Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

VOLUME  27

NUMBER  4

DECEMBER 2002

CONTENTS

 

Estimation of fibre maturity from micronaire value
G F S Hussain, Janaki K Iyer, Bindubala Singhvi & K R Krishna Iyer

335

 

 

Computation of thermal conductivity of fibre from thermal conductivity of
twisted yarn
R S Rengasamy& S Kawabata


342

 

 

Digital control of ambient relative humidity for measurement of electrical
resistance of cashmere fibre
E Ekhtiyari, M Johari & M Abedi


346

 

 

Elastic recovery properties of polyester jet-spun yarns
G K Tyagi, A Goyal & A Patnaik

352

 

 

Studies on the tensile characteristics of ring and rotor yarns using modified Weibull distribution
K Raghunathan, V Subramaniam & V R Srinivasamoorthy


358

 

 

Properties and processibility of compact yarns
Jyoti Ranjan Dash, S M Ishtiaque & R Alagirusamy

362

 

 

Effect of thermal treatment on wrap-spun jute yarns
G Basu & A N Roy

369

 

 

Study on rotor deposition : Part I – Influence on quality and running performance of grey cotton yarn
S M Ishtiaque & A Das


376

 

 

Study on rotor deposition : Part II – Influence on quality and running performance of fibre dyed cotton yarn
S M Ishtiaque & A Das


381

A geometric model of woven geotextile tape fabric to predict tensile property
Subhas Ghosh & Melissa M Koenig

388

 

 

Crease recovery of fabrics with air-jet textured weft yarns
A Mukhopadhyay  & V K Kothari

393

Contd

Development of various colours and shades in naturally coloured cotton fabrics
M S Parmar & R P Sharma

397

 

 

A comparative study of two wool enzyme treatments
P Jovančić, D Jocić R Molina, A Manich, R Sauri, M R Juliá & P Erra

408

 

 

Effect of pretreatments on ambient temperature bleaching and
reactive dyeing of jute
S N Chattopadhyay, N C Pan & A Day


417

 

 

Kinetics of dyeing acrylic acid-grafted cotton fabric with basic dyes
Eglal H K El-Gendy

422

 

 

Isolation of colour component from the roots of Morinda angustifolia Roxb. and evaluation of its dyeing characteristics
R Bhuyan , D C Saikia & C N Saikia


429

 

 

Review Article

 

Use of polysaccharide fibres for modern wound dressings
S Ghosh & M Jassal

434

 

 

Annual Index

453

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 27, December 2002, pp. 335-341

 

Estimation of fibre maturity from micronaire value

G F S Hussain, Janaki K Iyer, Bindubala Singhvi & K R Krishna Iyer

Received 10 October 2001; revised received and accepted 24 December 2001

Cross-sectional perimeter, degree of thickening and micronaire values for 25 Indian cotton varieties covering the entire spectrum of fineness levels have been estimated. It is observed that for a given variety, the cross-sectional perimeter remains fairly constant irrespective of the degree of maturation. This leads to a direct relationship between the micronaire value and the degree of thickening which represents the true and botanical maturity for a given variety. It is also possible to pool the varieties having perimeter within a specified range and establish the relationship between micronaire value and degree of thickening for each perimeter range. The relationships linking the above two parameters variety-wise as well as perimeter-wise have been presented. Micronaire values for gradation of varieties into three categories, namely low, normal and high, have been indicated.

Keywords : Cotton, Fibre maturity, Micronaire

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 27, December 2002, pp. 342-345

 

Computation of thermal conductivity of fibre from thermal conductivity of twisted yarn

R S Rengasamy  & S Kawabata

Received 1 March 2001; revised received and accepted 13 December 2001

 A model has been proposed to calculate the thermal conductivity of composite made from parallel fibres aligned at an angle to the heat flow direction. The model after verification has been modified for a twisted fibre assembly. From the modified model, the longitudinal thermal conductivity values of fibres are calculated from the longitudinal thermal conductivity of yarns. In a kevlar fibre composite, the longitudinal thermal conductivity of fibres determines the conductivity of the composite up to a fibre angle of 60°. There is an agreement between the predicted and measured thermal conductivity of composites made from parallel fibre assembly. The longitudinal thermal conductivity of twisted yarn is slightly lower than that of the fibre because of twist.

Keywords: Composites, Helix angle, Kevlar fibre, Thermal conductivity, Twisted yarn

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 27, December 2002, pp. 346-351

 

Digital control of ambient relative humidity for measurement of electrical resistance of cashmere fibre

E Ekhtiyari, M Johari & M Abedi

Received 31 July 2000; revised received and accepted 18 October 2001

The dynamic equations of testing laboratory have been studied to determine the electrical properties of cashmere fibres in constant and definite relative humidity according to the principle of control design. It is observed that the transport time (dead time) has a major effect on the stability limitation than the sampling time. Using these limitations, the equation of proportional integral differential control has been obtained. The variation in relative humidity is found to be less than 0.5%. The electrical resistance of the fine undercoat cashmere fibres is considerably greater than that of the coarse outercoat cashmere fibres. The difference depends on the breeds. With the increase in relative humidity, the difference in the electrical resistance of fine undercoat and coarse outercoat cashmere fibres decreases.

Keywords: Cashmere fibre, Electrical resistance

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 27, December 2002, pp. 352-357

 

Elastic recovery properties of polyester jet-spun yarns

G K Tyagi, A Goyal & A Patnaik

Received 19 April 2001; revised received and accepted 25 September 2001

The relationship between magnitudes of the instrumental measurement of the elastic recovery properties and some yarn parameters has been studied. In general, the coarse yarns have low immediate elastic recovery, high delayed elastic recovery, and a large permanent set than the fine yarns prepared under the identical processing conditions. The use of higher first nozzle pressure and main draft produces high immediate elastic recovery but low delayed elastic recovery and permanent set. Both amplitude and rate of extension produce a large variation in the elastic recovery properties, the magnitude being dependent mainly on processing factors.

Keywords: Air-jet spinning, Elastic recovery, First nozzle pressure, MJS yarn

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 27, December 2002, pp. 358-361

 

Studies on the tensile characteristics of ring and rotor yarns using modified Weibull distribution

K Raghunathan, V Subramaniam & V R Srinivasamoorthy

Received 17 May 2001; revised received and accepted 27 September 2001

The influence of gauge length on the tensile strength of ring and rotor yarns has been investigated. A modified Weibull distribution has been applied among the tenacity values of cotton, polyester and polyester- cotton ring and rotor yarns. The Weibull distribution was verified through the Kolmogorov goodness test. The tenacity of all the ring and rotor yarns studied is found to decrease with the increase in gauge length and fits well with Weibull distribution. The strength variation is found to be high at lower gauge lengths in all the cases studied.

Keywords : Gauge length, Ring yarn, Rotor yarn, Tenacity, Weibull distribution

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 27, December 2002, pp. 362-368

 

Properties and processibility of compact yarns

Jyoti Ranjan Dash, S M Ishtiaque & R Alagirusamy

Received 8 June 2001; revised received and accepted 12 November 2001

The effect of winding speed on the properties of ring and compact yarns produced using the same mixing, preparatory process parameters and spinning parameters has been studied. Both wet and dry splicing techniques were used during winding to study the structure and properties of the spliced portions of the yarns. The dyeing behaviour of ring and compact yarns has also been studied to relate the structure of these yarns to their dyeability. It is observed that the compact yarn exhibits higher packing density and tenacity but lower CV% of the tenacity as compared to similar ring yarn. The compact yarn also has lower number of thick places, neps, short hairs and long hairs; the short and long hairs however increase rapidly after winding and the rate of increase in hairiness is higher than that in case of ring yarn. Although the strength of the spliced portions of compact yarn is higher, the ratio of splice strength to yarn strength is lower. The fabrics made with compact yarns show higher K/S values than the fabrics made with ring yarns.

Keywords: Compact spinning, Ring spinning, Splicing, Yarn hairiness, Winding speed

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 27, December 2002, pp. 369-375

 

Effect of thermal treatment on wrap-spun jute yarns

G Basu & A N Roy

Received 22 December 2000; revised received 28 May 2001; accepted 22 November 2001

 Wrap-spun jute yarns prepared at hollow spindle spinning machine using polyester (PET), nylon, polypropylene (PP) flat and textured multifilament and PP monofilament yarns as wrapping elements with wrap density of 350 wraps/m were subjected to thermal treatments in dry heat and boiling water. The thermal treatment in dry heat was done for 5, 10, 15 and 30 min at 185°C for PET and nylon wrapped yarns and at 135°C for PP wrapped yarns. Boiling water treatment was carried out for 30 min. On thermal treatment, a downward trend in tenacity was observed in case of polyester, nylon and polypropylene flat multifilament wrapped yarns but no definite trend was observed in case of polypropylene textured multifilament and polypropylene monofilament wrapped yarns, while the breaking extension of all the wrap-spun yarns increased. The work of rupture of wrap-spun yarns also decreased with the increase in treatment time on dry heating except in case of nylon wrapped yarn where the work of rupture improved remarkably up to 10 min of exposure and then again dropped. On boiling water treatment, the work of rupture of PET, nylon and PP flat multifilament wrapped yarns increased and that of PP textured multifilament and PP monofilament wrapped yarns decreased. Initial modulus and secant modulus of all the wrap-spun yarns ,except polyester wrapped yarn, generally decreased on dry heating. Residual shrinkage of all the wrap-spun yarns decreased with the increase in treatment time in dry heat. No relationship could be established between the changes in tensile properties of wrap-spun yarns and those of synthetic wrapping yarns.

Keywords : Jute, Residual shrinkage, Tensile properties, Twist liveliness, Wrap-spun yarn

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 27, December 2002, pp. 376-380

 

Study on rotor deposition : Part I – Influence on quality and
running performance of grey cotton yarn

S M Ishtiaque & A Das

Received 30 April 2001; revised received and accepted 26 November 2001

Deposition of trash particles inside the yarn forming rotor groove is highly detrimental in terms of spinning performance and quality of yarn. If the cleaning of rotors is not done after a certain interval of time, the fine dust particles go on depositing inside the rotor groove and thus the running performance and the quality of yarn deteriorate with the time. The residual trash content in finisher draw frame sliver has significant impact on rotor deposition, end breakage rate and yarn quality. The draw frame sliver with minimum level of residual trash content is desirable for rotor spinning. Speed and type of opening roller also have significant effect on the above attributes.

Keywords :      Cotton yarn, Opening roller speed, Residual trash content, Rotor deposition, Yarn imperfections, Yarn      irregularity

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 27, December 2002, pp. 381-387

 

Study on rotor deposition : Part II – Influence on quality and running
performance of fibre dyed cotton yarn

S M Ishtiaque &  A Das

Received 30 April 2001; revised received and accepted  26 November 2001

The residual trash content in finisher draw frame sliver of natural yellow and green dyed cotton slivers is found to be very high as compared to that in grey or reactive dyed slivers, which is due to the deposition of large dye particles over the surface of fibres during dyeing. The residual trash content of natural indigo dyed sliver is very low, but the end breakage rate of indigo and green dyed is extremely high which is due to coating of rotor surface with colours because of the poor crock fastness of these two fibres. The quality of yarn also deteriorates due to the coating of rotor surface with colours. Blending of grey cotton sliver with natural indigo sliver at finisher draw frame stage shows improvement in spinnability and yarn quality.

Keywords: Cotton yarn, Crock fastness, End breakage rate, Residual trash content, Rotor deposition, Yarn CSP, Yarn imperfections, Yarn irregularity

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 27, December 2002, pp. 388-392

 

A geometric model of woven geotextile tape fabric to predict tensile property

Subhas Ghosh & Melissa M Koenig

Received 3 July 2001; revised received and accepted 15 October 2001

A geometric model has been presented to predict the strength and stretch behavior of woven tape fabrics that are usually utilized in geotextile applications. Model input parameters include fabric geometric parameters, tape bending effect, consolidations, and tensile properties. It is possible to predict the strength of the commercial geotextile fabric within 10% of the experimentally determined values in most of the cases. Some discrepancies have been noted that are probably due to the high variation in tape tensile properties and estimation in the angle q1.

Keywords: Geometric parameters, Geotextile, Tensile properties

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 27, December 2002, pp. 393-396

 

Crease recovery of fabrics with air-jet textured weft yarns

A Mukhopadhyay  & V K Kothari

Received 1 August 2001; revised received and accepted 14 December 2001

The crease recovery of fabrics in relation to the direction of creasing, pick spacing, heat setting and number of filaments in air-jet textured weft yarn has been investigated. With the increase in pick density, the warp-wise crease recovery of air-jet textured yarn fabrics decreases and a reverse trend is observed in weft direction. The textured yarn fabrics exhibit much lower crease recovery than the corresponding parent yarn fabrics. The finer filament textured yarn fabrics possess higher crease recovery than the coarser filament textured yarn fabrics. Heat setting improves the overall crease recovery of fabrics. Improvement in crease recovery is higher for textured yarn fabrics, particularly in weft direction. After heat setting, the peak value of crease recovery occurs at different biased direction.

Keywords : Air-jet textured yarn, Crease recovery, Heat-set fabric, Pick density

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 27, December 2002, pp. 397-407

 

Development of various colours and shades in naturally coloured cotton fabrics

M S Parmar & R P Sharma

Received 30 October 2001; accepted 19 December 2001

Naturally coloured cottons of camel brown and olive green colour have been blended with conventional white cotton and then treated with various chemicals to develop various shades and colours. The effect of bleaching with hydrogen peroxide has also been observed. It is observed that both green and brown cotton samples show drastic change in colour. On treatment with various chemicals, the colour fastness to washing and light improves while that to rubbing remains unaffected. The laundry treatment helps in stabilizing the colour of the naturally coloured cottons.

Keywords: Colour fastness,  Cotton, G. hirsutum L, Naturally coloured cotton

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 27, December 2002, pp. 408-416

 

A comparative study of two wool enzyme treatments

P Jovančić,  D Jocić, R Molina, A Manich, R Sauri, M R Juliá & P Erra

Received 22 May 2001; revised received 29 October 2001; accepted 10 December 2001

The influence of enzyme concentration and treatment time on certain wool properties has been studied according to the Box-Hunter experimental design in order to better understand the wool modification caused by two different enzymatic multi-purpose formulations (enzyme A and enzyme B). It is observed that enzyme concentration and treatment time exert an influence on wool whiteness, shrink resistance, weight loss and urea bisulphite solubility. The enzyme concentration has a decisive influence on wool modification when enzyme A is applied, and on the treatment time when enzyme B is applied. Tensile strength properties and SEMs suggest that enzyme B can attack the non-keratinic parts of wool fibre structure. No significant degradation of cortical or even cuticular cells is observed after enzyme A treatment. Accordingly, enzyme A could be applied all over the experimental zone whereas in the case of enzyme B, the enzyme concentration over 5% and treatment time over 60 min should be avoided. FTIR/ATR analysis confirms that there is no significant change in the redox state of cystine disulphide bonds at the wool surface after the enzyme treatment.

Keywords: Enzymes, FTIR/ATR study, Physico-mechanical properties, Scanning electron  microscopy, Wool

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 27, December 2002, pp. 417-421

 

Effect of pretreatments on ambient temperature bleaching and
reactive dyeing of jute

S N Chattopadhyay, N C Pan & A Day

Received 6 August 2001; revised received and accepted 22 November 2001

Bleaching of grey jute yarn by conventional hot hydrogen peroxide bleaching, ambient temperature bleaching and ambient temperature bleaching using spent liquor has been studied. Before bleaching, the jute yarns were either scoured or treated with alkali at ambient temperature. One set of alkali-treated jute yarns was washed, dried and then used for bleaching and the other set of alkali-treated yarns was dried without washing and used for bleaching. All the bleached samples were dyed at room temperature using cold brand reactive dye. It is found that the whiteness and brightness indices of the jute yarn samples bleached by conventional process follow the order : grey bleached >scoured and bleached > alkali-treated (without wash) and bleached > alkali-treated (with wash) and bleached. For ambient temperature bleached samples, the order is : grey bleached > scoured and bleached > alkali-treated (with wash) and bleached > alkali-treated (without wash) and bleached. The dye uptake value increases with the following order of pretreatments: alkali-treated (without wash) > alkali-treated (with wash)> scoured > grey.

Keywords :                Bleaching, Brightness index, Dyeing, Dye uptake, Scouring, Wash fastness , Whiteness index

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 27, December 2002, pp. 422-428

 

Kinetics of dyeing acrylic acid-grafted cotton fabric with basic dyes

Eglal H K El-Gendy

Received 29 January 2001; revised received and accepted 4 July 2001

The effect of graft yield, dye concentration and dyeing temperature on the colour strength of acrylic acid-grafted cotton fabric has been studied for Sandocryl Blue (SB) and Rhodamine Red (RR) basic dyes. It is observed that the colour strength increases with the increase in graft yield and levels off at higher degrees of grafting. The best dyeing is achieved at pH 3.9 and 2.72 for SB and RR aqueous solutions respectively. The colour strength of grafted fabrics increases rapidly with the increase in dyeing time and levels off within few minutes, depending on the dye concentration (Co) and temperature of the dye bath. The initial dyeing rates (Rd) for SB dye are higher than those for RR dye. The dyeing process follows a 0.62 order kinetics and is almost independent of the dyeing temperature or the type of dye. Dyeing rate and rate constant increase considerably with the increase in dyeing temperature. Activation energies of 11.2 and 14.36 kJ/mole were calculated for SB and RR dyes respectively. The mechanism of the dyeing process for the two dyes is diffusion controlled and their dyeing rates depend on the type of basic dye. Considerably high dyeing rates are found even at temperatures as low as 282 K and the completion of the dyeing process takes place in a matter of minutes. About 70-99% of the colour strength of the samples dyed at 90oC for 1h is obtained at dye bath temperatures ranging from 9oC to 55oC and a dyeing time of 80s.

Keywords: Activation energy, Cotton fabric, Dyeing rate, Radiation grafting

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 27, December 2002, pp. 429-433

 

 

Isolation of colour component from the roots of Morinda angustifolia
Roxb. and evaluation of its dyeing characteristics

R Bhuyan , D C Saikia & C N Saikia

Received 5 July 2001; accepted 5 September 2001

The colour component in the roots of the plant Morinda angustifolia has been isolated and its chemical structure established on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic studies. The dyeing properties of colour component have been evaluated on cotton and silk fabrics with and without the use of mordants. The yield of colour component varies from 10% to 20.9% depending on duration of extraction (30-240 min). Fair to good fastness properties are obtained on fabrics when dyed with 3% of colour component at 2% concentration of mordants.

Keywords: Cotton fabric, Dyeing, Mordants, Morinda angustifolia, Silk fabric

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 27, December 2002, pp. 434-450

 

Use of polysaccharide fibres for modern wound dressings

S Ghosh & M Jassal

Received 31 July 2001; revised received and accepted 9 October 2001

Polysaccharide fibres like alginate, chitin, chitosan, modified cellulosic fibres, dextran, hyaluronate, pectin and (1-3)b-d-glucans are being used for modern wound dressing. This paper presents an overview of wound healing mechanism and preparation and application of above biopolymeric fibres in the highly specialized biomedical field of wound management.

Keywords: Alginate, Chitin, Dextran, Hyaluronate, Polysaccharide, Wound dressing