subjective responses.

           Keywords: Cotton, Compression, Fabric, Tactile textures

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 34, March 2009, pp. 59-63

 

 

Multiweave – A prototype weaving machine for multiaxial technical fabrics

Mário Lima

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minho, 4800-058 Guimarães, Portugal

Raul Fangueiro

Department of Textile Engineering, University of Minho, 4800-058 Guimarães, Portugal

António Costa

P & Maia Lda, Pisca, Creixomil, Guimarães, Portugal

Christien Rosiepen

Institut für Textiltechnik der Rwth Aachen , Aachen, Germany

and

Válter Rocha

Agilus Institute of Innovation in Information Technologies, Matosinhos, Portugal

Received 7 May 2008; accepted 25 June 2008

This paper reports the study on a multiaxial 2D interlaced woven structure able to provide specified strengths in four different directions and the development of its manufacturing process. This structure is obtained by the insertion of interlaced bias yarns at approximately 45º between the weft and the warp. Using the principle of the insertion and interlacement of yarns in bias directions, a multiaxial weaving system has been designed which comprises the warp feeding, bias yarns feeding and criss-cross insertion, shedding, incorporating one heddle, weft feeding and insertion, beating-up mechanism, incorporating the reed, fabric taking-up and winding mechanisms. The designing of the system includes the use of conventional weaving elements with completely new mechanisms or the modification of existing ones. The multiweave prototype developed in this work is used to produce different types of directionally oriented structures using various types of fibres (HT polyester, aramid, carbon and glass) and yarn counts. The important characteristics of this new fabric structure is the criss-crossing between all four sets of yarns which increases the capability for supporting more severe mechanical loads without failure, i.e. without delaminating. The strength-weight ratio is expected to increase, which can be very advantageous for applications in the areas like composites for the aircraft and car industries as well as in marine textiles for boat and ship building, which are the products subjected to severe stressing conditions.

          Keywords: Composites, Multiaxial weaving, Multiweave, Technical textiles

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 34, March 2009, pp. 64-68

 

 

Drape behaviour of functional knitted fabrics for sport clothing

Araguacy Filgueiras, Raul Fangueiro & Filipe Soutinho

Department of Textile Engineering, University of Minho, 4800-058, Guimarães, Portugal

Received 14 April 2008; revised received and accepted 18 September 2008

The influence of polyester/functional fibre blends on the drape properties of knitted fabrics for sport clothing application has been studied. Several knitted fabrics have been produced using polyester fibre blended, in different percentages, with functional fibres like Outlast, Dry release, Aquator, Polybutylene terephthalate and Bioactive. The drape and flexural rigidity behaviour of the materials produced have been evaluated to optimize the composition of functional knitted fabrics based on polyester/functional fibre blends. It is observed that the knitted fabrics produced with polyester/Outlast blends show the most interesting drape behaviour. On the other hand, polyester/polybutylene terephthalate and polyester/Aquator fabrics show lower drape behaviour due to the types of fibre used. Moreover, relationships between the amount of functional fibre and the drape and flexural rigidity behaviour are also established. The study is useful to design sport clothing for professional football players.

           Keywords: Drape, Flexural rigidity, Functional fibre, Polyester fibre, Sensorial comfort, Sport clothing, Thermal comfort

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 34, March 2009, pp. 69-75

 

 

Influence of relative density on deformation characteristics of plain weave fabrics

 

Jovan Stepanović & Zoran Milutinović

Technological Faculty, University of Nis, Serbia

and

Vasilije Petrović & Milan Pavlović

Technical Faculty, University of Novi Sad, Serbia

Received 18 February 2008; revised received and accepted 13 June 2008

The deformation characteristics of fabrics in relation to relative thread density have been studied. On the basis of experimental results and theoretical models, some real mathematical dependence has been set up, which can be used for projecting breakage characteristics of plain weave cotton fabrics. Equations for projecting breaking characteristics have been developed on the basis of fabrics geometrical model in linen weave and practical results. The equations include correction coefficients, depending on the relative density in fabrics. The results show that the relative thread density in fabrics affects their deformation characteristics. The relative thread density, if higher than 1 causes weaker quality parameters and this must be taken into consideration during designing of fabric.

           Keywords: Breaking force, Breaking elongation, Cotton, Elasticity levels, Weaving

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 34, March 2009, pp. 76-81

 

 

Influence of softening treatments on hand value of woven fabrics
produced from Indian wool and their blends

 

D B Shakyawar & B K Behera

Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110 016, India

Received 10 September 2007; revised received and accepted 7 March 2008

The effect of different softening treatments on low stress mechanical properties and hand values of fabrics produced from Indian wool and their blends has been studied. The extensibility, tensile resilience and coefficient of friction of the fabrics significantly (p>0.05) increase after softening treatments, whereas the bending and shear rigidities and their hysteresis, and compressional resilience reduce. The Koshi (stiffness) values of wool and wool blended fabrics decrease by 5-10% of that of untreated fabrics after softening treatments. However, the Numeri (smoothness) and Fukurami (fullness and softness) values increase by 10-40%. The fabrics treated with cationic and amino silicone softeners show total hand value (THV) higher than that of untreated fabrics; THV increases by 5-20% and 10-20% for winter suit and jacket application respectively. The amino silicone softener is more effective than cationic softener.

          Keywords: Hand value, Low stress mechanical properties, Softening treatment, Wool, Woven fabric

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 34, March 2009, pp. 82-90

 

 

Finishing of jute using methacrylic acid in presence of tetrasodium pyrophosphate and potassium persulphate as catalysts under thermal treatment

 

Debasish Das

Institute of Jute Technology, 35 B C Road, Kolkata 700 019, India

and

Rajiv Munshi

International Institute of Fashion Design, 20 A Lindsay Street, Kolkata 700 085, India

Revised received 26 May 2008; accepted 15 July 2008

Jute fabric has been modified using methacrylic acid as the finishing agent in the presence of K2S2O8 and Na4P2O7 catalysts separately or in selected combinations, employing a pad-batch-dry-cure technique. It is found that the treatment with 100g/L methacrylic acid at 30°C and pH 7 using batching time of 60-75 min at 30°C followed by drying of the batched fabric at 95°C for 5 min and curing of the dried fabric at 140°C for 5 min under the catalytic influence of K2S2O8 and Na4P2O7 produces most balanced improvement in the textile-related properties, such as wrinkle recovery angle, flexibility, abrasion resistance, elongation-at-break and resistance to photo-yellowing with retention of strength.

Keywords:   Cellulose, Esterification, Finishing, Graft copolymerization, Jute, Methacrylic acid

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 34, March 2009, pp. 91-105

 

 

Review Article

Impact of different stages of spinning process on fibre orientation and properties of ring, rotor and air-jet yarns: Part II – Effect of final machine parameters and comparison of different types of spinning machines in terms of structural parameters and yarn properties

S M Ishtiaque,  Akshay Kumar & K R Salhotra

Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110 016, India
and

M S Senthil Kannan

Department of Textile Technology, PSG College of Technology, Peelamedu,
Coimbatore 641 004, India

Received 11 June 2007; revised received and accepted 25 March 2008

This paper reports a glimpse on the impact of final machine parameters on fibre orientation and yarn properties. The comparison of different types of spinning machines like ring, rotor and air-jet in terms of structural parameters and yarn properties has also been described. The increase in draft at the speed frame improves the fibre parallelization and ultimate yarn properties. The increase in draft at the ring frame deteriorates the properties of ring yarn. The quality of rotor yarn depends on the state of parallelization in feed sliver. The air-jet yarn properties are dependent on the amount of core and wrapper fibres. The increase in draft at the air-jet spinner tends to improve the properties of air-jet yarns. Finally, it is clear that the spinning process should be adjusted considering the effect of important preparatory machines and final spinning machine parameters simultaneously.

          Keywords: Air-jet yarn, Fibre migration, Packing density, Ring yarn, Rotor yarn, Spinning triangle