Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

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VOLUME 34

NUMBER 3

SEPTEMBER 2009

CODEN : IJFRET

 

ISSN : 0971-0426 (Print); 0975-1025 (Online)

 

CONTENTS

 

Structural and tensile properties of ring and compact plied yarns

      S M Ishtiaque, P Subramani, A Kumar & B R Das

 

213

Influence of add-on spin finish and some process parameters on elastic recovery properties of polyester OE rotor-spun yarns
G K Tyagi

 

219

Mechanical properties and fault analysis of D-slot carded compact yarn
R Loganathan, C B Lakshmikantha & T Ramachandran

 

225

Impact of carding parameters and draw frame speed on fibre axial distribution in ring - spun yarn

      S M Ishtiaque, A Mukhopadhyay& A Kumar

 

231

Determination of woven fabric impact permeability index

      M Tokarska & K Gniotek

 

239

Determination of handle of knitted fabrics using an objective measuring technique
H Hasani

 

245

Filtration characteristics of spun-laid nonwoven fabrics
A Das, R Alagirusamy & K Rajan Nagendra

 

253

An intelligent system for supporting design of fashion oriented personalized fabric products
Gaurav Agarwal, Ludovic Koehl, Xianyi Zeng & V K Kothari

 

258

UV protection finishing of textiles using ZnO nanoparticles

      S Kathirvelu, Louis D’Souza & Bhaarathi Dhurai

 

267

Cationizing efficiency and performance of antimicrobial agent on cotton fabric dyed with vinyl sulfone based reactive blue dye
Shaukat Ali, Sameera Saleem, Saima Umbreen & Tanveer Hussain

 

274

Short Communications

 

New dyeing technique for enhancing colour strength and fastness properties of cotton fabric dyed with natural dyes
R R Mahangade, P V Varadarajan, J K Verma & H Bosco

279

Suitability of modified method for evaluating low-stress mechanical properties of silk fabrics
Y C Radhalakshmi , T H Somashekar & V Subramanium
   

283

 

 

Review Articles

 

Yarn structure - properties relationship
Arindam Basu

 

287

Ecofriendly antimicrobial finishing of textiles using bioactive agents based on natural products
M Joshi, S Wazed Ali, R Purwar & S Rajendran

295

 

 

 

  

 

 

IJFTR goes online

 

Full text of all the papers published in Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research are now available free of cost on the website http://nopr.niscair.res.in.

 

  

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol.34, September 2009, pp 213-218

 

 

Structural and tensile properties of ring and compact plied yarns

S M Ishtiaque, P Subramani, A Kumar & B R Das

Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110 016, India

Received 3 November 2008; revised received and accepted 16 January 2009

The effect of doubling on physical properties of regular ring-spun and compact yarns has been studied in terms of structural parameters, like fibre extent, spinning-in coefficient, fibre pair overlap length, packing coefficient and migration of fibres. The structural parameters, like fibre extent, spinning-in coefficient, fibre pair overlap length and packing density increase and migration parameters decrease after doubling for both the ring-spun and compact yarns. The percentage increase in tensile strength and percentage decrease in breaking elongation are found to be higher and lower respectively in ring-spun yarn than in compact spun yarn on doubling. Doubling process also reduces the hairiness of both ring-spun and compact yarns; the extent of hairiness reduction on doubling is higher for ring-spun yarn.

Keywords: Compact yarn, Fibre pair overlap length, Packing coefficient, Plied yarn, Ring yarn, Spinning-in coefficient

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 34, September 2009, pp. 219-224

 

Influence of add-on spin finish and some process parameters on
elastic recovery properties of polyester OE rotor-spun yarns

G K Tyagi

The Technological Institute of Textile & Sciences, Bhiwani 127 021, India

Received 28 March 2008; revised received and accepted 29 August 2008

The influence of add-on spin finish and opening roller speed on the recovery properties of polyester OE rotor yarns spun from polyester fibres of different cross-sectional shapes and linear densities has been studied.  The level of add-on finish appears to have highest influence on the recovery characteristics followed by the fibre linear density and opening roller speed.  Higher level of add-on finish offers significant advantages in respect of immediate elastic recovery and delayed elastic recovery but adversely affects the permanent set. Reduced fibre linear density also has a potential for an appreciable increase in immediate elastic recovery and delayed elastic recovery. Lower opening roller speed is important for lower permanent set as well as higher immediately elastic recovery and delayed elastic recovery. Neither there are appreciable changes in immediate elastic recovery, nor are there significant differences in permanent set with the change in fibre profile. Change in amplitude and rate of extension also provides noticeable variations in the elastic recovery properties; the magnitude depends mainly on the processing parameters.

Keywords:   Add-on finish, Immediate elastic recovery, Polyester yarn, Rotor yarn, Trilobal fibre

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 34, September 2009, pp. 225-230

 

Mechanical properties and fault analysis of D-slot carded compact yarn

R Loganathan & C B Lakshmikantha

Department of Textile Technology, K S R College of Technology, Tiruchengode 637 215, India

and

T Ramachandran

Department of Textile Technology, P S G College of Technology, Coimbatore 641 004, India

Received 1 September 2008; revised received and accepted 21 November 2008

An attempt has been made to analyze the imperfections, hairiness, tensile properties and classimat faults of D-slot carded compact yarn (DCY) of the Shankar 6 cotton variety. Three different twist factors have been selected and the results are compared with regular carded compact yarn (RCY) and regular carded ring yarn (RRY). The results show that the mechanical properties of D-slot carded compact yarn are far better than those of the regular carded compact and ring yarns. Thin places and hairiness of the D-slot carded compact yarn are found to be lower than those of other two yarns. The elongation percentage and tenacity of DCY are higher than those of RRY and RCY at all the twist levels. Short thick faults of DCY are lower than those of RRY and RCY at all twist levels. However, there is no significant difference in long thick faults and long thin faults at all twist levels.

Keywords:   D-slot carded compact yarn, Elongation, Long thick faults, Long thin faults, Regular carded compact yarn, Regular carded ring yarn, Short thick faults, Tenacity, Yarn hairiness, Yarn imperfections

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 34, September 2009, pp. 231-238

 

Impact of carding parameters and draw frame speed on fibre axial distribution in ring - spun yarn

S M Ishtiaque, A Mukhopadhyay & A Kumar

  Department of Textile Technology, GZS College of Engineering and Technology, Bathinda 151 001, India

Received 3 March 2008; revised received and accepted 2 December 2008

Fibre axial distribution of cotton ring - spun yarn using three process variables, viz. card draft, coiler diameter of card and delivery speed of draw frame, has been studied. It is observed that the percentage of trailing, leading and total hooks and their extents on  ring-spun yarn decrease with the increase in draw frame delivery speed and coiler diameter at carding machine. The above parameters also decrease as the card draft increases. Since the fibre extent and spinning - in coefficient are related to the efficacy of hook removal, these parameters improve as the delivery speed and coiler diameter increase and deteriorate as the card draft increases. It is also observed that the fibre overlap index decreases as the delivery speed and coiler diameter increase; the parameters however increase with the increase in card draft. It is interesting to note that the spinning-in coefficient and fibre overlap index do not show positive relationship.

Keywords:   Card draft, Coiler diameter, Delivery speed, Fibre extent, Fibre hooks, Fibre pair overlap index, Spinning-in coefficient


Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 34, September 2009, pp. 239-244

 

Determination of woven fabric impact permeability index

 

M Tokarska & K Gniotek

Department for Automation of Textile Processes, Technical University of Lodz, Zeromskiego 116, 90-924 Lodz, Poland

Received 7 July 2008; revised received and accepted 6 February 2009

An uncertainty in measuring a feature of technical fabrics called ‘impact permeability’ has been assessed in the form of impact permeability index. Impact permeability describes the difference in the behaviour of a fabric in dynamic airflow conditions in relation to its behaviour in static conditions. A mathematical model of pressure drop in woven fabric, which is formed as a result of impact airflow through the product, has been presented. For the assessment of inaccuracy in impact permeability index determination, the procedures described in ‘guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement’ are used. An example of calculating uncertainty budgets of the parameters analysed has also been reported. It is observed that the method of determination of impact permeability index is useful. The index is a good measure of impact permeability for the technical fabrics with respect to their flow properties.

Keywords:   Air permeability, Impact permeability index, Uncertainty, Woven fabric

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 34, September 2009, pp. 245-252

 

Determination of handle of knitted fabrics using an
objective measuring technique

H Hasani

Textile Engineering Department, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran

Received 23 June 2008; revised received and accepted 21 January 2009

An objective approach to assess the handle of various knitted fabrics has been made by analyzing the force-displacement curves. In comparison to the conventional pulling-through method, a rounded sample is pulled through a hole and from the space between two horizontal plates and the required pulling force is measured with respect to the displacement of specimen, recorded as a force-displacement curve. The results of the correlation test show that the features of the pulling-through curves associate with all mechanical and surface properties, except fabric thickness and compression energy. For this reason, a combination of the features selected from pulling-through curve and the parameters, which reflect the compression properties and thickness of all kinds of fabrics, is recommended.

Keywords: Fabric handle, Knitted fabric, Mechanical properties, Pulling-through method, Surface properties

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 34, September 2009, pp. 253-257

 

Filtration characteristics of spun-laid nonwoven fabrics

A Das, R Alagirusamy & K Rajan Nagendra

Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110 016, India

Received 26 November 2008; accepted 7 January 2009

The filtration behaviour of two types of spun-laid nonwoven fabrics, namely thermobonded and needle-punched, with wide range of physical parameters has been studied. A computerized air filtration apparatus has been designed and developed for measuring the air filtration characteristics of different types of filter fabrics. The developed apparatus measures the filtration parameters following the principle of dry filtration mechanisms. Needle-punched nonwovens show good filtration efficiency with lower pressure drop than the corresponding thermobonded nonwovens. Overall, the needle-punched fabrics perform better as a filter fabric in comparison to thermobonded nonwovens.

Keywords: Filtration efficiency, Needle-punched nonwoven, Spun-laid nonwovens, Thermobonded nonwoven

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 34, September 2009, pp. 258-266

 

An intelligent system for supporting design of fashion oriented personalized fabric products

Gaurav Agarwal, Ludovic Koehl & Xianyi Zeng

Ecole Nationale Superieure des Arts et Industries Textiles, 9 rue de l’Ermitage, 59070, Roubaix, France

and

V K Kothari

Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016, India

Received 1 September 2008; revised received and accepted 21 November 2008

An intelligent system for supporting the design of fashion oriented personalized fabric samples has been proposed. Based on fuzzy logic and semantic network, it permits to model the relationship between fabric parameters and fashion design elements via fashion images. This system can effectively help textile producers and designers to determine parameters of new fabrics to be produced according to fashion requirements of garments and predict garment fashion styles for given fabrics. A sensory evaluation on fabric hand has been used to determine fabric parameters of a collection of samples. Principal component analysis has been used to reduce the complexity of the model. A set of fashion images has been selected in order to extract abstract fashion design elements and identify relationship between fabric samples and fashion design elements. This system is helpful for textile companies to realize mass customization, i.e. design and production of personalized products with very low costs.

Keywords: Fabric parameters, Fashion design elements, Fashion images, Fuzzy logic, Mass customization

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 34, September 2009, pp. 267-273

UV protection finishing of textiles using ZnO nanoparticles

S Kathirvelu, Louis D’Souza & Bhaarathi Dhurai

Department of Textile Technology, Kumaraguru College of Technology, Coimbatore 641 006, India

Received 4 July 2008; revised received and accepted 18 December 2008

The synthesis and characterization of nanosized zinc oxide particles and their application on cotton and polyester/cotton fabrics have been studied for the protection against UV radiation. The nanoparticles are produced in different conditions of temperature (90° or 150°C) and reaction medium (water or 1,2-ethanediol). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffractometry have been used to characterize the nanoparticles composition as well as their shape, size and crystallinity. The effectiveness of the treatment is assessed using the standardized tests, such as UV–Vis spectrophotometry and the calculation of the ultraviolet protection factor both before and after washing of the treated samples. It is found that the performance of ZnO nanoparticles as UV-absorbers can be efficiently transferred to fabric materials through the application of ZnO nanoparticles. The UV tests indicate a significant improvement in the UV absorbing activity in the ZnO-treated fabrics.

Keywords: Cotton fabrics, Nanoparticles, Polyester/cotton blends, Sun screen, Ultraviolet protection factor


Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 34, September 2009, pp. 274-278


Cationizing efficiency and performance of antimicrobial agent on cotton fabric dyed with vinyl sulfone based reactive blue dye

Shaukat Ali, Sameera Saleem & Saima Umbreen
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

and

Tanveer Hussain

Department of Textile Chemistry, National Textile University, Faisalabad, Pakistan

Received 16 August 2008; revised received and accepted 30 January 2009

The capacity of cotton treated with antimicrobial agent (Reputex-20) to uptake reactive blue dye has been determined and compared with that of untreated and dyed cotton. The cationizing efficiency and antimicrobial effect of antimicrobial agent applied on cotton fabric dyed with reactive dye are found to be better as compared to conventional method of reactive dyeing on untreated cotton fabric. Moreover, the fabric pre-treated with antimicrobial agent shows less antimicrobial activity as compared to post-treated fabric. The samples pre-treated with antimicrobial agent give better K/S values than the normal reactive dyed sample. Fastness to light, washing and rubbing of treated and dyed fabric is also found to be comparable with that of the conventional dyed fabric.

Keywords: Antimicrobial agent, Cationization, Cotton, Dyeing, Fastness properties, Reactive dyes


Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 34, September 2009, pp. 279-282

 

New dyeing technique for enhancing colour strength and fastness properties of cotton fabric dyed with natural dyes

R R Mahangade, P V Varadarajan, J K Verma & H Bosco

Central Institute for Research on Cotton Technology,
Adenwala Road, Matunga, Mumbai 400 019, India

Received 6 October 2008; accepted 20 November 2008

Dyeing behaviour of four different natural dyes extracted from the leaves collected in a sustainable manner from respective dye containing plants has been studied on cotton fabric. A novel and ecofriendly mordanting technique has been devised for creating aluminium-tannate complex on cotton matrix. The new mordanting technique not only involves application of a modified sequence of mordanting chemicals but also employs addition of specific salts in water used in the dyeing process. The dyeing of the mordanted fabric has been carried out under acidic and alkaline conditions at different temperatures. The modified dyeing technique shows an overall improvement of 140-300% in colour strength along with the excellent fastness properties, such as washing, rubbing, perspiration and light. The overall results indicate that all the four natural dyes can be effectively and economically used for dyeing on cotton fabric. The entire chain of collection, extraction and dyeing methodology is environmentally and ecologically compatible.

Keywords:  Chroma culture, Cotton, Fastness properties, Mordant,  Natural dye


Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 34, September 2009, pp. 283-286

 

 

Suitability of modified method for evaluating low-stress mechanical properties of
silk fabrics

Y C Radhalakshmi , T H Somashekar & V Subramanium

Central Silk Technological Research Institute, B T M Layout, Bangalore 560 068, India

Received 14 April 2008; revised received and accepted 14 January 2009

Modifications have been made to the simple conventional method of determining low- stress mechanical properties of fabrics to make it applicable for finished silk fabrics.  The bending rigidity of the fabrics has been obtained from the tensile stress-strain curves and shear rigidity by bias extension.  The correlation between the parameters obtained by the modified method and that obtained by the Kawabata evaluation test method is found to be good for a series of finished silk fabrics.

Keywords: Bending:rigidity, Fabric extension, Kawabata evaluating system, Low-stress mechanical properties, Shear rigidity

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 34, September 2009, pp. 287-294

 

Yarn structure - properties relationship

Arindam Basu

The South India Textile Research Association, Coimbatore 641 014, India

Received 1 May 2008; accepted 4 November 2008

Yarn structure and its relationship with the properties have attracted many researchers and scientists. This has resulted in a large number of published research works scattered in many places. The importance of this subject has increased due to the need of yarn with best possible quality at optimum cost. Also, the diversification of textiles in various products, such as technical textiles, where performance is the main criteria, necessitated better yarn engineering. An attempt has been made to analyse the study reported in this subject area.

Keywords:   Core yarn, Elongation-at-break, Mean fibre extent, Migration parameters, Packing fraction, Sheath yarn, Single yarn tenacity, Wrapper fibre, Yarn evenness, Yarn imperfections

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 34, September 2009, pp. 295-304

Ecofriendly antimicrobial finishing of textiles using bioactive
agents based on natural products

M Joshi, S Wazed Ali & R Purwar

Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110 016, India
and
S Rajendran
Centre for Materials Research and Innovation, The University of Bolton, Bolton BL3 5AB, UK

Received 31 July 2008; accepted 7 November 2008

In the present scenario of environmental consciousness, the new quality requirements not only emphasize on the intrinsic functionality and long service life of the product but also a production process that is environment-friendly. Therefore, research on environment-friendly antimicrobial agents based on natural products for textile application is gaining worldwide interest. This paper reports a comprehensive review on natural product based bioactive agents such as chitosan, natural dyes, neem extract and other herbal products for antimicrobial finishing of textile substrates. Different classes of active ingredients found in extracts of natural products and their mechanism of antimicrobial action have been presented. The major challenges and the future potential of application of natural products on textiles have also been critically reviewed.

Keywords: Chitosan, Ecofriendly antimicrobial agents, Herbal products, Natural dyes