Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

 

VOLUME  27

NUMBER  1

MARCH 2002

CONTENTS

 

 

Influence of fibre cross-sectional shape on dye uptake and mechanical properties of polyester OE rotor-spun yarns

        G K Tyagi, A Saini, A Tyagi, M Khandelwal & S M Ishtiaque

 

11

 

Influence of filament core surface structure on tensile properties of DREF-3 yarns

        S M Ishtiaque, K R Salhotra  & R V M Gowda

 

18

 

Evaluation of physical bulk of air-jet textured yarns

        V K Kothari, A Mukhopadhyay & R C D Kaushik  

25

 

Effect of friction drum speed and yarn delivery rate combination for a constant friction ratio on quality of friction-spun yarns

        S Dhamija, K R Salhotra, R Chattopadhayay & R C D Kaushik

 

 

33

 

Apron slippage in ring frame : Part I—Establishing the phenomenon and its impact on yarn quality

        A Das,  P Yadav & S M Ishtiaque

 

 

38

 

Influence of process parameters on flexural rigidity and elastic recovery of polyester OE rotor-spun yarns

        G K Tyagi,  A  Patnaik &  S M Ishtiaque

 

 

44

 

Tensile properties of polyester/cotton blended yarns

        V K Kothari, S M Ishtiaque & V G Ogale

 

48

 

Structure of air-jet spun yarns produced with various twisting nozzles on PLYfiL 1000 system

        B U Nergis & B Ozipek

 

 

52

 

Influence of yarn structure, sizing ingredients and type of sizing on properties and performance of sized yarns : Part I—Evaluation of sizing process using Zweigle G551 weavability tester

        A K Sengupta, P Pratihar, P D Kimothi, S Vernekar & M M Alamgir Sayeed  

 

 

 

59

 

Structural quality assessment of different cellulosic jute fibres by X-ray diffraction

        Asim K Bera, Saroda Bandyopadhyay, S K Sen, S Ghosh &  Asok Banerjee

65

 



 

Evaluation of comfort properties of polyester-viscose suiting fabrics

        A Mukhopadhyay, I C Sharma & Mukesh Sharma

 

72

 

 

Predicting the draped pleat graceful appearance through fabric mechanical properties

        Lai Sang-Song

 

 

77

 

Development of protective clothing for pesticide industry: Part I—Assessment of various finishes

        Mona Suri, D Rastogi, K Khanna & M Chakraborty

 

 

85

 

Kinetic and thermodynamic studies on red sandalwood

        M L Gulrajani, S  Bhaumik, W Oppermann & G Hardtmann

 

91

 

Dyeing of Indian wool with reactive dyes

        V G Kulkarni

 

95

 

Short Communication

 

 

 

Physical properties of oil-palm leaf fibre

        K Lakshmi Kalyani & A Sharada Devi

 

99

 

Conference Report

 

 

 

Second Convention on Natural Dyes

        Deepti Gupta & Priyanka Gupta

101

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 27, March 2002, pp. 11-17

 

 

Influence of fibre cross-sectional shape on dye uptake and mechanical properties of polyester OE rotor-spun yarns

G K Tyagi, A Saini, A Tyagi , M Khandelwal andS M Ishtiaque

Fibre profile plays an important role in OE rotor spinning. The yarns made from a trilobal fibre perform no better than the yarns made from a circular fibre in respect of twist deviation, tensile parameters and mass irregularity. The yarn hairiness is a more serious problem with circular fibres. The spinning of rotor yarns with a low twist factor and rotor speed produces yarns within the acceptable hairiness limit. Yarns with trilobal fibres pick up more dye than the yarns with circular fibres. The dye uptake decreases with the increase in tex twist factor but the decrease in the uptake of dye reduces with the decrease in polyester fibre denier.

Keywords : Circular fibre, Polyester yarn, Rotor - spun yarn, Trilobal fibre, Twist factor, Wrapper fibre

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 27, March 2002, pp. 18-24

 

Influence of filament core surface structure on tensile properties of DREF-3 yarns

S M Ishtiaque, K R Salhotra and R V M Gowda

The influence of core filament surface structure on tensile properties of friction-spun yarns has been studied. The yarn spun from Z pre-twist filament core has superior properties while that spun from S pre-twist filament core shows inferior quality as against the yarn spun with flat filament core. Yarns spun with air-jet textured filament core exhibit significantly lower tenacity, breaking extension, modulus and energy-to-break as compared to those made from flat and twisted forms. However, in respect of sheath contribution, the yarns spun with air-jet textured filament core perform better. The sheath contribution and sheath slipping force increase with the increase in core filament overfeed during texturing. The sheath contribution is highest for the yarn spun from filament with 30% overfeed.

Keywords: DREF-3 yarn, Filament-to-fibre friction, Flat filament core, Sheath slipping force, Tensile properties, Textured filament core, Twisted filament core

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 27, March 2002, pp. 25-32

 

Evaluation of physical bulk of air-jet textured yarns

V K Kothari, A Mukhopadhyay and R C D Kaushikb

A series of air-jet textured yarns has been prepared from two feed materials based on 3-level Box and Behnken design and the effect of process variables such as overfeed, air pressure and texturing speed on the textured yarn bulk studied using package density and knitted fabric methods of bulk measurement. The physical bulk obtained from package density method with different winding tension has been correlated with knitted fabric specific volume obtained from the measured value of fabric thickness under different pressure. The fabric specific volume evaluated at and beyond 20 gf/cm2 pressure during thickness measurement is found to correlate well with the physical bulk of textured yarn using bobbin winder with the winding tension at and beyond 0.3 gf/tex and 0.6 gf/tex for drum and spindle driven winders respectively.

Keywords: Air-jet textured yarn, Drum driven winder, Physical Bulk, Polyester yarn, Spindle driven winder

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 27, March 2002, pp. 33-37

 

Effect of friction drum speed and yarn delivery rate combination for
a constant friction ratio on quality of friction-spun yarns

S Dhamija, K R Salhotra, R Chattopadhayay and R C D Kaushik

For a constant friction ratio, the combination of friction drum speed and yarn delivery rate significantly affect the quality of friction-spun yarns. The increase in combination values, in general, deteriorates the quality of DREF-II yarns in respect of tenacity, breaking extension, abrasion resistance and unevenness. However, in case of DREF-III yarns, these characteristics show an improvement when drum speed and delivery rate are proportionately increased to maintain the given constant friction ratio.

Keywords : Acrylic yarn, DREF-II yarn, DREF-III yarn, Friction drum speed, Friction-spun yarn, Friction ratio, Yarn delivery rate, Yarn quality

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 27, March 2002, pp. 38-43

 

Apron slippage in ring frame : Part I ¾ Establishing the phenomenon and its
impact on yarn quality

A Das, P Yadav and S M Ishtiaque

The phenomenon of apron to apron slippage exists in every spindles but with different extent. Due to the absence of positive means of motion transmission from bottom to top apron, the top apron always moves at a slower speed than bottom apron and this speed difference is higher when there is material in between them. This apron to apron slippage causes uncontrolled movement of fibres in the apron zone, resulting in poor yarn quality.

Keywords: Apron to apron slippage, Bottom apron,  Cotton yarn, Polyester/viscose yarn, Tenacity, Top apron

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 27, March 2002, pp. 44-47

 

Influence of process parameters on flexural rigidity and elastic recovery of
polyester OE rotor-spun yarns

G K Tyagi, A Patnaik and S M Ishtiaque

Fibre cross-section is an important factor in determining flexural rigidity and elastic recovery of OE rotor-spun yarns. The level of spin finish, tex twist factor, draw-off nozzle profile, rotor speed and opening roller speed have profound influence on flexural rigidity. The variation either in twist factor or in rotor speed hardly affects elastic recovery; the elastic recovery, however, increases with the increase in level of spin finish. The increase is highly dependent on the draw-off nozzle profile and opening roller speed.

Keywords: Circular fibre, Elastic recovery, Flexural rigidity, Polyester yarn, Spin  finish, Trilobal fibre, Wrapper fibre

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 27, March 2002, pp. 48-51

 

Tensile properties of polyester/cotton blended yarns

V K Kothari, S M Ishtiaque and V G Ogale

Effect of blend ratio, strain rate and cone winding from ring bobbins on the tensile properties of polyester/cotton blended yarns under static and dynamic conditions has been studied using USTER Tensorapid and Constant Tension Transport testers. It is observed that the static tensile test overestimates tensile strength and breaking elongation. The static tensile strength and breaking elongation decrease after winding but the dynamic elongation of cotton, polyester and 67:33 polyester/cotton yarn increases after winding.

Keywords: Blended yarns, Constant tension transport tester, Cone winding, Dynamic tensile test, Static tensile test

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 27, March 2002, pp. 52-58

Structure of air-jet spun yarns produced with various twisting nozzles on
PLYfiL 1000 system

B U Nergis and B Ozipek

The effects of various twisting nozzle constructions on the structures of lyocell, cotton and polyester/cotton two-fold yarns produced with PLYfiL 1000 system have been studied. It is observed that the yarns basically consist of wrapped and unwrapped lengths, and can be classified into 4 categories on the basis of their structure. The effect of proportion and length of each class on tenacity and extension of both untwisted and twisted yarns has also been studied. The construction of the twisting nozzle affects the physical properties of the yarns produced and the yarn structure that has tight and regular wraps around the core fibres influences the tenacity of the yarns positively.

Keywords: Air-jet spinning, Cotton, Lyocell, PLYfiL 1000 system, Polyester/cotton yarn, Twisting nozzle

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 27, March 2002, pp. 59-64

 

Influence of yarn structure, sizing ingredients and type of sizing on properties and performance of sized yarns :
Part I 
¾ Evaluation of sizing process using Zweigle G551 weavability tester

A K Sengupta, P Pratihar , P D Kimothi, S Vernekar and M M Alamgir Sayeed

The average and minimum number of abrasion strokes to failure, rate of deterioration in tensile properties when subjected to simultaneous flexion and abrasion, and the effect of cyclic extension on sized yarn strength at different size concentrations have been studied. It is observed that the number of abrasion strokes till break is higher in case of grey ring yarn than that in case of the yarns sized with thin boiling starch (TBS) because the fluff generated on the surface of the grey yarn acts as a protective shield. The gain in strength after sizing is greater for rotor yarns. However, the loss in strength after a fixed number of strokes is less for rotor yarns than that for ring yarns. Though the strength of the yarns sized with TBS and PVA (both hot and cold brand) are not significantly different, the loss in strength after a fixed number of abrasion strokes is least for the cold brand PVA followed by the hot brand PVA and TBS.

Keywords : Cotton, Ring yarn, Rotor yarn, Sizing, Weavability

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 27, March 2002, pp. 65-71

 

Structural quality assessment of different cellulosic jute fibres by
X-ray diffraction

Asim K Bera, Saroda Bandyopadhyay, S K Sen, S Ghosh & Asok Banerjee

The structural quality assessment of different genetically modified cellulosic jute fibres has been done by non-destructive X-ray diffraction methods to rationalize an approach for quality control of jute fibres. The results show the variations in the quality of the X-ray diffraction patterns that attribute to the characteristics of the structural/organizational properties of the jute fibre.

Keywords: Biopolymer, Jute fibre, Quality indexing, X-ray diffraction

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 27, March 2002, pp. 72-76

 

Evaluation of comfort properties of polyester-viscose suiting fabrics

A Mukhopadhyay, I C Sharma & Mukesh Sharma

The comfort properties of polyester-viscose blended fabrics of two different structures (plain and twill) have been studied. It is observed that with the change in polyester content, the total hand value (THV) of twill woven fabrics shows different trend than that of plain woven fabrics. The thermal insulation and water-vapour resistance increase with the increase in polyester content. It is found that the fabric having the best THV may not be comfortable in all aspects.

Keywords : Fabric comfort, Fabric handle, Fukurami, Koshi, Numeri, Thermal insulation, Total hand value, Water-vapour resistance

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 27, March 2002, pp. 77-84

 

Predicting the draped pleat graceful appearance through
fabric mechanical properties

Lai Sang-Song

A transformation model of the fabric mechanical properties and the draped pleat vision and beauty has been developed using the step-wise regression analysis and the artificial neural network. It is observed that a positive correlation exists between the mechanical properties, such as curve stiffness, shearing stiffness, hysteresis of shear stress at 0.5°, weight, and the draped pleat vision and beauty. Artificial neural network may also be used to effectively apply the model and successfully predict the grade of the draped pleat vision and beauty through the fabric mechanical properties. The better prediction results are obtained from the artificial neural network.

Keywords: Artificial neural network, Draped pleat design, Fabric mechanical properties Step-wise regression analysis

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 27, March 2002, pp. 85-90

 

Development of protective clothing for pesticide industry:
Part I — Assessment of various finishes

Mona Suri , D Rastogi, K Khanna and M Chakraborty

A comparative assessment of various commercially available fluorocarbon finishes for their use in protective clothing in pesticide industry has been made. The finishes have been applied on 100% cotton and 70/30 polyester/cotton fabrics at different concentrations and their effect on tensile behaviour, air permeability, stiffness and crease recovery of fabrics studied. The finished fabrics have been evaluated for water and oil repellency. The durability of finishes to laundry has also been assessed. It is observed that the water and oil repellent properties of polyester/cotton blend are better than those of cotton. Finishes A and B perform better than finishes C and D in terms of percentage absorption, permeability of water, oil repellency and tensile strength. Finish A at 40gpl and 60gpl and finish B at 60gpl are recommended for protective clothing as they show maximum improvement in water, oil and pesticide repellency.

Keywords: Cotton fabric, Fluorochemicals, Pesticide repellency, Protective clothing, Polyester/cotton fabric, Tensile strength, Water repellency

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 27, March 2002, pp. 91-94

 

Kinetic and thermodynamic studies on red sandalwood

M Lgulrajani, S Bhaumik, W Oppermann and G Hardtmann

Red sandalwood (pterocarpus santalinus) has been used as a dye for wool and nylon with and without mordant. Ethanol extract of red sandalwood has been used for carrying out thermodynamic and kinetic studies on wool and nylon. The diffusion coefficients, rate of dye uptake, adsorption isotherms, standard affinity, enthalpy and heat of dyeing have been calculated. It is observed that the red sandalwood dye has higher rate of dyeing and more affinity for nylon than those for wool.

Keywords: Kinetic study, Natural dye, pterocarpus santalinus, Red sandal wood, Thermodynamic  study

 

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 27, March 2002, pp. 95-98

 

 

Dyeing of Indian wool with reactive dyes

V G Kulkarni

Wool fibres have been chemically modified by reduction / chlorination under acidic pH /pre-swelling in conc. formic acid prior to their dyeing with indigenous reactive dyes of different molecular configurations to enhance the reactive dye uptake on wool fibre substrate. The pretreatment processes are inexpensive, less harmful and less time consuming as against the use of imported special wool reactive dyes.

Keywords : Dyeing, Reactive dyes, Wool

 

Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 27, March 2002, pp. 99-100

 

Physical properties of oil-palm leaf fibre

K Lakshmi Kalyani and A Sharada Devi

Oil-palm (Elaesis guineensis) leaf fibres have been extracted, softened with 5% ZnCl2 and 10% NaOH separately and then studied for their physical properties, such as structure, length, tenacity, torsional rigidity, moisture regain and relative dye uptake. The fibres treated with 10% NaOH alone have been found to be the best as they show minimum decrease in tenacity but maximum increase in crystallinity, extension-at-break, torsional rigidity,  moisture regain and dye uptake.

Keywords: Lignocellulose,  Oil-palm leaf fibre,  Tenacity,   Torsional  rigidity